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Unit G Particle model of solids, liquids and gases

By Dan Clark,2014-06-26 18:58
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Unit G Particle model of solids, liquids and gases ...

    Technicians’ lists of equipment

    Downloaded from www.catalystscience.co.uk

    Catalyst 1, Unit G: Particle model of solids, liquids and gases

    Lesson G1: Developing theories

Starter activities

Capture interest

    ? balloons, mounted needle

    ? balloon filled with polyurethane foam (from a DIY shop)

Main activities

G1a How do different materials behave?

    There will need to be enough stations to occupy all the working groups probably

    at least three sets of each station.

(1) Squashing

    For each station:

    ? three syringes (100 ml work well) prepared as follows:

    1 Fill one with sand, one with water, and leave one containing air.

    2 Depress the plunger to half way down each syringe (no air gaps for sand or

     water).

    3 Seal the syringes using a suitable contact adhesive or by melting the end on

     a hot-plate.

    ? a sign to remind pupils not to pull out the plungers on the syringes

    ? spare syringes in case pupils do pull plungers out

(2) Changing shape

    (This station takes longer have an extra station set up if necessary.)

    For each station:

    ? a balloon, partly blown up (not too hard) so that pupils can squash it (a long,

    thin one is ideal, but a round one will do)

    ? a wooden block

    ? a beaker of orange juice

    ? a beaker of dried peas (similar volume to orange juice)

    ? two measuring cylinders big enough to pour orange juice or peas into

    ? other shapes of containers

(3) How far do smells travel?

    (This station takes longer have an extra station set up if necessary.)

    For each station:

    ? three or more different perfumed oils (pot pourri refresher oils work well)

    ? cotton wool

    ? Petri dishes (or ready-prepared cotton wool balls soaked in oil in lidded Petri dishes)

    ? a metre ruler

    This list is in Microsoft Word, so it can be customised to fit each school’s requirements. 1

    Technicians’ lists of equipment

    Downloaded from www.catalystscience.co.uk

    Catalyst 1, Unit G: Particle model of solids, liquids and gases

G1a (continued)

(4) What do they weigh?

    For each station:

    ? a balance

    ? five beakers (all the same size) filled to the same level and labelled with:

    1 water

    2 air (empty beaker)

    3 sand

    4 uncooked popcorn

    5 cooked popcorn (the plain, white, unsweetened variety)

Lesson G2: Particle power

Starter activities

Capture interest (1)

    ? 2 balloons

Capture interest (2)

    ? electronic balance 3? small measuring cylinder or beaker for 10 cm water

    ? five inflated average-size balloons

Main activities

G2bUsing the particle model

    For each station:

    (1) Smoke cell

    ? a smoke cell

    ? a microscope

    ? a low voltage supply and leads

    Apparatus needs to be set up, working. The smoke cell may need refilling

    occasionally. Fill the smoke cell using smoke from a smouldering

    piece of string, using a dropping pipette to collect the smoke.

This list is in Microsoft Word, so it can be customised to fit each school’s requirements. 2

    Technicians’ lists of equipment

    Downloaded from www.catalystscience.co.uk

    Catalyst 1, Unit G: Particle model of solids, liquids and gases

(2) Solid or not?

    ? a range of ‘difficult to classify’ labelled solids, e.g. cotton wool,

    ‘slime’, beaker of dried peas, beaker of sand, sponge, sheet of paper,

    plastic bag, rubber glove, plasticine, piece of soft fabric

    Pupils are going to decide how to approach this activity themselves,

    but suggested available apparatus includes:

    ? shaped containers (e.g. beakers, measuring cylinders)

    ? a balance

(3) Squeeze

    ? solid ball (not an air-filled one) e.g. metal, rubber or polystyrene (these are

     sold in craft shops and haberdashery shops) as big as possible, a bit bigger

     than a tennis ball is fine. Labelled ‘solid ball’.

    ? a balloon labelled ‘air’ (permanent marker) filled so it is roughly the same size as the ball.

    ? a balloon labelled ‘water’ (permanent marker) filled so it is roughly the same size as the ball.

(4) Blocks

    ? four ‘materials’ blocks of different densities but the same size: one needs to be

    sponge (so that pupils can see the air spaces); the others could be wood,

    polystyrene and/or metals of differing densities

    ? balance set to weigh in grams

Lesson G3: Looking at evidence

Starter activities

Capture interest (1)

    ? tray or box

    ? set of large coloured beads to cover the bottom of the tray or box

Main Activities

G3a Expansion in solids, liquids and gases

    (1) Expansion in solids

    For all demonstrations:

    ? a Bunsen burner, heat-proof mat, matches

    For demonstrations ad:

    ? an ‘expansion’ ball and ring

    ? a metal bar and gauge

    This list is in Microsoft Word, so it can be customised to fit each school’s requirements. 3

    Technicians’ lists of equipment

    Downloaded from www.catalystscience.co.uk

    Catalyst 1, Unit G: Particle model of solids, liquids and gases

    ? a ‘bar breaker’ – holder, long metal bar, cast

    iron bar and screw. A new cast iron bar will

    be needed for each demonstration.

    ? a metal rod at least 50 cm long, e.g. from a retort stand

    ? a stand and clamp

    ? a heat-proof mat

    ? a long pin with attached paper flag

(2) Expansion in liquids

    ? an ice bath

    ? a hot water bath (both baths big enough to take flask)

    ? a round-bottomed flask full of coloured water (use food dye) with bung and

    thin glass tube (at least 30 cm)

    ? a plastic container to put flask in (to stop it rolling off the bench)

     (3) Expansion in gases

    ? an ice bath and hot water bath (the ones used in ‘liquids’ can be used for both demonstrations)

    ? a round-bottomed flask with bung and thin glass tubing (at least 50 cm long) with a slug of

    coloured (food dye) water set up by sucking a small slug of water into the tube before

    attaching it to the flask (the slug should be just above the bung at room temperature)

    ? a spare set-up of the above, in case the temperature changes are great enough to push the slug

    out of the tube altogether!

Lesson G4: Spreading out

Starter activities

Capture interest (1)

    ? large measuring cylinder

    ? peas to fill cylinder to about a fifth of its volume

    ? beans to fill the remainder of the cylinder

Capture interest (2)

    ? tape measure

    ? strong-smelling perfume (e.g. room fragrance)

    ? watchglass

    ? stopclocks

This list is in Microsoft Word, so it can be customised to fit each school’s requirements. 4

    Technicians’ lists of equipment

    Downloaded from www.catalystscience.co.uk

    Catalyst 1, Unit G: Particle model of solids, liquids and gases

    Main activities

G4a Diffusion in gases

    For the demonstration:

    ? two gas jars of bromine gas (with lids)

    ? two gas jars of air

    ? sheets of white paper

    ? a digital camera (optional)

G4b Fresh air!

    For each group:

    ? a watchglass

    ? an aerosol air freshener

    ? a stopclock

G4c Diffusion in liquids

    For the demonstration:

    ? gas jar and lid

    ? saturated copper sulphate solution in a beaker

    ? rubber tubing long enough to reach into the bottom of the gas jar (about 40 cm long)

    ? a funnel to fit tubing

    ? a digital camera (optional)

G4d Diffusion: faster or slower

    For each group:

    ? potassium manganate(VII) (potassium permanganate) crystals very small (size

    of a large grain of rice)

    ? forceps

    ? a glass tube

    ? 150 ml beaker

    ? a stopclock

    ? a kettle of water needs to be kept ‘on the boil’ all lesson

    ? some pupils may ask for ice

(G4 Continued)

G4e Empty bottle

    For the demonstration:

    ? a plastic bottle or metal can to collapse: e.g. an ‘oil can’ type is best, but difficult to find;

    plastic fizzy drink bottles or large containers (such as sold containing white spirit) are a good

    alternative

    This list is in Microsoft Word, so it can be customised to fit each school’s requirements. 5

    Technicians’ lists of equipment

    Downloaded from www.catalystscience.co.uk

    Catalyst 1, Unit G: Particle model of solids, liquids and gases

    ? a vacuum pump with pressure tube connector (available from school science suppliers)

Lesson G5: Scientific models Think about

Starter activities

Bridging to the unit

    ? cardboard box

    ? several balls or large beads

    This list is in Microsoft Word, so it can be customised to fit each school’s requirements. 6

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