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Book2L03_More Crime and Less Punishment

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Book2L03_More Crime and Less Punishment

     3 周!第 1 次课 授课时间 2010 3

    授课章节 Lesson Three: More Crime and Less Punishment

    本?章,节 课堂讲授?? 实践课? 教学时数 2课时 授课方式

    

    

    

    ~ 1. Introduce background information to students: author, cultural

    information, etc.

     2. Word formation.

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

     1. Let students learn some common knowledge of the English culture.

    

    2. Usage of word formation, to enrich their vocabulary.

    

    

    思考题

     Exercise 1 of more work on the text---vocabulary

    

    教学内容与组织安排

    I. Warming-up Questions

     Do you think that punishment can deter crimes? Read the whole text and sum up the author’s

    conclusion.

     What are the things like in China? Do you think that the writer’s conclusion also applies here?

     Do you think capital punishment should be abolished or not?

    Warm-up

    1. What do you now about jury system in America?

    2. What is the guiding principle in criminal court in America?

    3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the principle?

    4. What expressions do you know about crime, law and court?

    Jury system

    The Jury trial is an important component in the judicial system. The jury consists of

    12 jurors, selected at random, which will, after hearing all the evidence and

    cross-examination, give a verdict of guilty or innocent. Then, the judge will pass

    sentence.

     In many jurisdictions, the majority of a jury is not sufficient to find a defendant guilty, all 12 members must agree to the person’s guilt.

    Guiding principle

     The court must prove the accused person’s guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. In other words, the accused is held innocent until proved guilty.

     In theory, the concept makes sure that a case is not misjudged and that an innocent person is not unjustly treated.

     However, in other cases, this may help criminals to escape punishment for his lawyer

    can always raise a reasonable doubt concerning the evidence or the trustworthiness of the witnesses. Also, collecting evidence and having a trial or even summon a jury cost a lot of money.

    II. Expressions Related to Crime, Law and Court

     parole to imprison/jail sb.

     crime rate to execute a murderer

     arrest record to supervise a criminal

     property crime to prosecute sb.

     criminal

    死刑 [sǐ xíng] {} death penalty(death sentence(capital punishment(nameless death

    死刑缓期执行death sentence with a stay of execution

    无期徒刑life imprisonment

    有期徒刑set term of imprisonment例句: be sentenced to three year's imprisonment判有期徒刑3

draft 法案,草案

    Government bill 政府议案

    to pass a bill, to carry a bill 通过议案 to enact a law, to promulgate a law 颁布法律 ratification, confirmation 批准 law enforcement 法律的实施

    to come into force 生效

    decree 法令

    clause 条款

    minutes 备忘录

    report 判例汇编

    codification 法律汇编

    legislation 立法

    legislator 立法者

    jurist 法学家

    jurisprudence 法学

    legitimation 合法化

    legality, lawfulness 法制,合法

    legal, lawful 合法的,依法的

    to contravene a law, to infringe a law, to break a law 违法

    outlaw, outside the law 超出法律范围的 offender 罪犯

    to abolish 废止,取消

    rescission, annulment 废除,取消 repeal, revocation, annulment 废除(法律) cancellation, annulment, invalidation 废除(合同)

    cancellation (支票)作废

    annulment 撤消(遗嘱)

    repeal rescission 撤消(判决)

    revocation 撤消

    immunity 豁免,豁免权

    disability, legal incapacity 无资格 nonretroactive character 不溯既往性 prescription 剥夺公权

    attainder 公民权利的剥夺和财产的没收 constitutional law 宪法

    canon law 教会法规

common law 习惯法

    criminal law 刑法

    administrative law 行政法

    civil law 民法

    commercial law, mercantile law 商法

    law of nations 万国公法,国际法

    international law 国际法

    natural law 自然法

    labour laws 劳工法

    fiscal law 财政法

    Civil Suit Law, Code of civil law 民事诉讼法

    Criminal Law 刑事诉讼法

    Military Law 军法

    Conscript Law 兵役法

    Copyright Law 著作权法

    penal code 刑法典

    code of mercantile law 商法典

    civil rights 民事权利,公民权利

    right of asylum 避难权

    human rights, rights of man 人权

    (customs) duties 关税

    death duty, death tax 遗产税

    royalties 版税

     III. Capital Punishment

    Where did the idea of capital punishment come from?

    The idea of capital punishment was first instigated by God in the Old Testament in the Bible.

    Genesis 9: 5-6: “And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man’s brother will I require the life of man. Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.”

    Leviticus 24: 17-22:

    “And he that killeth any man shall surely be put to death. And he that killeth a beast shall make it good; beast for beast. And if a man cause a blemish in his neighbour; as he hath done, so shall it be

    done to him; Breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth: as he hath caused a blemish in a man, so

    shall it be done to him again. And he that killeth a beast, he shall restore it; and he that killeth a man,

    he shall be put to death. Ye shall have one manner of law, as well for the stranger, as for one of your

    own country: for I am the LORD your God.”

IV. Methods of Execution

     Guillotine

     Hanging

     Firing Squad

     The Electric Chair

     Lethal Injection

    How do you understand that execution is “A moral question transformed into an aesthetic question”?

    Discussion

     What is the symbolic importance of executions?

     Should executions be televised?

    Background Information

    I. Author

    Richard Moran

    Richard Moran is a criminologist and a leading expert on the insanity defense, capital punishment, and the history of the electric chair. His book The Executioner’s Current (Knopf, 2002) is the story of how

    the electric chair developed out of an effort by one nineteenth-century electric company to discredit

    the other.

    II. Alcatraz Island

    Alcatraz Island is one of Golden Gate National Recreation Area’s most popular destinations, offering a

    close-up look at a historic and infamous federal prison. Visitors to the island cannot only explore the remnants of the prison, but can also learn about the Indian occupation of 1969-1971, early military

    fortifications (the first U.S. fort on the coast), and the West Coast’s first (and oldest operating)

    lighthouse. These structures and the island’s many natural features are being preserved by the National Park Service.

    III. Parole (假释)

    Parole, in criminal law, means release from prison of a convict before the expiration of his term on

    condition that his activities be restricted and that he report regularly to an officer. The convict generally remains under sentence, and the restrictions (as of residence, occupation, type of associates) and the supervision are intended to prevent a relapse into crime. Any violation of parole may result in return to imprisonment. The procedure of parole is regulated by statute in the jurisdictions of the United States.

    It is less often administered directly by the executive than it is by a board or officer with the power to

    release a convict after he has served the minimum of an indeterminate sentence. Parole is designed to give the prisoner a chance to readjust and to expedite the process of rehabilitation.

    IV. Hierarchy of American Laws

    U.S. Constitution and Its Amendments (“Bill of Rights”)

    Federal Laws include bills signed into law by the President, statutes of federal agencies and executive orders

    issued by the President, plus Supreme Court and federal court decisions. Federal laws can be disputed

    in federal courts.

    State Laws

    mostly court decisions based on common law

    Local (Municipal) Laws

    local statutes, codes and court decisions

III. Word Building

    Noncombatantnon-: not

    nonabrasive不可研磨的

    nonacid非酸性的

    nonadjustable不可调的

    nonautomatic非自动的

    nongovernmental非政府性的

Arrival-al: action; process

    renew renewal

    deny denial

    dismiss dismissal

    refuse refusal

    survive survival

    disapprove disapproval

    propose proposal

     withdraw withdrawal

     3 周!第 2 次课 授课时间 2010

    授课章节 Lesson Three: More Crime and Less Punishment 本?章,节 课堂讲授?? 实践课? 教学时数 2课时 授课方式

    

    

    

    ~ 1. Study of the words and phrases.

     2. Distinguish some similar words/synonyms.

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

     1. Comprehend and translate some of the key words;

    

    2. Enrich their vocabulary.

    

    

    思考题

    1. Exercise of more work on the text---vocabulary.

     2. Preview the text.

    教学内容与组织安排

I. Word Study

    1. (para.7) approvaln. the act of approving; an official approbation; sanction for sb.’s approval 求某人指正

     give one’s approval to 批准

     present sth. to sb. for approval 把某事提交某人批准

     submit sth. to sb. for approval 把某事提交某人批准

     with/without approval of /未经??????的批准

    v. approve

    v. disapprove

     Her father will never approve of her marriage to you.

     Congress approved the budget.

     The mayoress approved the new building plans.

    2. commitv. a. to do, perform, or perpetrate

     b. to make known the views of (oneself) on an issue

     c. to consign for future use or reference or for preservation to commit a crime/an error

     Chairman refused to commit himself on the controversial subject before making due

    investigations.

     I committed the sonata to memory.

    a. committed 尽职的,尽忠的 a committed teacher/doctor n. commitment

     ***commit

    1) To make somebody agree or promise to do something

     The agreement commits them to a minimum number of performances per year. 2) To use available things or people for a particular purpose.

     They’ll have to commit more money to the project if it’s to succeed. 3) To give someone or something to someone else to look after sb.转交给某人保管/照顾

     They commit a child to a doctor’s care.

    4)commit oneself : to give a definite opinion 公开表明自己的意见

    Chairman refused to commit himself on the controversial subject before making investigations.

    3. convictv. to find or prove (someone) guilty of an offense or crime, especially by the

    verdict of a court

     The jury convicted the defendant of manslaughter.

     He was convicted of murder.

    n. conviction

    4. deterv. to prevent or discourage from acting, as by means of fear or doubt Does negotiated disarmament deter war?

     Failure did not deter us from trying it again.

    n. a. deterrent

    deterrent policy

    deterrent power

    a nuclear deterrent

    5. dismissv. a. to end the employment or service of; to discharge

     b. to direct or allow to leave The boss threatened to dismiss all the employees who had expressed their sympathy for the strike,

    but it’s all bluff.

     The General dismissed troops after the inspection. n. dismissal

    6. illustrate v. a. to clarify, as by use of examples or comparisons

     b. to provide (a publication) with explanatory or decorative features

     His story illustrates her true generosity very clearly. The book was illustrated with color photographs. n. illustration

    a. illustrative

    7. prior a. a. preceding in time or order

     b. preceding in importance or value I have a prior engagement and so can’t go with you. This task is prior to all others.

     a prior consideration 优先考虑

     You must give this matter priority.

    n. priority

    according to priority

    give (first) priority to

    8. rejectv. to refuse to accept, submit to, believe, or make use of

     He rejected their invitation point-blank.

     reject an offer of help 拒绝别人提供的帮助

     reject an appeal 驳回上诉

     a reject from the varsity team 被大学代表队拒绝的人 n. rejection

    n. reject 被拒之人, 被弃之物

    9. severityv. a. the state or quality of being severe

     b. the act or an instance of severe behavior, especially punishment

     the severity of winter 冬天的酷寒

     punish sb. with severity 严厉地惩罚某人

    a. severe

    10. witnessv. to be present at or have personal knowledge of He witnessed the accident.

     We witnessed tremendous changes in the city.

     a witness of the accident

     These facts are a witness to his carelessness

    n. witness

    11. householda. a. connected with looking after a house and the people in it

     b. commonly known; familiar

     household appliances 家用电器

     Koda has become a household name.

    n. household

    average household 中等家庭

    multiperson household 多人口家庭

    peasant household 农户

    12. (para.4) declinev. a. to refuse politely

     b. to draw to a gradual close; to wane

     I declined their offer of help.

     an empire that has declined 业已衰落的帝国

     sink into a decline 开始衰落, 衰弱下去; 体力衰退

     (尤指因患肺病而衰弱)

     on the decline 走下坡路, 在衰退中

     the decline of life 晚年, 暮年

    n. decline

    cf. decline, refuse, reject

    decline 较正式地、有礼貌地谢绝

     He declined the nomination.

     refuse 是普通用语: 坚决、果断或坦率地拒绝

     He refused to take the money.

    reject 以否定、敌对的态度当面拒绝

     They rejected damaged goods.

    13. givena. a. specified; fixed

     b. granted as a supposition; acknowledged or assumed

     We will meet at a given time and location.

     Given the condition of the engine, it is a wonder that it even starts. ***1. convince / persuade

    convince: make sb. believe that something is true

     He failed to convince the jury of his innocence.

     persuade: make sb agree to do something by giving them reasons why they should.

     Nobody would persuade her to change her mind.

     How can I persuade you of my sincerity?

     2. refuse / reject

    refuse is more positive, often implying decisiveness. decline means to refuse courteously.

    reject means a throwing away, a discarding, or abandoning of someone or something as

    unsatisfactory, defective, or useless.

    Exercise:

    The company _____ the entire shipment.

     I'll make him an offer he can't ____.

    We asked her to he reception, but she ___ the invitation.

II. Phrases and Expressions

    1.para.1 get tough withto become strong-minded or resolute??????态度强硬

     If you are looking for an explanation of why we don’t get tough with criminals, you need only

    look at the numbers.

    *** tough

    1) get tough withsb. 强硬起来

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