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# Exam 1 - PSY 211

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Exam 1 - PSY 211 ...

Exam 3 - PSY 211 Name: _____________________________

Course Reference #22021132

Mike Hoerger

Section I. Multiple Choice [40 points]

1 Range of Z scores:

a) -? to ?

b) -1 to 1

c) -4 to 4

2 On a history exam you earn a Z score of -1. On a math exam, you earn a Z

score of +1. On which exam would you have a higher raw score? a) history

b) math

c) not enough information

3 Of the following three sampling distributions, which would have the greatest

variability?

a) Distribution of heights of Americans

b) Distribution of sample means of heights of Americans, where n = 2

c) Distribution of sample means of heights of Americans, where n = 10,000

4 Which of the following is farthest from the mean? a) Z = -0.5

b) T = 40

c) IQ = 110

5 For the distribution of sample means, a Z score is calculated as follows: a) Z = (X M) / (SD)

b) Z = (M μ) / (SE)

c) nZ = (X μ) / (SE / )

6 The standardized distance an individual score varies above or below the mean:

a) Standard error of the mean

b) Z score

c) Sampling error

7 σ =

a) nSE *

b) n / SE

c) n(X M) /

8 In art, you earn a raw score of 80 on the final exam (M = 75). In chemistry, you

earn a raw score of 90 on the final exam (M = 40). On which exam would you

have a higher Z score?

a) art

b) chemistry

c) not enough information

9 Discrepancy between a sample statistic and a population parameter:

a) Standard error of the mean

b) Z score

c) Sampling error

10 According to the 68-95-99 rule:

a) p(Z < 1) = 68%

b) p(-1 < Z < 1) = 68%

c) p(Z < -2) = 68%

11 Which of the following is closest to the mean? a) Z = 6

b) T = 10

c) IQ = 130

12 On the MMPI-2 survey of psychopathology, your friend scores a T score of 60

on the depression scale and a T score of 90 on the anxiety scale. On which

scale would your friend have a higher Z score? a) depression

b) anxiety

c) not enough information

13 Mental retardation is generally diagnosed when someone has an IQ of less

than 70. If a random community of 10,000 people were all given IQ tests,

about how many people would be diagnosed as mentally retarded?

a) 222

b) 22

c) 2

14 Three patients come in for physical therapy and are given surveys measuring

their level of pain and self-efficacy. Who will take the shortest time to treat?

a) Client A. Pain: T = 71. Self-efficacy: Z = 0.64 b) Client B. Pain: T = 33. Self-efficacy: Z = -1.21 c) Client C. Pain: T = 36. Self-efficacy: Z = 0.51

15 Having a T score of 83 on a agreeableness survey would indicate:

a) very low level of agreeableness

b) fairly average level of agreeableness

c) very high level of agreeableness

16 If the frequency distribution for “wealth” were put on a Z distribution, its shape

would be:

a) positively skewed

b) normal

c) negatively skewed

Section II. Calculations Provide at least ONE decimal place [40 points]

17. The average college textbook has 614 pages (standard deviation = 88 pages).

a) Your statistics textbook has 746 pages. Convert this score to the Z scale, T

scale, and IQ scale. Find the percentile rank.

Z = (746-614) / 88 = 1.5 T = 65 IQ = 122.5 93.3%

b) Your philosophy textbook has 570 pages. Convert this score to the Z scale, T

scale, and IQ scale. Find the percentile rank.

Z = (570-614) / 88 = -0.5 T = 45 IQ = 92.5 30.9%

18. Find the percentile rank for each of the following Z scores:

a) Z = -0.21 41.7%

b) Z = 1.48 93.1%

19. If you administer a typical IQ test to a small random sample (n = 30), what would be the standard error of the mean?

SE = SD / sqrt(n) = 15 / sqrt(30) = 2.7

20. What is the probability of rolling a 2 or lower on a standard die?

1 / 3 or 0.33 or 33.3%

21. Convert the following percentile ranks to Z scores:

th percentile Z = 1.3 a) 90

th b) 13 percentile Z = -1.1

22. On an extraversion survey, what percentage of people would have a T score greater

than 68?

Z = (68 50) / 10 = 1.8 3.6%

23. You have a federal grant to study anxiety. You decide to use the Drake Anxiety

Inventory (μ = 20, σ = 5) to measure anxiety.

a) If you study people with mild to modest anxiety (scores ranging from 12 to 26),

what percentage of people will fall within this range?

= (12-20)/5 = -1.6 % between Z and mean = 44.5% Zlowlow

Z = (26-20)/5 = 1.2 % between Z and mean = 38.5% highhigh

44.5% + 38.5% = 83.0%

b) If you decide to study fairly severe anxiety (scores ranging from 27 to 32),

what percentage of people will fall within this range?

Z = (27-20)/5 = 1.4 % between Z and mean = 41.9% lowlow

Z = (32-20)/5 = 2.4 % between Z and mean = 49.2% highhigh

49.2% - 41.9% = 7.3%

24. What is the probability of flipping three coins and having all three land on heads?

(.5)*(.5)*(.5) = .125 or 12.5%

or list out all possibilities: HHH, HHT, HTT, HTH, TTT, THT, TTH, THH

1 in 8 involve all three being heads. 1/8 = .125 or 12.5%

25. An agreeableness survey has the following properties: μ = 60, median = 55, mode = 65, σ = 10, range = 10 to 110. What would be the standard error of the mean for a

sample of n = 10?

SE = SD / sqrt(n) = 10 / 3.16 = 3.2

26. In a large study (n = 100), you find that your sample (M = 3.6 hours) scores slightly higher than the national average (μ = 3.3, σ = 1.7) in terms of number of hours watching

television each day.

a) Convert your sample mean to a Z score, and then find the percentile rank.

SE = SD / sqrt(n) = 1.7 / 10 = .17 thso Z = (M μ) / SE = (3.6 3.3)/.17 = 1.76 96 percentile

b) If your sample (n = 100) consisted solely of “neglected children,” what might

you conclude and why?

Z < 2, so we say results may just be due to sampling error

c) If you found the same sample mean (M = 3.6 hours) using a very large (n =

1,000), what would the Z score be? Percentile rank? What conclusion would

you reach and why?

SE = SD / sqrt(n) = 1.7 / 31.62 = .05376

so Z = (3.6-3.3)/.05376 = 5.6 >99.99% (saying 100% is not acceptable)

Z>2, so differences are unlikely due to sampling error, probably the

children watch more TV due to neglect (these results are more reliable than with n

= 100)

Section III. Short Answer [20 points]

27. How does sample size impact the standard error of the mean and our ability to detect significant differences?

28. After you graduate, how might you use Z scores and other statistics on the job?

29. Why might a psychologist choose to use T scores instead of Z scores in reporting survey results?

30. What are some of the difficulties of comparing raw scores and how do Z scores make it easier for psychologists to compare scores that were measured on different scales?

Answer Sheet Exam 3 Name: _________________________

Neatly print the appropriate answers on this sheet. Make sure to show all of the work

needed to obtain these answers on the previous pages.

Multiple Choice

a b c a b c 1 9

a b c a b c 2 10

a b c a b c 3 11

a b c a b c 4 12

a b c a b c 5 13

a b c a b c 6 14

a b c a b c 7 15

a b c a b c 8 16

Calculations

# Answer (Round to one decimal place, e.g. Z = -1.6, or percent = 92.6%)

17 a) Z = 1.5 T = 65 IQ = 122.5 % = 93.3%

b) Z = -0.5 T = 45 IQ = 92.5 % = 30.9%

18 a) % = 41.7%

b) % = 93.1%

19 standard error of the mean = 2.7

20 probability = 1/3 or 0.33 or 33.3% 21 a) Z = 1.3

b) Z = -1.1

22 % = 3.6%

23 a) % = 83.0%

b) % = 7.3%

24 probability = 1/8 or 0.125 or 12.5% 25 standard error of the mean = 3.2

26 a) Z = 1.76 % = 96th

b) **One sentence conclusion and why?**

The Z score is less than 2, so I conclude the results may just be due to

sampling error (chance differences).

c) Z = 5.6 % = >99.99% (100% is incorrect)

**One sentence conclusion and why?**

These results are more reliable due to the larger sample, which causes Z to be

greater than 2. Now I would be comfortable concluding that child neglect is

related to more TV watching.

(Usually 3-4 sentences each is adequate)

27 As sample size increases, so does the standard error of the mean.

Specifically, SE = SD / sqrt(n). As sample size increases, the results are more

reliable (less affected by outliers or atypical scores). As the sample size

increases, the sample mean is more reflective of the population mean. 28 This obviously varies depending on the job. The key is to be accurate

(describe any statistics or terms correctly). Also, it is important to be specific

(e.g. name a variable you might measure). Finally, describe why you would

want to measure this variable.

29 There were three keys points for this. One, sometimes it is easier for the public

to understand or interpret T scores (or IQ scores) instead of Z scores. Two, Z

scores have decimals, which are undesirable for quick calculations. Three, Z

scores can be negative, which can cause confusion or make feedback harmful

(nobody wants a negative self-esteem score, but a T of 20 sounds okay). 30 The major reason for Z scores is that it allows us to compare different scales

on a common or standard metric. Because most scales have different means

and standard deviations, to directly compare them, we must first put them on

the same scale. We could then also find percentile ranks if desired.

Study Guide

Exam 3

PSY 211

This exam covers lecture material and chapters 8, 9, 10, and 11. This is a guide of central

concepts to know for the exam. You are responsible for all material covered in the assigned

readings and the lectures unless noted otherwise by me. The exam consists of multiple choice,

Format:

? There will be 16 multiple choice questions (2.5 points each, 40 points total).

? There will be 40 points from calculations.

? There will be 20 points from short answer questions.

Formulas:

You will not be given any formulas. You will be given a photocopy of the Z table (p. 687 690)

Not on this exam:

? Section 6.6 on the binomial distribution

? In the Literature section of Chapter 7 (p. 216)

Suggested learning strategies:

? Look over the Demonstration sections, which come after each chapter, showing how to

solve problems

? Practice solving the question in the Problems section following each chapter (answers to

odd-numbered problems are in Appendix C)

? Know how to do all homework problems

Terms/Definitions:

? Z score

? Sampling error

? Distribution of sample means

? Standard error of the mean

? Standard deviation

? Standardized distribution

Calculations:

? Anything from HW#5 or HW#6

? Be able to convert back and forth between any of the following: raw scores, Z scores, T

scores, IQ scores (GRE/SAT scale not important)

? Find a percentile rank (or proportion) based on a raw score, Z score, or other scale score

? Convert a percentile rank (or proportion) to a raw score, Z score, or other scale score

? Find the percentage of scores between two raw scores or Z scores

? Basic real-world (non-psychology) probability calculations, such as the odds of drawing

an Ace out of a deck of cards (I will always give you enough background information,

such as that there are 4 Aces in a standard 52 card deck, etc.) ? Standard error of the mean

? Z score and percentile rank for a sample mean

? Range of Z scores and other basic Z score facts

? How Z scores differ from raw scores and why they are useful

? 68-95-99 rule

? Formulas for Z score

o For individuals (n = 1)

o For groups (sample means) ? Formula for standard error

? Symbols for mean, standard deviation, standard error, etc.

? Why betting on games of chance is not useful for making money

? Differences between descriptive and inferential statistics

? Weaknesses of Z scores

Review Questions (In Class):

Which grade is better, an 80 on a math exam or a 70 on a history exam?

Which score is higher?

T = 60

IQ = 112

Z = 1.5

Which score is higher?

T = 30

Z = -1.0

IQ = 80

What proportion of the population has a T score between 30 and 70 on an extraversion measure?

In a large sample (n = 225), you find that the average score on an IQ test is 85. Convert this to a

Z score. Does your sample significantly differ from the population on intelligence?

On an agreeableness survey (μ = 30.0, σ = 5, range = 10 to 60, median = 31.0, mode = 32.0), you

score a 40. Convert this to the Z scale, T scale, and IQ scale. Find the percentile rank. Interpret the score.

On the same agreeableness survey, what proportion of people would score between 25 and 40? What proportion would score between 35 and 40?

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