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The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

By Dustin Bennett,2014-03-20 15:22
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The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

    Definition of disability in selected national legislation

Argentina

    Ley de Protección Integral para los Discapacitados 1981

    A los efectos de esta Ley, se considera discapacitada a toda persona que padezca una alteración funcional permanente o prolongada, física o mental, que en relación a su edad y medio social implique desventajas considerables para su integración familiar, social, educacional o laboral.

Unofficial translation:

    For the purposes of this law, a person is considered disabled if he has a permanent or long-term physical or mental functional impairment, which, in relation to his age and social context, implies considerable disadvantages for his family, social, educational and work integration.

Australia

    Disability Discrimination Act 1992

disability, in relation to a person, means:

     (a) total or partial loss of the person‘s bodily or mental functions; or

     (b) total or partial loss of a part of the body; or

     (c) the presence in the body of organisms causing disease or illness; or

     (d) the presence in the body of organisms capable of causing disease or illness;

    or

     (e) the malfunction, malformation or disfigurement of a part of the person‘s

    body; or

     (f) a disorder or malfunction that results in the person learning differently from

    a person without the disorder or malfunction; or

     (g) a disorder, illness or disease that affects a person‘s thought processes,

    perception of reality, emotions or judgment or that results in disturbed

    behaviour;

    and includes a disability that:

     (h) presently exists; or

     (i) previously existed but no longer exists; or

     (j) may exist in the future; or

     (k) is imputed to a person.

Bolivia

    Ley de la Persona con Discapacidad 1995

    Discapacidad :

    En toda restricción o ausencia, debida a una deficiencia, de la capacidad de realizar una actividad en la forma o dentro del margen que se considera normal pará un ser humano. Unofficial translation:

    Disability: all restriction or absence, due to impairment, of the capacity to perform an activity in the way or within the margin which is considered normal for a human being.

Canada

    Canadian Human Rights Act

    ―disability‖ means any previous or existing mental or physical disability and includes disfigurement and previous or existing dependence on alcohol or a drug;

    Employment Equity Act 1995

persons with disabilities means persons who have a long-term or recurring

    physical, mental, sensory, psychiatric or learning impairment and who (a) consider themselves to be disadvantaged in employment by reason of that impairment, or

    (b) believe that a employer or potential employer is likely to consider them to be disadvantaged in employment by reason of that impairment,

    and includes persons whose functional limitations owing to their impairment have been accommodated in their current job or workplace;

Chile

    Ley sobre Integración Social de Personas con Discapacidad 1994

    Para los efectos de esta ley se considera persona con discapacidad a toda aquélla que, como consecuencias de una o más deficiencias fisicas, síquicas o sensoriales, congénitas o adquiridas, previsiblemente de caracter permanente y con independencia de la causa que las hubiera originado, vea obstaculizacla, en a lo menos un tercio su capacidad educativa, laboral o de integracion social.

Unofficial translation:

    For the purposes of this law persons with disabilities are all those who, because of one or more physical, psychic or sensorial impairments that are congenital, acquired, foreseeably permanent, and independently of causes them, are restricted, by at least a third, in their educational, work or social integration abilities.

China

    Law on the Protection of Disabled Persons 1990

    A disabled person refers to one who suffers from abnormalities or loss of a certain organ or function, psychologically or physiologically, or in anatomical structure and has lost wholly or in part the ability to perform an activity in the way considered normal. The term "disabled persons" refers to those with visual, hearing, speech or physical disabilities, mental retardation, mental disorder, multiple disabilities and/ or other disabilities.

Costa Rica

Igualdad De Oportunidades Para Las Personas Con Discapacidad, Ley 1996

    Discapacidad: Cualquier deficiencia física, mental o sensorial que limite, sustancialmente, una o mas de las actividades principales de un individuo.

Unofficial translation:

    Disability: Any physical, mental or sensorial impairment that substantially limits one or more of the principal activities of an individual.

Ethiopia

    Proclamation Concerning the Rights of Disabled Persons to Employment

    1994

    "a disabled person" means a person who is unable to see hear or speak or suffering from injuries to his limbs or from mental retardation, due to natural or man-made causes; provided, however, that the term does not include persons who are alcoholics, drug addicts and those with psychological problems due to socially deviant behaviours;

France

    Loi no.2005-102 pour l‘égalité des droits et des chances, la participation et

    la citoyenneté des personnes handicapées

    Constitue un handicap, au sens de la présente loi, toute limitation d‘activité ou restriction de participation à la vie en société subie dans son environnement par une personne en raison d‘une altération substantielle, durable ou définitive d‘une ou plusieurs fonctions physiques, sensorielles, mentales, cognitives ou psychiques, d‘un polyhandicap ou d‘un trouble de santé invalidant.

Unofficial translation:

    In this law, a disability is understood as any limitation of activity or restriction to participation to life in society that a person suffers in his/her environment because of a substantial, enduring or lasting impairment of one or more physical, sensorial, mental, cognitive or psychological functions, of a multiple disability or of a disabling health disorder.

Germany

Book IX of the Social Code (Sozialgesetzbuch IX) - ‗Rehabilitation and

    Participation of disabled people' 2001

    Persons are disabled:

    1. If their physical function, mental capacity or psychological health differs with

    great probability for a period of more than 6 months from that of persons of the

    respective age, and therefore are affected adversely in their participation in social

    life. Persons are also disabled if such effects can be expected.

    2. Persons in the sense of Part 2 of Book IX are severely disabled if they have a

    degree of disability of at least 50 and lawfully reside, or have their ordinary

    residence in Germany or are employed in this country.

    3. Severely disabled persons are equal to persons with a degree of at least 30 but less

    than 50 and if they are not able to take up or remain in employment due to their

    disability (disabled persons with equal status).

Hong Kong

    Hong Kong Disability Discrimination Ordinance 1995

    "disability" (殘疾), in relation to a person, means-

    (a) total or partial loss of the person's bodily or mental functions; (b) total or partial loss of a part of the person's body;

    (c) the presence in the body of organisms causing disease or illness; (d) the presence in the body of organisms capable of causing disease or illness; (e) the malfunction, malformation or disfigurement of a part of the person's body; (f) a disorder or malfunction that results in the person learning differently from a person without the disorder or malfunction; or

    (g) a disorder, illness or disease that affects a person's thought processes, perception of reality, emotions or judgment or that results in disturbed behaviour,

and includes a disability that-

    (i) presently exists;

    (ii) previously existed but no longer exists;

    (iii) may exist in the future; or

    (iv) is imputed to a person;

Hungary

    Equalization Opportunity Law 1998

    Person living with disability: anyone who is to a significant extent or entirely not in possession of sensory - particularly sight, hearing - locomotor or intellectual functions, or who is substantially restricted in communication and is thereby placed at a permanent disadvantage regarding active participation in the life of society;

India

    Persons With Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and

    Full Participation) Act, 1995

    "Disability" means-

    (i) Blindness;

    (ii) Low vision;

    (iii) Leprosy-cured;

    (iv) Hearing impairment;

    (v) Loco motor disability;

(vi) Mental retardation;

    (vii) Mental illness;

    "Person with disability" means a person suffering from not less than forty per cent of any disability as certified by a medical authority;

Ireland

    Employment Equality Act 1998

    "disability" means

    (a) the total or partial absence of a person's bodily or mental functions, including

    the absence of a part of a person's body,

    (b) the presence in the body of organisms causing, or likely to cause, chronic

    disease or illness,

    (c) the malfunction, malformation or disfigurement of a part of a person's body,

    (d) a condition or malfunction which results in a person learning differently from

    a person without the condition or malfunction, or

    (e) a condition, illness or disease which affects a person's thought processes,

    perception of reality, emotions or judgement or which results in disturbed

    behaviour,

    and shall be taken to include a disability which exists at present, or which previously existed but no longer exists, or which may exist in the future or which is imputed to a person;

    Equal Status Act 2000

    "disability" means

     (a) the total or partial absence of a person's bodily or mental functions, including the absence of a part of a person's body,

     (b) the presence in the body of organisms causing, or likely to cause, chronic disease or illness,

     (c) the malfunction, malformation or disfigurement of a part of a person's body,

     (d) a condition or malfunction which results in a person learning differently from a person without the condition or malfunction, or

     (e) a condition, disease or illness which affects a person's thought processes, perception of reality, emotions or judgement or which results in disturbed behaviour;

Israel

    Equal Rights for People with Disabilities Law 1998

    A person with a disability" - means a person with a physical, emotional or mental disability, including a cognitive disability, permanent or temporary, as a result of which that person's functioning is substantially limited in one or more the major spheres of life;

Jordan

    Law for the Welfare of Disabled Persons 1993

    The Disabled Person: Any person with a permanent, partial or total impairment in any of his senses or physical, psychological or mental abilities to the extent that the ability to learn to be rehabilitated or to work, is limited in a way which renders him/her short of fulfilling his/her normal daily requirements in circumstances similar to those of able-bodied persons.

Korea

    The Welfare Law for Persons With Disabilities 1989

    For the purposes of this Law, "persons with disabilities" encompasses those people with physical disabilities, visual disabilities, audio-lingual disabilities, mental retardation or other mental defects (hereinafter referred to as "persons with disabilities") who have suffered substantially in his/her daily living or social life due to disabilities. Degrees of disability shall be specified by the Presidential Decree.

Madagascar

    Loi sur les personnes handicapées 1998

    L'expression ?personnes handicapées‘ désigne toute personne qui présente une déficience congénitale ou acquise dans ses capacités physiques ou mentales et qui l'empêche d'assurer personnellement tout ou partie des nécessités d'une vie individuelle ou sociale normale.

Unofficial translation:

The expression ‗persons with disabilities‘ refers to any person with congenital or

    acquired deficiency in his physical or mental capabilities, that prevent him from ensuring for himself, wholly or partially, the necessities of a normal individual or social life.

Mauritius

    Training and Employment for Disabled Persons Act 1996

    "disabled person" means a person

    (a) with a physical, mental or sensory disability, including a visual, hearing or speech functional disability, which gives rise to barriers inhibiting him from participating at an equal level with other members of society in activities, undertakings or fields of employment that are open to other members of society; and

    (b) who is willing and able to work

Mexico

    Ley Para Las Personas Con Discapacidad Del Distrito Federal 1995

Persona con discapacidad.- Todo ser humano que padece temporal o

    permanentemente una disminución en sus facultades físicas, mentales o sensoriales que le impide realizar una actividad normal;

Unofficial translation:

    Persons with disabilities: All human beings who suffer temporarily or permanently from a reduction of their physical, mental or sensorial abilities that prevents them from carrying out a normal activity.

New Zealand

    Human Rights Act 1993

Disability, which means---

     (i) Physical disability or impairment;

     (ii) Physical illness;

     (iii) Psychiatric illness;

     (iv) Intellectual or psychological disability or impairment;

     (v) Any other loss or abnormality of psychological,

     physiological, or anatomical structure or function;

     (vi) Reliance on a guide dog, wheelchair, or other remedial

     means;

    (vii) The presence in the body of organisms capable of causing illness;

Nicaragua

    Ley de Prevención, Rehabilitación y Equiparación de oportunidades para las

    personas con discapacidad 1995

Discapacidad:

    Cualquier restricción o impedimento en la ejecución de una actividad, ocasionados por una deficiencia en la forma o dentro del ámbito que limite o impida el cumplimiento de una función que es normal para esa persona según la edad, el sexo y los factores sociales y culturales.

Unofficial translation:

    Disability: any restriction or impediment in the performance of an activity, caused by an impairment in the form or to the extent that limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role that is normal for that individual, depending on age, sex and social and cultural factors.

Nigeria

    Nigerians With Disability Decree 1993

    "Disabled person" means a person who has received premilminary or permanent certificate of disability to have condition which is expected to continue permanently or for a considerable length of time which can reasonably be expected to limit the person's functional ability substantially, but not limited to seeing, hearing, thinking, ambulating, climbing, descending, lifting, grasping, rising, any related function or any limitation due to weakness or significantly decreased endurance so that he cannot perform his everyday routine, living and working without significantly increased hardship and vulnerability to everyday obstacles and hazards.

Panama

    Codigo De La Familia 1994

    Se entiende por discapacitado toda persona que sufre cualquier restricción o impedimento del funcionamiento de una actividad, ocasionado por una deficiencia en la forma o dentro del ámbito considerado normal por el ser humano; correspondiéndole al Estado establecer una coordinación intersectorial e. interinstitucional que garantice su desarrollo integral y su inserción al medio social.

    Las discapacidades se clasifican de acuerdo a:

    1. Defíciencias intelectuales y otras deficiencias sicológicas (retardo mental, disturbios emocionales y enfermos mentales);

    2. Deficiencias del lenguaje;

    3. Deficiencias del órgano de la audición;

    4. Deficiencias del órgano de la visión;

    5. Deficiencias de los músculos esquelétícos; y

    6. Deficiencias por desfíguraciones.

    Unofficial translation:

    A person is considered as disabled if he suffers any restriction or impediment in the performance of an activity, caused by an impairment in the form or to the extent that is considered normal for a human being;

Disabilities are classified according to:

    1. Intellectual and other psychological impairments (mental retardation, emotional

    disturbances and mental illnesses)

    2. Speech impairments

    3. Hearing impairments

    4. Vision impairments

    5. Muscular impairments, and

    6. Disfigurements

Peru

    Ley General De La Persona Con Discapacidad

Definición de la persona con discapacidad :

    La persona con discapacidad es aquella que tiene una o más deficiencias evidenciadas con la pérdida significativa de alguna o algunas de sus funciones físicas, mentales o sensoriales, que impliquen la disminución o ausencia de la capacidad de realizar una actividad dentro de formas o márgenes considerados normales, limitándola en el desempeño de un rol, función o ejercicio de actividades y oportunidades para participar equitativamente dentro de la sociedad.

Unofficial translation:

    Definition of person with disability: Persons with disabilities are those with one or more proven impairments with a significant loss of one or more physical, mental or sensorial functions, which imply the reduction or absence of the ability to carry out an activity

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