Chapter 2 Morphological structure of English words

By Rebecca Gonzales,2014-08-28 09:32
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Chapter 2 Morphological structure of English words

     Chapter 2 Morphological structure of English words

    1. Explain the following terms and provide examples:

    Morpheme(语素?词素): the morpheme is the smallest meaningful linguistic unit of language, not divisible or analyzable into smaller forms.

    one morphemenation

    two morphemes: national

    three: morphemes: nation +al +ize

allomorphemes:语素变体? 形位变体, Some morphemes are realized by more than one

    morph according to their position. Such alternative morphs are allomorphemes. E.g. the morpheme of plurality (-s) has a number if allomorphemes in different sound context, e.g. in cats/s/, in bags/z/, in matches/iz/.

Free morphemes(自由语素或形素): The morphemes have complete meaning and can be

    used as free grammatical units in sentences, e.g. cat, walk. They are identical with root words. morphemes which are independent of other morphemes are considered to be free.

    Bound Morphemes(粘着语素)--- The morphemes cannot occur as separate words. They are bound to other morphemes to form words, e.g. recollection (recollection) collect

    free morpheme re-and ion are bound morphemes. (include bound root and affix) Bound morphemes are found in derived words.

    2. What are the difference between inflectional and derivational affixes? Inflectional affixes(屈折词缀) --- Affixes attaches to the end of words to indicate

    grammatical relationships are inflectional, thus known as inflectional morphemes. The number of inflectional affixes is small and stable.

    a. There is the regular plural suffix( 复数)-s(-es) which is added to nouns such as

    machines, desks.

    b. Simple present for the third person singular. s(-es)

    c. The possessive case of nouns. ‗s(名词所有格)

d. er and est to show comparative and superlative degree(比较级及最高级)

    e. The past tense marker ed(过去式)

    f. ing to form present participles or gerunds.(正在进行时或是动名词)

    Derivational affixes(派生词缀): Derivational affixes are affixes added to other morphemes to create new words.

3. In what two ways are derivational affixes(派生词汇) classified?

     Prefixes (前缀)--- Prefixes are affixes that come before the word, such as, pre+war, sub+sea

    Suffixes (后缀)--- suffixes are affixes that come after the word, for instance, blood+y. 4. How are words classified on the morphemic level?

    1)Free and bound morphemes

    Free morphemimes: The morphemes have complete meaning and can be used as free grammatical units in sentences, e.g. cat, walk. They are identical with root words. morphemes which are independent of other morphemes are considered to be free. Bound morphemes: The morphemes cannot occur as separate words. They are bound to other morphemes to form words, e.g. recollection (recollection) collect free

    morpheme re-and ion are bound morphemes. (include bound root and affix) Bound morphemes are found in derived words.

     2)Roots and affixes

     A root is the basic form of a word, which cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity. (What remains of a word after the removal of all affixes.) .e.g. ―internationalists‖ removing inter-, -al-, -ist, -s, leaves the root nation.

    Affixes --- Affixes are forms that are attached to words or word elements to modify meaning or function. Almost affixes are bound morphemes.

Chapter 3 Word formation( the three major process of word-formation)

1. Explain :

    Word-formation rules:

    Word-formation rules define the scope and methods whereby speakers of a language may create new words.Rules themselves are not fixed but undergo changes. ?? 2. Root,stem and base. ;词根、词干和词基? Analyze the word denationalized into

    root,base and stem

    1)Root: A root is the basic unchangeable part of a word,and it conveys the main lexical meaning of the word.

    Free root: A root which can stand itself and can be used seperately to form a new word. A word consisting of one free root or one morhpeme is a simple word.e.g., man,talk,red,etc. A free root is a free morpheme.

    Bound root: A root which cannot stand itself and cannot be used seperately,but as an attachment to be added to a word to form a new word. such as ―tain,ceive‖.Bound roots

    must be used together with other elements to form a word, e.g. ―con+tain‖ = ―contain‖

    2)Stem: A stem refers to the surplus part after the cutting of inflectional morpheme (曲折

    詞素)in a word with inflectional morphemes.e.g. 'worker' in 'workers' is a stem. 3)Base(词基?:A base is any form to which affixes of any kind can be added;it may also be defined as ''a form to which a rule of word-formation is applied.''This means that any root or stem can be termed a base.Such as,desirable is a base in undesirable.

    4) The differences between root,stem,base:

    A root is the basic unchangeable part of a word,no further analysis.Such as nation is a

    root in international.

    A stem is the surplus part after the cutting of inflectional morpheme in a word with inflectional morphemes,can be further analyszed,it sometimes could be a root. e.g.

    desire is a stem in desired.

    A base is a form to which a rule of word-formation is applied,it could be a root or a stem.Such as internation is a base in international.

3. compounding Composition or Compounding (27%) ;复合法?

     Definition: Compounding consists of combining two or more words into one which now expresses a single idea and functions as a separate lexical unit.Compounding is the most productive word-formation process in contemporary English.

    4. what are the relative criteria of a commound?

     Orthographic criterion(书写标准) :Compounds are written in three ways,e.g. solid:airmail;

    hyphenated:air-conditioning; open: air force, air raid.

    Phonological criterion(语音标准) :

    Semantic criterion(语义标准)

5. Affixation or Derivation (17.5%) ;派生法或词缀法?@

    It is a process of forming new words by the addition of a word element,such as a prefix,suffix,or combining form,to an already existing word. e.g. :tele- --telephone,


    6. What is the difference between prefixation and suffixation? Prefixation: the formation of new words by adding prefixes to stems. It does not change the word-class of the stem but change its meaning.

    Suffixation --Suffixation is the formation of new words by adding suffixes to stems. Change the grammatical function of stems (the word class). Suffixes can be grouped on a grammatical basis.

7. How are the marjor living prefixes classified?

    1)''nagative ''否定prefixes:un-,non,in-,dis,a- etc.

    2)''reversative相反or privative否定的前缀''prefixes:un-,de-dis etc.

    3)''pejorative变坏的, 轻蔑的''prefixes: mis-, mal-, pseudo- etc.

    4)''degree or size ''prefixes:arch-, super-,out-,sub-,over-,under-,hyper-,ultra-,mini- etc.

5)''attitude态度''prefixes:co-,counter-,anti-,pro- etc.

    6)''locative位置格''prefixes:super-,sub-,inter-,trans- etc.

    7)''time and order ''prefixes:fore-,pre-,post-,ex-,re- etc.

    8)''number ''prefixes:uni-/mono-,bi-/di-,tri-,multi-/poly- etc.

    8. How can you form deverbal nouns,denominal nouns,deadjective verbs,and denominal adjectives by suffixation?

    Deverbal nouns:來自動詞的名詞

    a. Denoting people -- -ant assistant, -ee (trainee), -ent (respondent), -er(-or)

    b. Denoting action, result, process, state, ect. -- -age (linkage), -al (dismissal), -ance (attendance), -ation(-ition, -tion, -sion, -ion), -ence (existence), -ing (savings), -ment

    Denominal nouns:來自名詞的名詞

    a. Concrete -- -eer (engineer), -er (teenager), -ess (hostess), -ette (cigarette), -let (booklet)

    b. Abstract -- -age (wastage), -dom (处于状态)(officialdom), -ery (slavery), -ery (-ry),

    -hood (childhood), -ing (farming), - ism主义? (terrorism), -ship;状态? (sportsmanship)

    Deadjective verbs:來自形容詞的動詞

    -ity (popularity), -ness (happiness)

Denominal adjectives:來自名字的形容詞

    ese (Chinese), -an (Australian), -ist (主义) (socialist)

    Denominal suffixes -- -ed (wooded), -ful (successful), -ish (foolish), -less (priceless), -like (lady-like), -ly (friendly), -y (smoky)

    -al(-ial, -ical) (cultural, residential), -esque (picturesque), -ic (economic), -ous(-eous, -ious) (coutageous)

    -ic and ical can be affixed to the stem in some cases, but differ in meaning. Historic (important in history) historical (of history)

Classic (great, memorable) classical (of Latin or Greek)

    Comic (of comedy) comical (funny)

    Economic (in the economy) economical (money-saving)

    Electric (powered by electricity) electrical (of electricity)

    Deverbal suffixes -- -able (-ible) (washable), -ive(-ative, -sive) (active, decisive) Adverb suffixes -- -ly (calmly), -ward(s) (homewards), -wise (clockwise) Verb suffixes -- -ate(originate), -en (darken), -(i)fy (beautify), -ize (ise) (modernize)

9. Conversion or Functional shift (10.5%) ;转成法或功能转换法?

    It's a word-formation process whereby a word of a certain word-class is shifted into a word of another word-class without the additon of an affix.

     radio n. -- to radio v.

     cry v. -- cry n.

10. what is the difference between conversion and suffixation?

     Suffixation@: It's the formation of a new word by adding a suffix or a combining form to the base,and usually changing the word-class of the base.e.g. boy n. + -ish -- boyish

    adj. boy n. + hood -- boyhood n.

    11. In a convrsion pair, how can you determine which of the two is the base and which the derived word?

    Wirter---a deverbal noun with er suffix

    Spy a deverbal noun without suffix

    Derivation by zero suffix

    12. Illustrate the axiom,the actural grammatical classification of any word is depent upon its use

    i.e. the second round was exciting(n)

     any round plate will do (adj)

     some drivers round coners too rapidly(v.)

     the sound goes round and round

    13. why is the conversion from noun to verb the most productive process of conversion?

    1. first in contemporary English,there is tendencey of ―a preponderance (优势)of

    nouns over verbs.

    2. there are only a few verb-forming affixes in english . they are be-,en-,ify,ize and en is now scarcely productive, while ize is the ohly highly productively one. More over, new verbs formed by other word-formation processes are also very few , except by back-fromation,which is, however , not a very productive word-formation process iteself. We might therefore more and more new verbs to be coined by means of conversion 14. what are the marjor semantic types(语义)under noun to verb conversion put in/on N: the nouns are usually locative nouns denoting a place ,a contianer or a special location

    . the workers canned apples=the workers put apples in cans give N, to provide N

     They sheltered the orphans

    认为不太重要, 不想往下写

    15. why is ―the poor‖ an example of partial conversion

    some adjectives are used as nouns when preceded by the definite article such as the poor,the wounded:yet these conveted nouns take only some of the features of noun, i.e. they do not take plural(复数) and genitive;所有格?inflections, nor can they be preceded by

    determiners like a , this ,my .such adjectivenoun conversion is partical

    Chapter 3

Morphological structure of English words

    Objectives: Discuss morphemes, their classification and identification;Explain the relationship between morphemes and word-formation

    Teaching focus:

    Definition of morphemes

Definition of allomorphs

    Types of Types of morphemes

    free morpheme

    bound morpheme

    Definitions of root, stem and base

    On the morphemic level, Word, according to the number and type of morpheme they, can be classified into the below item

    a. the simple words: those consisting of a single morpheme,such as man, work, kind

    b. derived words: those which are the result of a derivational process, such words usually consist of a free morpheme and one(or more than one)bound morpheme, such as fruitless,fruitful,

    unfruitful, fruitfulness,

    c. compound wors: those which are composed of two or more free morpheme, e.g: deep structure, specesuit,forget-me-not,maid-of-all-work,and jack of all trades. 1. Morpheme

    What is a morpheme

    It is the minimal meaningful unit of English language, possesses both sound and meaning.

    Or it is the smallest functioning unit in the composition of words. 语素是最小的有意义的单位.它是语言中最小的构词单位

    2. Morph and allomorph

    The definition of morphs:

    The phonetic or orthographic strings or segments which realize morphemes are termed 'morphs'.


    Morphs are actual spoken, minimal carriers of meaning.


    What is an allomorph

    An allomorph is one of the variants of the same morpheme.


    For example

    When the plural marker {s} is added to cat, dog, and horse, it is pronounced differently as /-s, -z,

    -iz/ and thus has three phonological forms; the three forms are just the variants of the same morpheme {s}, i.e. the allomorphs of morpheme {s}.

    3. Classifications of morphemes

    Free vs. bound morphemes in terms of their capacity of occurring alone Derivational vs. inflectional morphemes

    applying to affixes only

    Content / lexical vs. grammatical morpheme on a semantic and syntactic basis Free vs. bound morphemes


    Morphemes which are independent of other morphemes are free. Free morphemes have complete meanings in themselves and can be used as free grammatical units in sentences.


    E.g., man, wind, open, tour

    Morphemes which cannot occur as separate words are bound. They are bound to other morphemes to form words or to perform a particular grammatical function. 粘着语素不能独立成词,只能依附于其他语素上以构成词或担当一定的语法功能.

    Free morphemes are all roots /free roots, which are capable of being used as words or as word-building elements to form new words.

    自由语素都是词根, 也叫自由词根, 能用作词或作为构成新词的构词要素.

    Bound morphemes consist of either roots (bound roots) or affixes. 粘着语素包括词根(粘着词根)和词缀.

    E.g., bound root: -dict-, -ced-

    affix: -ion, -ist, -ic

    A multitude of words made up of merely bound morphemes,


-ced- 是词根,'接近',

    ante- 是前缀,'',

    -ent 是后缀,',',


Derivational vs. inflectional morphemes


    What are derivational and inflectional morphemes

    Derivational morphemes are used to derive new words when they are added to another morpheme. In English derivatives and compounds are all formed by such morphemes.


    Inflectional morphemes indicate the syntactic relationships between words and function

    as grammatical markers. Inflectional morphemes are confined to suffixes. 屈折语素作为语法标记表示词的语法意义,屈折语素只限于词缀.

    What's the difference between them


    Doesn't change meaning or part of speech of the stem. (workworks)

    Indicates syntactic relations between different words in a sentence. ( grammatical meaning)

    Occurs with all members of some large class of morphemes. Occurs at margins of words. (radioradios)


    Changes meaning or part of speech of the stem.( like--dislike, sleepasleep)

    Indicates semantic relations within the word.

    (specific lexical meaning,e.g., un-)

    Occurs with only some members of a class of morphemes

    Occurs before any inflectional suffixes added.

    Content / lexical vs. grammatical morphemes

    Lexical 词汇/ content实义 morphemes are morphemes used for the construction of new words as in compound words (blackbird is coined on the basis of 2 lexical morphemes:

    black and bird.), and derivational morphemes such as ship, -ize.

    Grammatical morphemes function primarily as grammatical markers. They encompass both inflectional affixes(-books) and free morphemes ( in, and, do, have, they…functional words)

    3.4 Identifying Morphemes

    How to identify morphemes

    They should be identifiable by their forms, meaning and distribution. e.g.,

    mono-morphemic: sky

    double-morphemic: chill + y, boy + ish

    triple-morphemic: un+dress+ed, care+less+ness

    four-morphemic: un+fruit+ful+ness

    over-four-morphemic: un+gentle+man+li+ness

    In what situation do morphemes mismatch between form and meaning 1) Inconsistent in form and meaning:

    singer ( one who)

    er clearer ( the comparative degree)

    eraser (one object)

    2) Meaningless in isolation but meaningful in some words cran-

    huckle- berry


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