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CHINA/GEF PROJECT

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CHINA/GEF PROJECT

    E2713 V1 rev

    China/GEF Project

    Project No.: P110661

    China: Sustainable Management and Biodiversity

    Conservation in the Lake Aibi Basin

    Environmental Impact Assessment Report

    China?Xinjiang

    Bortala Lake Aibi Basin Sustainable Management and Biodiversity Conservation

    PMO

    Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    February, 2011

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    Contents

    1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 1 1.1 BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT REPORT PREPARATION......................................................... 10 1.3 ASSESSMENT APPROACH ...................................................................................................... 14 1.4 ASSESSMENT SCOPE, TIME AND CONSERVATION OBJECTIVES ................................................ 15 1.5 ENVIRONMENTAL SCOPING AND SCREENING .......................................................................... 20 2. Policies Regulations and Administrative Management

    Framework........................................................................................... 27 2.1 ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND REGULATIONS DOCUMENT ................................................... 27 2.2 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES ............................... 47 3. Project Description ........................................................................ 53 3.1 NAME AND COMPOSITION OF THE PROJECT ............................................................................ 53 3.2 SUBPROJECT OWNERS ........................................................................................................... 55 3.3 PROJECT DESCRIPTION ......................................................................................................... 55 3.4 PROJECT LAND OCCUPATION AND COUNTERMEASURES .......................................................... 76 3.5 LAYOUT OF EACH SUBPROJECT CONSTRUCTION ROAD............................................................ 77 3.6 LAYOUT OF DUMPING AREAS AND QUARRIES FOR EACH SUBPROJECT ................................... 77 3.7 CONSTRUCTION METHODS ..................................................................................................... 78 3.8 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE AND INVESTMENT ..................................................... 80 4. Project Area Environmental Conditions ..................................... 82 4.1 BORTALA MONGOLIAN AUTONOMOUS PREFECTURE ENVIRONMENTAL OVERVIEW ................ 82 4.2 REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ................................................................................. 98 4.3 ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................... 102 5. Alternatives Analysis .................................................................. 108 5.1 WITHOUT PROJECT SCENARIO............................................................................................. 108 5.2 WATER SAVING IRRIGATION ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS ........................................................ 110 5.3 BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS ...................................... 115 5.5 COMPLIANCE ANALYSIS WITH THE RELEVANT PLANNING .................................................... 119 6 Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Measures

    ............................................................................................................ 122

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    6.1 OVERVIEW OF PREDICTED IMPACTS AND BENEFITS............................................................... 122 6.2 ASSESSMENT ON WATER RESOURCE ALLOCATION OPTIMIZATION ....................................... 122 6.3 ASSESSMENT ON SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ........................................ 124 6.4 IMPACT ASSESSMENT ON BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AT NATURE RESERVES .................. 125 6.5 ASSESSMENT ON CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES ...................................................................... 127 6.6 ASSESSMENT ON ETHNIC MINORITY DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL ASPECTS ......................... 135 6.7 SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................ 137 7 Public Participation and Information Disclosure ..................... 145 7.1 THE RELATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND LEGAL BASIS ....................................................... 145 7.2 PROCEDURE OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION................................................................................ 145 7.3 SURVEY RESULT ANALYSIS ................................................................................................... 161 8. Environmental Management Plan (EMP) ................................. 163 8.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 163 8.2 ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION PLAN ........................................................................................... 164 8.3 INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY BUILDING ...................................................................................... 166 8.4 ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING .................................................................................................. 167 8.5 ENVIRONMENT MONITORING PLAN ........................................................................................ 168 9. Summary and Conclusion ......................................................... 170 9.1 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................... 170 9.2 SUGGESTIONS ...................................................................................................................... 170

    ANNEX INVENTORY OF FLORA AND FUNA IN LAKE AIBI RESERVE .................................................. 179 A. INVENTORY OF FLORA IN LAKE AIBI NATURAL WETLAND RESERVE....................................... 180 B. INVENTORY OF FAUNA IN LAKE AIBI NATURAL WETLAND RESERVE ...................................... 208

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1 Introduction

    1.1 Background

    1.1.1 Geographic Position

    The project region Lake Aibi Basin is located in the northwest Bortala Prefecture of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) in China, as is shown in Figure 1.1-1.

    Fig.1.1-1 Project Region - Lake Aibi Basin

    1.1.2 Contents of Project

    The project will support Water resource assessment and optimized allocation, sustainable land management, biodiversity conservation and local livelihood enhancement and technical support and project management. The contents of each component included in Table 1.1-1. The project will mainly support technical assistance on studies and planning, and some limited engineering construction. The engineering construction activities are

    associated with water saving for agricultural irrigation and the biodiversity conservation. The basic construction situations of this project that concerns construction can be seen in table 1.1-2.

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    Table 1.1-1 Overal Project Description

    Component Objective Details

    Water Resource Assessment To understand water resource supply and ; Water consumption balance for the entire Lake Aibi Basin and Optimized Allocation demand in Bortala Prefecture and use this to ; Analysis of real water savings in Bortala Prefecture

    optimize water allocation. ; Implementation of pilot programs

    ; Development of Dynamic Monitoring system supported by

    RS-based ET measuring technology and carrying out

    monitoring activities

    ; Training and Capacity Building

    Sustainable Land Management To increase the area of sustainable land ; Forest Resources Management

    management practices implemented in ; Sustainable Grassland Management

    Bortala Prefecture ; Training and capacity building

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Biodiversity Conservation and ; protect habitat and species of Lake Aibi ; Habitat Protection

    Local Livelihoods Enhancement NWR; ; Key Species Monitoring and Research

    ; monitor and research key species to ; Nature Reserve Management Support and Awareness Raising

    allow for adaptive and well informed ; Livelihood Enhancement

    management;

    ; support nature reserve management,

    through staff capacity building and

    participative development of a

    management plan, and build a local and

    regional constituency of support for the

    reserve.

    Project Management and Capacity building ; Technical Support

    Support Services ; Monitoring and Evaluation; and

     ; Project Management, would finance consultant services,

    training, office equipment and incremental operating costs to

    provide effective technical support and efficient project

    management.

    Table 1.1-2 Construction/Pilot Activities

    Component Type Location Scale

    Water Resource Water-saving irrigation Jinghe County ; 830mu cotton or corn land through drip irrigation (pressured

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Assessment and groundwater)

    Optimized Allocation Bole City ; 3000mu cotton or corn land through drip irrigation(pressured surface

    water)

    ; 2000mu water consumption monitoring

    Wenquan ; 200mu: returning farmland to grassland

    County

    Sustainable Land Forest restoration pilots Santai Forest ; 12738mu

    Managemetn at forest farms Far, Bole City

    River valley, ; 16361mu

    Wenquan

    County

    Bole City ; 11024mu

    Huashan ; 12600mu

    Desert, Jinghe

    County

    Biodiversity Conservation Birds monitoring and Jinghe County Set a 22 times 3km ranges Infrared video monitoring points in Bortala river

    habitat improvement mouth and Jinghe river mouth respectively, and each monitoring point set

    research 2~3 18 times 150m range sub Infrared video monitoring points

    The Lake Aibi red deer Jinghe County Set a 22 times 3km ranges Infrared video monitoring points in Kekebasto,

    protection and Sangdekumu and Daxinan respectively, and each monitoring point set 2~3

    monitoring 18 times 150m range sub Infrared video monitoring points

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1.1.3 Project Objectives

    1.1.3.1 The overall objective of the project

    The overall objectives of the project to strengthen integrated planning and implementation of natural resource management of watersheds and mainstreaming of biodiversity values in Lake Abi Basin. The project will strengthen sustainable management of watersheds to ensure a better balance between available supply and consumption and increase environmental flows to Lake Aibi while strengthening management of Lake Aibi National Westland Reserve. The project will contribute to an overarching goald of reducing wind erosion from the dry bed of Lake Aibi that suspends small-sized salt dust particles in the upper atmosphere and to protect the aquatic and saline-steppe environment of Lake Aibi-the largest terminal salt lake in the region. To achieve the project development objective the project will use water resource assessments to inform optimized allocation of water for consumptive uses (Component 1) and demonstrate sustainable management of watershed systems (Component 2) to ensure increase environmental flows to Lake Aibi. These two components address the major cause of threats to sustainable biodiversity conservation in Lake Aibi. The project will also strengthen management of Lake Aibi National Wetland Reserve, in particular conserving aquatic habitats (Component 3) to conserve globally significant biodiversity and their supporting ecosystems.

1.1.3.2The specific objectives of the project

    (1) Establish coordination mechanisms and management model of multi-sectoral, multi-level, cross-regional, stakeholder participation, and achieve multi-sectoral collaboration of environmental management and collaborative multi-channel project objectives?(2) Significantly improve

    reserve capacity building of Bortala, strengthen natural grassland and biodiversity protection?(3)Complete restructuring of agriculture and animal husbandry in suitable location of the project area?(4)Enhance citizen

    environmental protection awareness of project area?(5)Train a talent team of

    environmental protection and ecological construction in arid area from

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    management to technology and from research to technology application. 1.1.4 Benefits of Project Implementation

    1.1.4.1 Ecological benefits

     Lake Aibi is located in Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture of western Xinjiang and in flora intermediate zone of Central Asia to Mongolian, with a variety of different ecological gradients. The ecosystem types is complex and various, including glaciers, meadows, forest, desert, farmland and wetland ecosystems. This area is rare biodiversity enrichment region of the central Eurasian Continent, and is also an important habitat and breeding-place of migrating birds. Lake Aibi Basin is a collection and distribution points which has as high as 60 percent inland desert species. It is also species and gene pool with highly biodiversity conservation value in western China, global arid region and extremely arid region, and contains special and irreplaceable biodiversity resource. Lake Aibi basin not only has some endangered species and endemic species, but also is a passage meeting point of Eurasian Continent migratory birds and an important habitat and breeding spot of migratory birds. Biodiversity protection of Lake Aibi is important for social economic development of Bortala and Xinjiang. It will also pass this importance to each country in the Central Asian by Eurasian Continental Bridge (railway from Lianyungang in China to Amsterdam in Holland). Through sustainable management and biodiversity conservation of Lake Aibi Basin, the project to enhance and promote the comprehensive prevention of regional land degradation, to optimize policy support and management capacity of water resources allocation, to reduce the ecological impact of land degradation on local, regional West China and neighboring countries, and to integrate biodiversity conservation into natural resource management. And it aims to, through carrying out project activities in key ecological areas, achieve the goal of protecting global importance species, many ecosystem protection threatened in West China, and biodiversity.

1.1.4.2 Social benefits

    The project will attract a wide range of stakeholders, and these stakeholders will also be the beneficiaries. Ministry of Finance will guide the GEF project

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    grants to support the sustainable development of Xinjiang, and promote local capacity building in Xinjiang. State Environmental Protection Administration and State Forestry Administration formulating biodiversity conservation and land degradation prevention and control planning and action program will be implemented with greater intensity.Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Bortala Prefecture People's Government and its departments, including Development and Reform Commission, Finance, Forestry, Water Conservancy, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Environmental Protection, Land Resources, Tourism and other sectors. In aspects of biodiversity conservation, land degradation and socio-economic integrated development, inter sectoral coordination has been strengthened. Use of funds of international cooperation in environmental protection and socio-economic integrated development has been demonstrated.

    Long-term research achievement of Institutions and local business support system can be transformed, including the Xinjiang Branch of Chinese Academy of Forestry, Xinjiang Branch of Chinese Academy of Sciences and forestry, environmental protection, water conservancy and agriculture sector. The effect of technical support of local authorities is played, and the capacity is strengthened.The public can participate through community and individual, and combine the biodiversity conservation and socio-economic integrated development. Public awareness biodiversity conservation will be improved, and public participation initiative will be strengthened.

    1.1.5 Relevant World Bank Projects

    China: Sustainable Management and Biodiversity Conservation in the Lake Aibi Basin project (Project No.: P110661; hereinafter called Lake Aibi Project) is a preselected project with 4 years implementation period under China-GEF Biodiversity Partnership Framework (CBPF) and China GEF Land Degradation Prevention Partnership Framework, which is establishing between China and GEF. The total expense budget is $12,180,000. GEF grant $2,980,000, Supporting funds $9,200,000.

1.1.6 Project Organization Structure

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