A serum vitamin A (VA)
1.1 Method and reference values
Spectrophotometry: Adult 1.12 ~ 3.14μmol / L, children, 0.87 ~
150μmol / L.
1.2 Clinical Significance
1.2.1 Vitamin A in two ways. One is the vitamin A alcohol, the other is β-carotene, in human small intestine and liver can be transformed into a active vitamin A.
1.2.2 Vitamin A has a wide range of physiological effects, can promote the growth and development, the maintenance of normal epithelial
tissue structure and function, and to participate in the visual effects, enhance the skin and mucosal barrier resistance. Vitamin A deficiency can cause growth and developmental disorders, dry and epithelial cells, epidermal keratinocytes, so as to eyes, digestive tract, respiratory tract and other epithelial tissue is particularly evident.
1.2.3 increased: Baby found in spontaneous hypercalcemia, vitamin A poisoning, chronic glomerular nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes,
1.2.4 reduction: seen in night blindness, dry eye, hepatitis, cirrhosis, pancreatic function reduce malabsorption syndrome, and so on.
2 serum vitamin B1 (VitBl)
2.1 Method and reference values
Fluorescence (FL): 16.7 ~ 50.0μmol / L.
2.2 Clinical Significance
2.2.1 Vitamin B1 in the liver and the reaction of sulfur acid pyrophosphate coke phosphate (TPP), TPP is the oxidation of α-keto acid
decarboxylase Department of coenzyme involved in oxidation of α-keto acid
decarboxylation role in the maintenance of normal glucose metabolism and nerve and muscle function of great significance.
2.2.2 Vitamin B2 deficiency glucose metabolic intermediate pyruvate oxidation blocked Gang had gathered, resulting in nerve tissue of the body source of energy barriers, there beriberi disease, manifested as numbness of extremities, muscle atrophy, lower limb edema. In addition, also enables the activity of AChE increased, affecting nerve conduction,
causing gastric peristalsis slowed down to reduce secretion of digestive juice, there loss of appetite, indigestion and other symptoms.
2.2.3 Vitamin B6 deficiency in patients occurred mainly in order to milled rice-eating areas.
2.2.4 reduction: seen in beri-beri, multiple neuritis, heart
failure, hyperthyroidism and diarrhea.
3 serum vitamin B2 (VitB2)
3.1 Method and reference values
Fluorescence: 70 ~ 100μmol / L.
3.2 Clinical Significance
3.2.1 active form of vitamin B1 in the body, there are two, namely, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, is a reductase in vivo oxidation of the coenzyme, in the bio-oxidation process
in the body plays a role in delivery of hydrogen. Can promote the protein, sugar, fat metabolism, but also can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, diuretic swelling, prevention and treatment
3.2.2 reduction: common in corneal vascularization, seborrheic
dermatitis, scrotal inflammation, angular cheilitis, glossitis, cheilitis, oral mucosa ulcers.
4 Determination of plasma pantothenic acid (VitB3)
4.1 Method and reference values
Colorimetry: 1.74 ~ 2.49μmol / L.
4.2 Clinical Significance
4.2.1 constitute coenzyme A, pantothenic acid composition of the body of sugar, lipid and protein metabolism has a very significant impact. Able to maintain normal human cells, development, maintenance and control.
Normal adrenal function. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
4.2.2 reduction: seen in anemia, dermatitis, adrenal dysfunction, but also the main cause allergies can also cause low blood sugar level,
persistent fatigue, dizziness, nervousness, headaches and other symptoms.
5 plasma vitamin B6 (VitB6)
5.1 Method and reference values
Enzymatic: 120 ~ 540μmol / L.
5.2 Clinical Significance
5.2.1 Vitamin B6, including pyridoxal, pyridoxamine pyridoxal alcohols are amino acids and protein metabolism enzymes of coenzyme involved in amino acid transaminase and decarboxylase activities.
5.2.2 lowering can cause anemia, convulsions, conjunctivitis, glossitis, seborrheic dermatitis, neuritis, low immunity and other symptoms.
5.2.3 during pregnancy lack of vitamin B6, a common cause of underweight babies, slow growth, mental retardation, convulsions, anemia and so on.
5.2.4 long-term use of isoniazid in patients, can cause a lack of vitamin B6, manifested as convulsions, central excited anxiety, insomnia and other symptoms.
6 serum vitamin B12 (VitB12)
6.1 Method and reference values
6.1.1 Radioimmunoassay: 200 ~ 900μg/ml.
6.1.2 microbiological method: 160 ~ 925μg/ml.
6.2 Clinical Significance
6.2.1 Vitamin B12 also known as cobalamin, is the only metallic
element of vitamins, in methylenetetrahydrofolate into folic acid involved in the process of transfer of methyl to promote the use of folic acid to increase the folic acid synthesis. Human vitamin B12 comes mainly from
food, but the body can not be directly absorbed by the need and gastric secretion of intrinsic factor together to form complex intestinal mucosa in order to be absorbed. Vitamin B12 is mainly used for detection of red blood cell anemia diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
6.2.2 less: seen in megaloblastic anemia, pernicious anemia, atrophic gastritis, stomach after subtotal or total removal, chronic pancreatitis, intestinal absorption of dysfunction, malnutrition, pregnancy and so on.
6.2.3 add: seen in acute hepatitis, liver necrosis of liver cells in acute injury.
7 Vitamin C (VitC)
7.1 Method and reference values
Colorimetry: 30 ~ 110μmol / L.
7.2 Clinical Significance
7.2.1 participate in hydroxylation of vitamin C to promote collagen, 5 - serotonin, norepinephrine, bile acid synthesis. Can promote immunoglobulin synthesis, enhance the body's resistance to protect the-SH
thiol enzymes from oxidative damage, commonly used in heavy metal detoxification.
7.2.2 When the vitamin C deficiency disorder of collagen synthesis, leading to increased capillary wall permeability and fragility,
easy bleeding, mainly manifested as skin and mucous membrane, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and periosteum organized under the bleeding occurred in clinical practice is called scurvy.
7.2.3 Vitamin C helps the calcium dense bones and teeth
development, oral health, and maintain normal visual acuity, promote wound healing, prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, reducing the risk of pregnancy complications.
7.2.4 is seen to reduce rheumatic fever, tuberculosis, cancer,
gastrointestinal disease, malabsorption, liver disease, kidney disease, taking the vinegar acid or ether anesthesia Liu excretion increased sulfa drug applications.
8 plasma vitamin D (VitD) reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
8.1 Method and reference values
Competitive protein binding method: 25 (OH) D, 10 ~ 150μmol / L.
8.2 Clinical Significance
8.2.1 Detection of vitamin D rickets in infants and young children is mainly used for diagnosis, senile osteoporosis and calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorder in differential diagnosis.
8.2.2 The main physiological function of vitamin D is to maintain a constant blood calcium and phosphorus, with the promotion of the role of
osteogenesis, and has anti-rickets and the role of prevention of tooth decay.
8.2.3 increased: Long-term taking too much vitamin D intoxication can occur, early symptoms of poisoning, unusual dry mouth, eye pain, pruritus, nausea, fatigue, vomiting, digestive disorders, frequent urination, muscle and bone pain . Late symptoms of poisoning have osteoporosis, weight loss, muscle and soft tissue calcification, renal failure.
8.2.4 reduction: prone to rickets in infants, adults, especially
pregnant and lactating women prone to bone softening disease.
9 serum vitamin E (VitE)
9.1 Method and reference values
Assay: 11.6 ~ 46.4μmol / L.
9.2 Clinical Significance
9.2.1 Vitamin E also known as tocopherol, widely exists in plants and animals, with antioxidant to protect cell membrane integrity, enhance reproductive function and reduce scar formation, prevent blood clotting. Enhance the detoxification function of liver cells and enhance immune function.
9.2.2 The health effects of vitamin E: Prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, anti-tumor, regulate
immunity, prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications, anti-aging, slow down Alzheimer's disease and central nervous system dysfunction, and beautify the skin and so on.
9.2.3 preterm infants of vitamin E deficiency syndrome manifested
as edema, anemia, thrombocytopenia dissolved, red rash develops, and so
9.2.4 increased: seen in nephritis. .
9.2.5 reduction: found in the initial stage of viral hepatitis, hemolytic anemia, muscle aging.
10 Vitamin K (VitK)
10.1 Methods and Reference Values
Fluorescence spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography: 220.127.116.11μmol / L.
10.2 Clinical significance of
10.2.1 Vitamin K There are two kinds of K1 and K2, vitamin K1 found primarily in green leafy plants and animals, the liver, vitamin K2
is a metabolic product of intestinal bacteria. Under normal circumstances the lack of easy, but the long-term use of antibiotics in patients can reduce the intestinal bacterial synthesis of vitamin K2.
10.2.2 mainly involved in blood clotting effects of vitamin K in the liver to promote clotting factor ?, ?, ?, X, etc. Synthesis, and to
prothrombin into thrombin.
10.2.3 mainly for a lack of vitamin K clotting time prolonged, prone to skin and gastrointestinal bleeding. Reposted elsewhere in the
paper for free download http://