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Organizing Topic

By Herman Alexander,2014-08-11 18:56
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Organizing Topic

     History and Social Science

    Standards of Learning

     Enhanced Scope

     and Sequence

    World Geography

    Commonwealth of Virginia

    Department of Education

    Richmond, Virginia

    2004

Copyright ? 2004

    by the

    Virginia Department of Education

    P.O. Box 2120

    Richmond, Virginia 23218-2120

    http://www.pen.k12.va.us/

All rights reserved. Reproduction of materials contained herein

    for instructional purposes in Virginia classrooms is permitted.

Superintendent of Public Instruction

    Jo Lynne DeMary

Assistant Superintendent for Instruction

    Patricia I. Wright

Office of Elementary Instructional Services

    Linda M. Poorbaugh, Director

    Betsy S. Barton, Specialist, History and Social Science

Office of Middle Instructional Services

    James C. Firebaugh, Director

    Beverly M. Thurston, Coordinator, History and Social Science, International Education

Office of Secondary Instructional Services

    Maureen B. Hijar, Director

    Colleen C. Bryant, Specialist, History and Social Science

Edited, designed, and produced by the CTE Resource Center

    Margaret L. Watson, Administrative Coordinator

    Mary C. Grattan, Writer/Editor

    Bruce B. Stevens, Writer/Editor

    Richmond Medical Park Phone: 804-673-3778

    2002 Bremo Road, Lower Level Fax: 804-673-3798

    Richmond, Virginia 23226 Web site: http://CTEresource.org

    The CTE Resource Center is a Virginia Department of Education grant project administered by the Henrico County Public Schools.

NOTICE TO THE READER

    In accordance with the requirements of the Civil Rights Act and other federal and state laws and regulations, this

    document has been reviewed to ensure that it does not reflect stereotypes based on sex, race, age, or national origin.

    The Virginia Department of Education does not unlawfully discriminate on the basis of sex, race, age, color, religion, handicapping conditions, or national origin in employment or in its educational programs and activities.

    The content contained in this document is supported in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Education. However, the opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the U.S. Department of

    Education, and no official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education should be inferred.

    Introduction ________________________________________________________________________

The History and Social Science Standards of Learning Enhanced Scope and Sequence is a resource intended to

    help teachers align their classroom instruction with the History and Social Science Standards of Learning that were adopted by the Board of Education in March 2001. The History and Social Science Enhanced Scope and Sequence is organized by topics from the original Scope and Sequence document and includes the content of the Standards of Learning and the essential knowledge and skills from the Curriculum Framework. In addition, the Enhanced Scope and Sequence provides teachers with sample lesson plans that are aligned with the essential knowledge and skills in the Curriculum Framework.

    School divisions and teachers can use the Enhanced Scope and Sequence as a resource for developing sound curricular and instructional programs. These materials are intended as examples of how the knowledge and skills might be presented to students in a sequence of lessons that has been aligned with the Standards of Learning. Teachers who use the Enhanced Scope and Sequence should correlate the essential knowledge and skills with available instructional resources as noted in the materials and determine the pacing of instruction as appropriate. This resource is not a complete curriculum and is neither required nor prescriptive, but it can be a useful instructional tool.

The Enhanced Scope and Sequence contains the following:

    Units organized by topics from the original History and Social Science Scope and Sequence Essential understandings, knowledge, and skills from the History and Social Science Standards of Learning Curriculum Framework

    Related Standards of Learning

    Sample lesson plans containing

    Instructional activities

    Sample assessment items

    Additional activities, where noted

    Sample resources

History and Social Science Enhanced Scope and Sequence i Virginia Department of Education

Acknowledgments _________________________________________________________________

Donald J. Zeigler, Ph.D.

     Old Dominion University

    Helen R. Aspaas, Ph.D.

     Virginia Commonwealth University

    Eleanor Joyce

     City of Salem Schools

    Martha Smith

     Roanoke County Schools

    John Hoffman

     Prince William County Schools

History and Social Science Enhanced Scope and Sequence ii Virginia Department of Education

Organizing Topic

    Basic Geographic Skills

    Standard(s) of Learning _____________________________________________________________ WG.1 The student will use maps, globes, photographs, and pictures in order to

    a) obtain geographical information and apply the concepts of location, scale, and orientation;

    b) develop and refine his or her mental maps of world regions;

    c) create and compare political, physical, and thematic maps;

    d) analyze and explain how different cultures develop different perspectives on the world and its

    problems;

    e) recognize different map projections and explain the concept of distortion. Essential Understandings, Knowledge, and Skills ______________________________________

    Correlation to Instructional Materials

    Skills (to be incorporated into instruction throughout the academic year)

    Locate places using latitude/longitude on maps and globes. _______________

Gather, classify, and interpret information. _______________

Compare maps of different scales. _______________

Locate places on maps and globes. _______________

Interpret maps and globes. _______________

Draw maps from memory. _______________

Evaluate information. _______________

    Select the appropriate geographic resource to draw conclusions. _______________

    Compare and contrast information found on different types of maps. _______________

Compare maps and make inferences. _______________

    Draw conclusions and make inferences about geographic data. _______________

Identify and interpret regional patterns on maps. _______________

Compare maps and make inferences. _______________

    Interpret the ideas, concepts, or events expressed by a cartoon, picture, or other graphic media. _______________

    Identify and explain distortions in map projections. _______________

Identify regional patterns on maps and globes.

    History and Social Science Enhanced Scope and Sequence 1 Virginia Department of Education

World Geography Basic Geographic Skills

    Content

    Explain how the use of a variety of sources supports the process of geographic inquiry. _______________

Define the following geographic concepts:

     Scale _______________

     Latitude _______________

     Longitude _______________

     Relative location _______________

     Orientation _______________

    Explain that latitude and longitude define absolute location. _______________

    Explain how relative location describes the spatial relationship between and among places. _______________

    Explain that a variety of scales are necessary to represent areas when developing maps and the scale determines the amount of detail shown on a map. _______________

    Explain that a compass rose (directional indicator) identifies map orientation. _______________

Explain that a compass rose (directional indicator) to identify and use cardinal directions. _______________

Demonstrate the following sources used to obtain information:

     GIS (Geographic Information Systems) _______________

     Field work _______________

     Satellite images _______________

     Photographs _______________

     Maps and globes _______________

     Data bases _______________

     Primary sources _______________

Identify the following uses of mental maps to organize information:

     Carry out daily activities (e.g., route to school, shopping) _______________ Give directions to others _______________

     Understand world events _______________

    Explain that people develop and refine their mental maps through both personal experience and learning.

     _______________

    Describe the following ways mental maps can be developed and refined:

     Comparing sketch maps to maps in atlases or other resources _______________ Describing the location of places in terms of reference points (e.g., the equator, prime

    meridian) _______________

     Describing the location of places in terms of geographic features and land forms (e.g.,

    west of the Mississippi River, north of the Gulf of Mexico) _______________ Describing the location of places in terms of the human characteristics of a place (e.g.,

    languages, types of housing, dress, recreation, customs and traditions) _______________

    Explain that mental maps serve as indicators of how well people know the spatial characteristics of certain places. _______________

History and Social Science Enhanced Scope and Sequence 2 Virginia Department of Education

World Geography Basic Geographic Skills

    Illustrate the following ways maps show information: Symbols _______________

     Color _______________

     Lines _______________

     Boundaries _______________

     Contours _______________

Explain that a map is a visual representation of geographic information. _______________

    Show the following major types of thematic maps: Population (e.g., distribution and density) _______________ Economic activity _______________

     Resource _______________

     Language _______________

     Ethnicity _______________

     Climate _______________

     Precipitation _______________

     Vegetation _______________

     Physical _______________

     Political _______________

    Explain how maps reflect changes over time in the following areas: Knowledge

    ; Map of Columbus’s time _______________

    ; Satellite images _______________

    ; GIS (Geographic Information Systems) _______________ Place names

    ; Formosa, Taiwan, Republic of China _______________

    ; Palestine, Israel, Occupied Territories _______________ Boundaries

    ; Africa 1914, 1990s _______________

    ; Europe Before World War II and after World War II; since 1990 _______________

    ; Russia and the former Soviet Union _______________

    ; Middle East Before 1948; after 1967 _______________ Perspectives of place names

    ; Arabian Gulf v. Persian Gulf _______________

    ; Sea of Japan v. East Sea _______________

    ; Middle East v. North Africa and Southwest Asia _______________ Disputed areas

    ; Korea _______________

    ; Western Sahara _______________

    ; Former Yugoslavia _______________

    ; Kashmir _______________

    Explain that all maps are distorted representations of the Earth’s surface. _______________

Identify the following aspects of the Earth that can be distorted by maps:

     Area _______________

     Shape _______________

     Distance _______________

     Direction _______________

    History and Social Science Enhanced Scope and Sequence 3 Virginia Department of Education

World Geography Basic Geographic Skills

    Explain that different map projections are developed for specific purposes. _______________

    Show samples of the following map projections: Mercator _______________

     Polar _______________

     Robinson _______________

    Identify the following ways in which specific projections are used: Mercator Ship navigation _______________

     Polar Airline navigation _______________

     Robinson Data representation _______________ History and Social Science Enhanced Scope and Sequence 4 Virginia Department of Education

World Geography Basic Geographic Skills

    Sample Resources __________________________________________________________________ Below is an annotated list of Internet resources recommended for this organizing topic. Copyright restrictions may exist for the material on some Web sites. Please note and abide by any such restrictions. Alternative Assessment in Geography: 9-12 Alternative Geography Assessment Items. Illinois. State University.

    <http://www.coe.ilstu.edu/IGA/interact/assess/9-12.htm>. This Web site provides sample assessments for

    geography, as well as a classification of test items to national and state standards in geography. Dana, Peter H. Map Projections Overview. University of Texas at Austin.

    <http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/mapproj/mapproj_f.html>. This site provides

    information on map projections.

    The Geographic Information Systems FAQ. U.S. Census Bureau - <http://www.census.gov/geo/www/faq-

    index.html>. This site provides information on Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    Outline Maps Education Place. Houghton Mifflin, 2002. <http://www.eduplace.com/ss/ssmaps/>. This site

    permits visitors to print a variety of maps related to this organizing topic.

    ―Sleuthing for a Lost Ship.‖ National Geographic Xpeditions: Geography Standards in Your Classroom.

    <http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/18/g68/ballardsleuthing.html>. This Web site

    provides a lesson plan to help students understand the uses of geography. Additional lesson plans can also

    be accessed from this site.

    Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments for the 2001 History and Social Science Standards of Learning:

    History and Social Science Released Items for Virginia and United States History. Virginia Department of

    Education 2003/04. <http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Assessment/Release2003/History/VA-

    RIBs_g11wgeo-1.pdf>.

    Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments for the 2001 History and Social Science Standards of Learning:

    World Geography Test Blueprint. Virginia Department of Education, 2003/04.

    <http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Assessment/HistoryBlueprints03/2002Blueprint9WG.pdf>. This site

    provides assessment information for the course in World Geography.

    History and Social Science Enhanced Scope and Sequence 5 Virginia Department of Education

World Geography Basic Geographic Skills

    Session 1: Sources of Geographic Information ________________________________________

Prerequisite Understanding/Knowledge/Skills

     Students are expected to be able to understand content when presented in text at a reading level appropriate to

    their skills

     Students are expected to be able to find and identify locations on a map.

    Materials

     Examples of the following: Geographic Information System (GIS), field work, satellite images, photographs

    of geographic features, maps, globes, data bases, and primary sources

     Classroom map that illustrates scale, latitude, and longitude

    Instructional Activities

    1. Define geographic information as that which has to do with places, regions, and environments on the surface

    of the Earth.

    2. Put the following questions on the board or overhead, and instruct students to write their responses to them:

     What sources do we have to assist us in obtaining geographic information? (Possible answers include

    ―GIS, field work, satellite images, maps, globes, data bases, and primary sources.‖)

     What are longitude and latitude? When are they used? (Possible answers include ―in defining absolute

    locations.‖)

     What is relative location? How is it different from absolute location?

     What is scale, and how is it used on maps?

     What purpose does a compass rose serve?

    3. Allow a few minutes for students to respond, then divide the class into groups of two or three, and ask the

    students in each group to compare their answers and develop a single response for their group. After a few

    minutes, have the groups share their responses.

    4. Explain to the students that they will be working with many of these sources throughout the year. Begin to

    demonstrate the various sources by selecting one or more of the following activities:

     Have students prepare a map of a location in their area, for example, their yard, a mall, or a ballpark. The

    map should reflect the location accurately, using scale, a compass rose to reflect relative location, a

    legend, etc.

     Have students locate aerial photographs that reflect geographic features, identify the location pictured,

    and explain the features.

     Have students prepare a database of geographic information.

     Have students identify primary sources that provide geographic information.

     Have students complete a student-selected project approved by the teacher.

     Provide GIS systems, if available, and instruct students to chart locations identified by the teacher. (See

    ESRI Web site for more information.)

    5. Assign a teacher-selected reading, worksheet, or other reinforcement activity, using available teacher

    resources.

Specific Options for Differentiating This Lesson

Technology:

    Provide access to text-to-speech reader.

     Provide access to recorded books.

     Provide access to graphic organizing software.

    History and Social Science Enhanced Scope and Sequence 6 Virginia Department of Education

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