Vincent Santiago

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Vincent Santiago ...

Vincent Santiago


    Mr. Krstovic

    September 24, 2007

     Chemistry in Everyday Life

    Reading Labels

    Making Connections Assignment

Product: CVS? - Instant Hand Sanitizer


    ? Leaves hands feeling soft & refreshed

    ? With moisturizers & vitamin E

    ? Kills 99.99% of germs

    ? 2 FL OZ (59 mL)

    * Effective at eliminating over 99.99% of many common

    harmful germs and bacteria in as little as 15 seconds

    Active ingredient: Ethyl Alcohol 62% (as an antimicrobial)

    Inactive Ingredients: Carbomer, Fragrance, Glycerin,

    Isopropyl Alcohol, Isopropyl Myristate, Propylene Glycol,

    Tocopheryl Acetate, Water.

Ethyl Alcohol

    Properties and Uses

    At room temperature, ethyl alcohol is a liquid and appears to be colourless. The boiling point is 78?C and the freezing point is -114?C. Ethyl alcohol and water mix very

    well in any proportion and is also flammable. This substance’s overall polar charge

    CHOH. allows such solubility. The chemical formula for ethyl alcohol is CH32

    Ethyl alcohol or ethanol is a type alcohol that is commonly found in alcoholic beverages. It can be efficiently and safely produced in industries through chemical

    processes. However, the addition of certain chemicals can make it too toxic for

    consumption. Fermentation through grains and other natural ingredients are preferred for

    the creation of ethyl alcohol in beer or wine. Other than for beverages, ethyl alcohol is a

    solvent that is used in products that require materials dissolved in alcohol. These products

    include solvent-based paints, inks, household cleaning products, pharmaceutical products

    (including hand sanitizer) and perfumes.

    Effects of its Past and Present Use on Society and/or the Environment

     Ethyl alcohol’s readiness to dissolve in water can also apply to the human body. When consumed, ethyl alcohol is distributed throughout the body in the blood stream and

    can affect many different organs. The concentration of ethyl alcohol is a factor in how it

    affects the body. Beer can have 4% to 6% alcoholic volume, wine 7% to 15%, and

    distilled spirits can even be from 40% to 95%. Ethyl alcohol acts as a depressant, relaxing

    the nervous system. Alcohol can be used as a drug and can result in alcohol abuse and

    addiction. Long term or short term misuse can lead to fatalities or injuries in the form of

    car accidents, alcohol poisoning, fetal development issues, as well as liver, kidney and

    heart damage. However, moderate drinking can actually be beneficial to the heart.


    Properties and Uses

     Glycerin is also colourless, but is in the form of a thick liquid at room temperature.

    It freezes into a gelatinous-like paste and requires high temperatures for it to boil. Similar

    to ethyl alcohol, glycerin has hydroxyl groups (-OH molecules attached to larger

    molecules), but many more. The chemical formula for glycerin is CH(OH) This allows 353.

    this substance to become very polar and even more soluble than water and alcohol. It can

    be dissolved in both, but not in oil. Glycerin is known for its moisturizing and softening

    effect on skin, when diluted with water. This is why glycerin is used widely for soaps,

    lotions and creams. It also helps keep the form of bar soaps better by softening fatty acids

    within it. However, in its purest form, or glycerol (an alcohol) it absorbs water from the

    air, which makes it “hygroscopic” and can dehydrate skin.

     Other than for cosmetic products, glycerin could be used to make nitroglycerin,

    which can produce dynamite. It also can help lubricate moulds and be used in printing

    inks, cakes and candy. Glycerin preserves fruit as well as live specimens because it is

    also antiseptic.

    Effects of its Past and Present Use on Society and/or the Environment

     Glycerin, glycerol or nitroglycerin have all had important impacts to society in the

    past and present. Nitroglycerin and dynamite has contributed to the demolition of

    buildings, natural landscapes and even habitats and the environment. It is important for

    development and construction. The cosmetic purposes are a major implication of glycerin,

    as it is widely used in skincare products, such as the CVS? Hand Sanitizer. Its

    preservation abilities are also helpful in the food industry and scientific community.

Propylene Glycol

    Properties and Uses

     Propylene glycol is a colourless, tasteless, odourless, clear and somewhat viscous liquid at room temperature. It is similar to another substance, ethylene glycol and can be used as its alternative for non-toxic products. They can be used in the production of antifreeze and even though ethylene glycol is harmful to the body, propylene glycol is generally safe. It is used as an additive to food, medicines and cosmetics for its moisturizing qualities. Propylene glycol is also a solvent for food colour and flavour. It can even be used for smoke and fog replication in fire-fighting training and theatre effects. Effects of its Past and Present Use on Society and/or the Environment

     Large amounts of propylene glycol can increase acidity in the body, which may affect the metabolism. However, such amounts are rarely used cosmetic and food products. There has been controversy surrounding propylene glycol and its uses in these products for the consumption of humans. Some of its negativity has been due to diethylene glycol. Pets, such as cats and dogs are attracted to the sweetness of antifreeze, which contains ethylene glycol and can kill them. More recently in the news, it has been diethylene glycol that has been found in fake Colgate toothpastes imported from China and sold at discount stores in the United States.


     These three chemicals used in the CVS? Hand Sanitizer have very similar

    properties and together form a soluble, moisturizing and antiseptic liquid, which is exactly what the product is.

    APA Bibliography - Sources Cited

Associated Press, (2007, June 14). Counterfeit Colgate toothpaste recalled,

    Antifreeze chemical found in tubes in 4 states; no injuries reported. Associated

    Press. Retrieved September 23, 2007, from the World Wide Web:

Boggan, William, Ph.D. (2003). Alcohol and You. Retrieved September 22, 2007 from

    the World Wide Web:

Calder, Vince. (2003, May 9). Glycerine and Soap. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from

    the World Wide Web:

Ethanol as a Solvent. (2001, February 23). Retrieved September 22, 2007, from the

    World Wide Web:


Fisher, David, Retrieved, September 23, 2007, from the World Wide Web:

    Freudenrich, Craig. C, Ph.D. (2000, December 21). How alcohol works, p. 3 Ethyl

    Alcohol. Retrieved September 22, 2007, from the World Wide Web:


Skincare. Retrieved September 22, 2007, from the World Wide Web:


    =1 (For product information and picture)

Stone, Jennifer. (2001, December 17). Warning to Pet Owners: The Dangers of

    Antifreeze Poisoning. Retrieved September 23, 2007, from the World Wide Web:

ToxFAQs? for Ethylene and Propylene Glycol (1997, September). Retrieved September

    22, 2007, from the World Wide Web:

Westerman, Kaila. (1997). What is Glycerin?. Retrieved September 22, 2007, from the

    World Wide Web:

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