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Book2L01_Another School Year-What For

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Book2L01_Another School Year-What For

    

     1 周;第 1 次课 授课时间 2010 3

    授课章节 Lesson One: Another School Year-What For 本,章:节 课堂讲授,? 实践课, 教学时数 2课时 授课方式

    

    

    

    ~1. Introduce background information to students: author, cultural

    information, etc.

     2. Word formation.

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

     1. Let students learn some common knowledge of the English culture.

    

    2. Usage of word formation, to enrich their vocabulary.

    

    

    思考题

     Exercise 1 of more work on the text---vocabulary

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    教学内容与组织安排

    Warming-up: Discussion

    Divide the class into several groups and make them have a discussion about the advantages

    and disadvantages of formal education at school.

    Suggested Answers:

    Advantages:

    1. a systematic mastery of the knowledge required by the public education.

     2 .an access to an atmosphere which is full of competition

    3. opportunities of being together with those with whom you share the similar experience

    4. teachers are professionals in the field of education and can provide with what we expect from

    them;

    Disadvantages:

    1. formal education pays much attention to similarity rather than individuality;

    2. those with special talents cannot exert their potentiality at a formal school;

1. What can college do for me?

    Studies indicate that college graduates enjoy significantly higher earnings over their lifetimes than do

    non-graduates.

     An associate degree can mean 35 percent more income than just a high school diploma.

     A bachelor's degree can mean 74 percent more income than just a high school diploma.

     A master's degree can mean 115 percent more income than just a high school diploma.

    2. What if I am not sure I can afford it?

    College is an investment in your future. True, the up-front costs are considerable, and in most cases, it is difficult for a family to pay the entire cost of college. That is why there are many different options

    for financing your education, such as scholarships, grants, and loans.

    3. What can I expect of a college?

    Attending university or college lets you experience a rich cultural and social scene and meet a variety of people, while studying something you love.

    4. What does a college or university mean to me?

     a better paid job

     a greater choice of job

     higher future earning

    5. What can I study there?

     Higher education courses range from familiar academic subjects such as English or History, to

    less familiar ones such as Philosophy, and a host of work-related (vocational) courses such as accountancy.

Background Information(45mins)

    (Teaching methods: ask the students to refer to the Internet about the famous persons mentioned

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    in this text, and one spokesperson should be selected from each group and present what they have got

    for the whole class.)

    I. Author

    John Ciardi

    American poet, editor, critic, author of books for children, nonfiction writer, and translator (of Dante’s

    The Divine Comedy: “The Inferno”, “The Purgatorio”, and “The Paradiso”).

    Author ’s quotes

     “The day will happen whether or not you get up.”

     “You do not have to suffer to be a poet. Adolescence is enough suffering for anyone.”

     “A university is what a college becomes when the faculty loses interest in students.”

    II. Aristotle, Chaucer, Bach

    Aristotle(384-322 BC).~Aristotle was born in 384 BC in Stagira, on the northwest coast of the

    Aegean Sea. His father was a friend and the physician of the king of Macedonia, and the lad spent

    most of his boyhood at the court. At 17, he went to Athens to study. He enrolled at the famous

    Academy directed by the philosopher Plato.

    One of the greatest thinkers of all time, an ancient Greek philosopher. His work in the natural and

    social sciences greatly influenced virtually every area of modern thinking.

    Aristotle threw himself wholeheartedly into Plato’s pursuit of truth and goodness. Plato was soon

    calling him the “mind of the school”. In later years he renounced some of Plato’s theories and went far

    beyond him in breadth of knowledge.

    In the early Middle Ages the only works of his known in Western Europe were parts of his writings on

    logic. They became the basis of one of the three subjects of the medieval trivium (三学科)logic,

    grammar, and rhetoric. Early in the 13th century other books reached the West. Some came from

    Constantinople; others were brought by the Arabs to Spain. Medieval scholars translated them into

    Latin.

    The best known of Aristotle’s writings that have been preserved are Organon (工具论) (treatises on

    logic), Rhetoric, Poetics, History of Animals, Metaphysics (玄学), De Anima (on psychology),

    Nicomachean Ethics, Politics and Constitution of Athens.

    Geoffrey Chaucer~The Father of the English Language as well as the Morning Star of Song, one

    of the three or four greatest English poets.

     Playfulness of mood and simplicity of expression.

     Most famous work was the Canterbury Tales.

     Geoffrey Chaucer, after six centuries, has retained his status as one of the three or four greatest

    English poets.

     He was the first to commit to lines of universal and enduring appeal a vivid interest in nature, books, and people. As many-sided as Shakespeare, he did for English narrative what Shakespeare did for drama. If he lacks the profundity of Shakespeare, he excels in playfulness of mood and simplicity of expression.

     Though his language often seems quaint, he was essentially modern. Familiarity with the language and with the literature of his contemporaries persuades the most skeptical that he is nearer to the present

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than many writers born long after he died.

    The Canterbury Tales

    The Tales is a collection of stories set within a framing story of a pilgrimage to Canterbury Cathedral, the shrine of Saint Thomas à Becket. The poet joins a band of pilgrims, vividly described in the General Prologue, who assemble at the Tabard Inn outside London for the journey to Canterbury. Ranging in status from a Knight to a humble Plowman, they are a microcosm of 14th-century English society.

     The Canterbury Tales contains 22 verse tales and 2 prose tales presumably told by pilgrims to pass the time on their way to visit a shrine in Canterbury, England.

     The tales represent nearly every variety of medieval story at its best. The special genius of Chaucer's

    work, however, lies in the dramatic interaction between the tales and the framing story.

    Bach(1685-1750)~Bach is considered by many to have been the greatest composer in the history of

    western music.

     Bach's main achievement lies in his synthesis and advanced development of the primary

    contrapuntal idiom of the late Baroque, and in the basic tunefullness of his thematic material.

    Bach is also known for the numerical symbolism and mathematical exactitude which many

    people have found in his musicfor this, he is often regarded as one of the pinnacle geniuses of

    western civilization.

    III. Dante, Homer, La Rochefoucauld

    Dante (1265-1321)~One of the greatest poets in the history of world literature, Italian writer

    Alighieri Dante composed poetry influenced by classical and Christian tradition.

    Dante’s greatest workepic poem: The Divine Comedy, 1802. It includes three sections:

     the “Inferno” (Hell), in which the great classical poet Virgil leads Dante on a trip through hell;

     the “Purgatorio” (Purgatory), in which Virgil leads Dante up the mountain of purification; and

     the “Paradiso” (Paradise), in which Dante travels through heaven.

     This passage from the Inferno (recited by an actor) comes at the beginning of the epic, when Dante loses his way in the woods.

     The Divine Comedy

     was probably begun about 1307; it was completed shortly before his death. The work is an allegorical narrative, in verse of great precision and dramatic force, of the poet's imaginary journey through hell,

    purgatory, and heaven.

     In each of the three realms the poet meets with mythological, historical, and contemporary personages. Each character is symbolic of a particular fault or virtue, either religious or political; and the punishment or rewards meted out to the characters further illustrate the larger meaning of their actions in the universal scheme.

     Dante is guided through hell and purgatory by Virgil, who is, to Dante, the symbol of reason. The

    woman Dante loved, Beatrice, whom he regards as both a manifestation and an instrument of the divine will, is his guide through paradise.

    Homer~Homer, name traditionally assigned to the author of The Iliad and The Odyssey, the two

    major epics of Greek antiquity.Nothing is known of Homer as an individual, and in fact it is a matter

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    of controversy whether a single person can be said to have written both the Iliad and the Odyssey.

    Linguistic and historical evidence, however, suggests that the poems were composed in the Greek

    settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor sometime in the 8th century BC.

    THE ILIAD

     The Iliad is set in the final year of the Trojan War, fought between the Greeks and the inhabitants of

    the city of Troy. The legendary conflict forms the background for the central plot of the story: the wrath of the Greek hero Achilles. Insulted by his commander in chief, Agamemnon, the young warrior Achilles withdraws from the war, leaving his fellow Greeks to suffer terrible defeats at the hands of the Trojans. Achilles rejects the Greeks' attempts at reconciliation but finally relents to some extent, allowing his companion Patroclus to lead his troops in his place. Patroclus is slain, and Achilles, filled with fury and

    remorse, turns his wrath against the Trojans, whose leader, Hector (son of King Priam), he kills in single combat. The poem closes as Achilles surrenders the corpse of Hector to Priam for burial, recognizing a certain kinship with the Trojan king as they both face the tragedies of mortality and bereavement.

    THE ODYSSEY

     The Odyssey describes the return of the Greek hero Odysseus from the Trojan War. The opening scenes depict the disorder that has arisen in Odysseus's household during his long absence: A band of

    suitors is living off of his wealth as they woo his wife, Penelope. The epic then tells of Odysseus's ten years of traveling, during which he has to face such dangers as the man-eating giant Polyphemus and such

    subtler threats as the goddess Calypso, who offers him immortality if he will abandon his quest for home. The second half of the poem begins with Odysseus's arrival at his home island of Ithaca. Here, exercising infinite patience and self-control, Odysseus tests the loyalty of his servants; plots and carries out a bloody revenge on Penelope's suitors; and is reunited with his son, his wife, and his aged father.

    La Rochefoucauld~The literary reputation of La Rochefoucauld rests on one book: Maxims,

    published in 1665. These moral reflections and maxims are a collection of cynical epigrams, or short

    sayings, about human naturea nature that the author felt is dominated by self-interest.

     “We seldom find such sensible men as those who agree with us.”

     “Virtues are lost in self-interest as rivers are lost in the sea.”

     “The surest way to be deceived is to think oneself cleverer than the others.”

     “We always like those who admire us; we do not always like those whom we admire.”

    Francois de La Rochefoucauld (1613-80).

     Francois de La Rochefoucauld was born to one of the noble families of France on Sept. 15, 1613, in Paris. His notions of human faults and foibles grew out of a life immersed in the political crises of his time. The public life of his family was conditioned by the attitude of the monarchy toward the

    nobility--sometimes flattering, sometimes threatening. Having served in the army periodically from 1629 to 1646, La Rochefoucauld became one of the prominent leaders in the civil war from 1648 to 1653. Wounded in 1649 and again in 1652, he finally retired from the struggle with extensive face and throat wounds and with his health ruined.

     The literary reputation of La Rochefoucauld rests on one book: 'Reflexions ou sentences et maximes morales', published in 1665. Generally called the 'Maximes', these moral reflections and maxims are a collection of cynical epigrams, or short sayings, about human nature--a nature that the author felt is

    dominated by self-interest. Typical of his point of view are the following sayings: "We seldom find such

    sensible men as those who agree with us"; "Virtues are lost in self-interest as rivers are lost in the sea";

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    "The surest way to be deceived is to think oneself cleverer than the others"; and "We always like those who admire us; we do not always like those whom we admire."

     After convalescing, he settled in Paris where he became involved with a circle of brilliant and cultivated people who debated intellectual subjects of all kinds. As an exercise, they attempted to express

    their thoughts with the greatest brevity. In so doing they made great use of the epigram, or maxim, which creates surprise through the devices of exaggeration and paradox. La Rochefoucauld soon gained mastery of this device. The first edition of his 'Maximes' contains, in fact, some longer selections along with the epigrams. Altogether he authorized five editions of the book in his lifetime, the last appearing in 1678. Two years later, on March 17, 1680, he died in Paris.

    Virgil(70-19 BC)~The greatest of the ancient Roman poets

    His works:

     “Eclogues” (牧歌)pastoral poems

     the “Georgics” (田园诗)a more serious work on the art of farming and the charms of

    country life (This established his fame as the foremost poet of his age.)

     his great epic, the “Aeneid” (叙事诗), which exercised a tremendous influence upon

    Latin and later Christian literature

     The greatest of the Roman poets, Publius Vergilius Maro, was not a Roman by birth. His early home was on a farm in the village of Andes, near Mantua. His father was a farmer, prosperous enough to give

    his son the best education. The young Virgil was sent to school at Cremona and then to Milan. At the age of 17 he went to Rome to study. There he learned rhetoric and philosophy from the best teachers of the

    day.

     Virgil studied the Greek poets. He wrote his 'Eclogues'. These are pastoral poems describing the beauty of Italian scenes. At the suggestion of Maecenas he wrote a more serious work on the art of farming and the charms of country life called the 'Georgics'. This established his fame as the foremost poet of his age.

     The year after the 'Georgics' was published, he began his great epic, the 'Aeneid'. He took as his hero the Trojan Aeneas, supposed to be the founder of the Roman nation. The poem, published after Virgil's

    death, exercised a tremendous influence upon Latin and later Christian literature, prose as well as poetry. Thus his influence continued through the Middle Ages and into modern times.

    Shakespeare

    English playwright and poet whose body of works is considered the greatest in English literature. His

    plays, many of which were performed at the Globe Theatre in London, include historical works, such

    as Richard II, comedies, including Much Ado About Nothing (庸人自扰), The Merchant of Venice,

    Twelfth Night, and As You Like It, and tragedies, such as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Othello, and King

    Lear. He also composed 154 sonnets.

    Tragedies:

     (1) 'Hamlet'王子复仇记, 'Macbeth'《麦克白》, 'King Lear'《李尔王》, 'Othello'《奥赛罗》;

    (2) 'Antony and Cleopatra'安东尼与克里奥佩特拉》;, 'Coriolanus'科里奥兰纳斯, 'Romeo and

    Juliet罗密欧与朱丽叶', 'Julius Caesar'凯撒大帝;

    (3) 'Richard II'理查二世, 'Richard III'理查三世, 'Timon of Athens'雅典的泰门;

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    (4) 'King John'约翰王, 'Titus Andronicus'泰特斯安特洛尼克斯,莎士比亚早期戏剧:, 'Henry VI'亨利六世

    Comedies:

    ; 'The Tempest', 暴风雨

    ; As You Like It', 皆大欢喜,英国剧作家威廉?莎士比亚于1599年创作的一套喜剧: ; 'The Winter's Tale', 冬天的故事

    ; 'The Merchant of Venice', 威尼斯商人

    ; Twelfth Night', 第十二夜,或名~各遂所愿:

    ; 'Much Ado about Nothing', 无事生非(

    ; 'Cymbeline', 《辛白林》,莎士比亚根据薄伽丘的故事创作的剧本:

    ; 'A Midsummer Night's Dream'; 仲夏夜之梦,威廉?莎士比亚的喜剧作品: ; 'The Merry Wives of Windsor', 温莎的风流娘儿们,莎士比亚的喜剧:

    ; 'The Taming of the Shrew', 驯悍记

    ; 'Two Gentlemen of Verona', 维洛那二绅士(莎士比亚的喜剧.)

    ; 'All's Well That Ends Well', 《终成眷属》(英国戏剧家莎士比亚于1602年创作的喜剧) ; 'A Comedy of Errors',

    ; 'Pericles',

    ; 'Love's Labour's Lost', 空爱一场,莎士比亚所著剧本:

    ; 'Two Noble Kinsmen'. 两位贵族亲戚》威廉?莎士比亚与约翰?弗莱彻合作的一部悲喜剧。该剧创

    作于1613年;但首次演出时间不详。

    Histories:

    ; 'Henry IV', Parts 1 and 2,

    ; 'Henry V',

    ; 'Richard II',

    ; 'Richard III',

    ; 'Henry VIII,;

    ; 'King John',

    ; 'Henry VI', Parts 2 and 3,

    ; 'Henry VI', Part 1.

    Serious Plays, or Bitter Comedies:

    ; 'Measure for Measure', 一报还一报》是莎士比亚喜剧创作期的最后一部作品;关于它的定位;

    历来是争论不休。

    ; 'Troilus and Cressida'. 特洛伊罗斯与克瑞西达

    V. Neanderthal

    The Neanderthal was a species of genus Homo that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from

    about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (the Middle Paleolithic and Lower Paleolithic, in the Pleistocene

    epoch).

    Neanderthals were adapted to cold, as shown by their larger brains, short but robust builds and large

    nose. These traits are promoted by natural selection in cold climates, and are also observed in modern

    sub-arctic populations. Their brains were roughly 10 percent larger than those of modern humans. On

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average, Neanderthals stood about 1.65m tall and were very muscular, comparable to modern

    weight-lifters.

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), one of the world’s leading research

    universities, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1865 the school was opened in Boston by

    geologist William Barton Rogers, who became its first president.

    Throughout its history MIT has held a worldwide reputation for teaching and research. It

    was among the first schools to use the laboratory method of instruction, develop the

    modern profession of chemical engineering, and offer courses in aeronautical and

    electrical engineering and applied physics.

    Word formation

    1. Suffix ize

    2. Suffix fy

    capitalize :

    a. to cause to be or to become 使成为 (dramatize 戏剧化)

    b. to cause to conform to or resemble 使??????一致;使??????相像 (Hellenize 使希腊化 ) c. to treat as 当作??????对待 (idolize 偶像崇拜)

    d. to treat or affect with 对待或影响 (anesthetize 施以麻醉)

    e. to subject to 使服从 (tyrannize 压制)

    f. to treat according to or practice the method of 根据??????对待或实施办法 (pasteurize 施行巴氏消毒)

    g. to become; become like 成为?变得像(materialize 具体化)

    h. to perform, engage in, or produce 完成;从事于;生产 (botanize 采集植物)

     capital (a.) capitalize

     central (a.) centralize

     final (a.) finalize

     hospital (n.) hospitalize

     ideal (a.) idealize

     natural (a.) naturalize

     social (a.) socialize

     apologetic (a.) apologize

     civil (a.) civilize

     fertile (a.) fertilize

     industrial (a.) industrialize

     real (a.) realize

     special (a.) specialize

     western (a.) westernize

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     周;第 2 次课 授课时间 2010

    授课章节 Lesson One: Another School Year-What For 本,章:节 课堂讲授,? 实践课, 教学时数 2课时 授课方式

    

    

    

    ~ 1. Study of the words and phrases.

     2. Distinguish some similar words/synonyms.

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

     1. Comprehend and translate some of the key words;

    

    2. Enrich their vocabulary.

    

    

    1. Exercise of more work on the text---vocabulary. 思考题 2. Preview the text.

    

    

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    教学内容与组织安排

    (teaching methods: let the students look up some key words and phrases in

    advance, then ask them to share what they have learned about the words with the class.) Word study

    1. accomplishment: n. sth. completed successfully; an achievement ; a girl of many accomplishments 多才多艺的姑娘

    ; Among her accomplishments were sewing, cooking, playing the piano and dancing. Accomplish: v. to succeed in doing; to reach the end of

    ; accomplish one’s object 达到目的

    ; accomplish one’s mission 完成使命

    ; He can accomplish more in a day than any other boy in his class.

    2. assume: v. a. to take for granted; to suppose

     b. to take upon oneself

    ; They had assumed that prices would rise these days, but in fact they were wrong. ; assume responsibilities

    ; assume another’s debts

    Word formation

    n. assumption

    a. assumptive

    3. certify: v. to confirm formally as true, accurate, or genuine

    ; The accounts were certified (as) correct.

    ; He was certified (as) insane.

    ; certified accountant 注册会计师

    n. certification

    a. certified 有书面证明的;已证实的

    4. expose: v. a. to subject or allow to be subjected to an action or an influence 使受影响

     b. to subject (a photographic film, for example) to the action of light 使曝光

     c. to make known (sth. discreditable); to reveal (the guilt or wrongdoing of)

     揭发,有损信誉的事:?揭露,罪恶或错误的行为: ; The parents exposed their children to classical music at home.

    ; This film has been exposed.

    ; The crime of the corrupt officials must be exposed without any reserve. 5. faculty: n. a. any of the powers of the body or mind

     b. department or group of related departments in a university

     c. the whole teaching staff in one of the departments or in the whole university ; the faculty of the sight; mental faculties

    ; the Faculty of Law

    ; The entire faculty of the university will attend the meeting.

    cf.

    staff n.: a. group of assistants working together in a business, etc. responsible to a

    manager or a person in authority

     b. those people doing administrative work

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