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environmentalist

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Unit Eight Objectives Intensive Reading Listening practice I. Words:pose, encounter, survey, emerge, tend, span, excessive, alarm, decline, disaster, cattle, efficient, utilize, alter, significant, steadily, outstanding, available, recycle, s..

Unit Eight

     Objectives

     Practice Listening practice Intensive

     Reading

     Reading Writing Communicative

     English

     I. Words:pose, encounter, survey, emerge, tend, I. Grammatical Structures to Learn:

     span, excessive, alarm, decline, disaster, cattle, 1) But the fast development of world

     efficient, utilize, alter, significant, steadily, economy will bring about many new

     outstanding, available, recycle, survive, problems.

     indifference, achieve, cure, spill, numerous, 2) People seem to have forgotten ways to

     inhabitant, involve, accomplish keep diseases under control.

     II. Phrases:tend to do, at an alarming rate, wash 3Using fossil fuels for energy has not

     away, keep…under control, be involved in altered very much but wind energy use is

     increasing significantly.

     II. Grammar--定语从句,attributive

     clause

     III. The exercises about the text and grammar

Part One ---- intensive reading

    Trends for the 21st Century I. Introduction

    The responsibility we have for the future begins when we recognize that we ourselves create the future --- that the future is not something imposed upon us by fate or other forces beyond our control. We ourselves build the future both through what we do and what we do not do.

II. New words

    environmentalist 环保主义者

    economy 经济

    economist 经济学家

    trend 趋势

    span 持续时间

    explosion 爆炸

    disaster 大灾难

    cattle 牛:家畜

    breakthrough 突破

    tumor 肿瘤

    CAT scans 计算机化X射线轴向分层扫描

    tuberculosis 肺结核

    spill 液体!洒出,泼出

    III. Text learning

    Pre-reading tasks:

    1) Our environment is being polluted, what can we students do to prevent it? 2) Can we develop our economy at the cost of our environment?

    3) Is there an energy crisis all over the world? Give some examples.

    Trends for the 21st Century

    What problems will our world encounter in the next 1,000 years? Social scientists and economists, farming experts and environmentalists pose this question and examine data, information from surveys.

    In every field, experts examine changes to understand the state of the field. To understand a country’s economy, economists check growth in an industry such as steel. To

    understand the state of business, they may look at the number of building permits for new houses. The information learned shows increases or decreases. Important trends emerge in each field.

    Population

    Population is important to every person on earth. People tend to live longer in most places. In central Europe, however, life span is dropping because health care is not what it was a few years ago. Factors affecting general health include excessive smoking and drinking of alcohol and polluted water supplies.

    The population explosion on our planet has been increasing at an alarming rate but the percentage of increase is decreasing. One out of every five people on earth is Chinese, yet China’s growth rate has slowed down. As the number of women going to school increases,

    the growth rate declines.

    Food Production

    The production of grain seems to be decreasing mainly because of climate changes. Natural disasters like storms and floods have washed away many crops.

    With less land for cattle and sheep, less meat like beef and lamb is being produced. Production of chicken, turkey and fish has increased, however. The amount of ocean fish has not increased, but fish farm production has.

     Fish farming is very efficient: producing a kilogram of fish utilizes less than 2 kilograms of

    feed, but it takes 2.2 kilograms of feed to produce 1 kilogram of chicken. One kilogram of beef requires 7 kilograms of grain. People, therefore, may eat less red meat in the future and more fish.

    Energy

    Using fossil fuels for energy had not altered very much but wind energy use is increasing

    significantly. Energy from nuclear power plants is steadily increasing but the problem of

    dangerous waste limits growth in many regions. Because many electrical companies consider nuclear energy too expensive, the trend is toward less dangerous sources of energy.

    While natural gas use increases, use of coal as fuel is decreasing. Natural gas, an outstanding energy fuel, can be used to heat homes, make electricity, and power cars.

    Economics

    As countries around the world trade more with one another, more products are available. But

    the fast development of world economy will bring about many new problems. With fewer trees, the paper industry is producing more paper from recycled materials but, unfortunately, damages the planet. The paper-making process uses large amounts of water, burns fossil fuels and produces much chemical waste.

    Automobile production is down; bicycle production is up. Crowded highways, high gasoline costs, and ease of bicycling are three reasons of the change.

    Health

    Three major health trends exist as we begin the new century. Health care is better than ever. Medical research breakthroughs include finding tumors early, and saving lives through CAT

    scans and surgery. Surviving cancer is a new trend. HIV/AIDS, however, is spreading quickly all over the world.

    The third major trend is toward an attitude of indifference. People seem to have forgotten

    ways to keep diseases under control. Although medical science had achieved control over

several dangerous diseases, some are returning. For instance, tuberculosis, once a dangerous killer,

    was cured. Now the disease is appearing again.

    Nature

    Pollution continues to affect our forests and water. The bird population is decreasing because

    of oil spills and spreading cities. Seas and oceans are changing. Trees are cut down, more soil

    washes away, and water quality is affected. Many of these trees are in our rain forests where thick

    areas of plants and tress, home for many birds and animals, are disappearing.

    Conclusion

    Our challenges for this new century are clear. The problems of numerous inhabitants on

    this small planet will continue to be important to each of us. These challenges show that all of us

    need to be involved in solving the problems. May we find new ways to accomplish the task?

     IV. Language Points

    1. …farming experts and environmentalists pose this question and examine data, information from surveys.pose vt.

    1) (formal) ask a question, esp. one that needs serious thought 提问,质询

    e.g. pose a question 提问

    2) create a threat, problem, etc. that has to be dealt with 造成,威胁问题等!

    e.g. pose a threat/challenge/danger/risk 构成威胁;挑战;危险;风险

    2. Important trends emerge in each field.emerge

    1) (from sth) come out of a dark, enclosed or hidden place ,从暗处或隐蔽处!出现,浮现,露出

    e.g. The swimmer emerged from the lake. 游泳者从湖水中浮出来。

    2) (of facts, ideas, etc.) become known 暴露,露出真相,被知晓,事实意见等!

    e.g. No new evidence emerged during the investigation. 调查过程中未发现新证据。

    3. People tend to live longer in most places. tend

    1) (~ to) be likely to do or to happen because this is what often or usually happens 往往是

    e.g. When I’m tired, I tend to make mistakes. 我累了就容易犯错误。

     People tend to think that the problem will never affect them. 人们往往认为这个问题不会

    影响到他们。

    2) (~ to/towards sth) take a particular direction or often have a particular quality 趋向,倾向,趋于

    e.g. His views tend towards the extreme. 他的观点趋于偏激。

     Prices have tended downwards over recent years. 近年来物件趋于下降。

    4. …life span is dropping because health care is not what it was a few years ago.span n. the

    length of time that lasts 持续时间

    e.g. attention/concentration span 集中注意力的时间

    5. Factors affecting general health include excessive smoking and drinking of alcohol and polluted water supplies.excessive adj. greater than what seems reasonable or appropriate; extreme 过度的,

    超额的,

    e.g. excessive drinking 酗酒 excessive noise 太大的噪音excess n. (of sth)

    过度,过分

    e.g. In an excess of enthusiasm I agreed to work late. 我一时热情过度答应工作到很晚。excessively adv. e.g. excessively high price 过高的价格exceed vt. be greater than

    e.g. The supply of the goods has exceeded its demand. 这种产品供大于求。 6. Natural disasters like storms and floods have washed away many crops.wash away: (of water)

    冲走 remove or carry sb/sth away to another place 冲掉,

    e.g. Part of the path had been washed away be the sea.

     部分小路已被海水冲坏。

    7. Using fossil fuels for energy had not altered very much but wind energy use is increasing

    significantly.

    altered v. become different; change ,使!改变,改动

    e.g. Property prices has altered significantly in recent years. 近年房地产价格变化非常大。

     Nothing can alter the fact that we are to blame. 什么也改变不了我们要受指责这个事实。alteration n.

    significantly 显著地,有重大意义地significance: importance 重要性 8. . People seem to have forgotten ways to keep diseases under control.

     keepunder control 使受到控制

     e.g. Please keep your dog under control. 请管好你的狗。 9. These challenges show that all of us need to be involved in solving the problems. May we find

    new ways to accomplish the task?involve vt.

    1) entail 包含,使成为必然部分或结果

    e.g. Many of the crimes involve drugs. 许多犯罪都与毒品有关。

     formal The job involves my traveling all over the world. 这份工作需要我在全国到处跑。

     The test involves answering questions about computer software. 考试将包括回答一些关于计算机软件方面的问题。

    2) be involved in sth take part in or be affected by 牵涉,牵连,被影响 e.g. How many vehicles were involved in the crash? 这次撞车事故涉及多少辆车;

     There was a serious incident involving a group of youths. 有一起严重的事故牵涉到一群年轻人。

    3) sb (in sth/in doing sth) make sb take part in sth 使参加

    e.g. We want to involve as many people as possible in the celebrations. 我们希望参加庆典的人越多越好。

V. Summary

    st This passage tell us some trends for the 21 century.. While you are reading this passage, you

    should master languages points mentioned above. IV. Assignment

    1. Review the language points

    2. Do the exercises about Vocabulary, Structure and Translation.

3. Preview Part Iv and Part V

Part Two -- the exercises

    Comprehension of the textI. Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. 1. What problems will our world encounter in the next 1,000 years?

     A. Industry, economics, nature, housing, economics, nature, employment

     B. Food production, employment, population, health, economics, nature.

     C. Health, economics, nature, housing, economics, nature, employment.

     D. Population, food production, energy, health, economics, nature.

2. Experts examine changes _____.

     A. to understand the state of the field

     B. to understand a country’s economy

     C. to solve those problems

     D. to guide industry production.

    3. In recent Europe, however, life span is ____.

     A. increasing B. longer

     C. going up D. going down

4. Why may people eat more fish in the future?

    A. Because fish need less feed.

     B. Because fish grow quickly.

     C. Because people like eating fish.

     D. Because fish is healthy food.

5. What continues to affect our forests and water?

     A. Population. B. The bird population.

     C. Seas and oceans. D. Pollutions.

    Keys: DADAD

    IV. Spell out the words with the help of the given definitions and the first letters.

    1. come out of a dark, enclosed place (e__________)

    2. use again (r__________)

    3. make use of (u_____________)

    4. excellent (o____________)

    5. accomplish (a_____________)

    6. investigation (s______________)

    7. extreme (e______________)

    8. change (a______________)

    9. decrease (d_______________)

    10. many (n______________)

    Keys: 1. emerge 2. recycle 3. utilize 4. outstanding 5. achieve

    6. survey 7. excessive 8. alter 9. decline 10. numerous

    V. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary.

     available excessive alter achieve indifference significant efficient utilize decline tend

    1. The government can’t afford to be __________ to public opinion.

    2. Its findings provide the scientific foundation for rational _________ of land. 3. The new drug has great ____________ for the treatment of the disease. 4. Tickets are _____________ free of charge for the school.

    5. I was impressed by the ____________ with which she handled the crisis. 6. Are you suffering from an _____________ of stress in your life? 7. His illness grew out of his _____________ to overwork.

    8. An increase in cars has resulted in the _____________ of public transport. 9. They’re making some ______________ to the house.

    10. Flying across the Atlantics for the first time was a great ________________. Keys: 1. indifferent 2. utilization 3. significance 4. available 5. efficiecy

    6.excess 7. tendency 8. decline 9. alterations 10. achievement VI Fill in the blanks with proper prepositions or adverbs.

    1. The sun emerged ______________ behind the cloud.

    2. The doctor cured him ______________ his cancer.

    3. He had finally managed to break ______________ his fear.

    4. The table takes ____________ too much room.

    5. There is a growing trend ____________ earlier retirement.

    6. Parts of the path had been washed ____________ by the sea.

    7. The European Union has set strict limits _____________ levels of pollution. 8. We need to cut the article _____________ to 1,000 words.

    9. We encourage students to study __________ their own pace.

    10. People complain that prices of houses are going _____________ rapidly these days. Keys: 1.from 2. of 3. through 4. up 5. towards

    6.away 7. on 8. down 9. at 10. up

    VII. (p.152): Rewrite the following sentences after the models. Model 1: But the fast development of world economy will cause many new problems.

     But the fast development of world economy will bring about many new problems.

    1. She made various efforts to make a peaceful solution of the problem. 2. He caused a quarrel between his parents.

    3. Scientists say that many factors produce changes in the weather. 4. You could only begin Mary’s misery.

    5. The Second World War was produced by Hitler’s invasion of Poland.

Keys: 1. She made various efforts to bring about a peaceful solution of the problem.

    2. He brought about a quarrel between his parents. 3. Scientists say that many factors bring about changes in the weather. 4. You could only bring about Marys misery.

    5. The second World War was brought about by Hitlers invasion of Poland.

    Model 2Surviving cancer(治好癌症) is a new trend.

    1. _________________ (不准时) makes him unreliable.

    2. _________________ (敲钟) marked the end of the old year.

    3. _________________ (用慢火煮) makes tough meat tender.

    4. _________________ (与他们争吵) is a waste of time.

    5. _________________ (迷路) can be a terrifying experience.

    Keys:

    1. Not being punctual.

    2. A ringing of bells.

    3. Slow cooking

    4. Arguing with them

    5. Being lost

    VIII. Study the model and translate the following sentences into English, using the phrase

    keep under control

    1. 我国政府控制了禽流感。

    2. 便衣警察们被告知要控制那个嫌疑人。

    3. 大火终于被控制住了。

    4. 这个调皮的男孩需要管教。

    5.他再也不能控制住自己的感情了。

    Keys:

    1. Bird flu was kept under control by our government. 2. The plain-clothes policeman were told to keep the suspected man under control.

    3. The traffic chaos was finally kept under control. 4. The naughty boy needs keeping under control. 5. He could not keep his feelings under control any longer.

X. Translate the following sentences into English. Using the words or phrases in the

    brackets.

    1. 在医疗改革的过程中,我们遇到了来自各方面的阻力。

    2. 所有能找到的专家都被召集到了现场。

    3. 他变得我几乎都认不出来了。

    4. 他们的家庭背景使他们很难有机会在社会上取得成就。

    5. 消防队员花了两个小时才把火势控制住。

    Keys: 1. In the process of health care reform, we encountered resistance from all sides.

     2. All the available experts were called to the scene.

     3. He has altered so much that I can hardly recognize him.

    4. Their family background gives them little chance of achieving in society.

    5. It took the firemen two hours to keep the fire under control.

Part Three . Grammar (融入课文讲解,不再单独进行)

    Attributive Clauses

    1. 定语从句在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。 定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词引出。

     关系词有,关系代词或关系副词。

    ;关系代词有,who, whom, whose, that, which 等。

    ;关系副词有, when, where, why 等。

    2. 关系代词引导的定语从句

    关系代词

    所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。 1who, whom, that

    这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下,

    ;who / that 在从句中作主语

    ;whom / that 在从句中作宾语

    2) Whose

    用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换!。

    3which, that

    所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等。

    ;which / that 在句中作主语

    ;which / that 在句中作宾语

    3(关系副词引导的定语从句 关系副词(when, where, why) 可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。

     关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如,

    There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。 Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。

    Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗; His father died the year when in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。 He is unlikely to find the place where in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

    4( 判断关系代词与关系副词 方法一,

    用从句中的谓语动词判断用关系代词 / 关系副词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词:而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。

方法二,

    准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词 / 关系

    副词。

     关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分

    先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose)

    先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状

    )

    5(判断关系代词与关系副词(方法1) 方法一, 取决于从句中的谓语动词。

    及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词:

    不及物动词则要求用关系副词。

    ,例!

     This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.

     I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.

     判断改错,

     This is the mountain village where I visited last year. I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的

    误用上。

    方法二, 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系

    代词/关系副词。

    1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?

     A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

    2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.

     A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

    答案,1 D,例2 A

    1变为肯定句, This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago. 2变为肯定句, This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. 在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one

    做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D

    而句2, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum 词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A

    6(限制性和非限制性定语从句 1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。

    限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确:

    非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常

    用逗号分开。

    2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的。

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