Venture Capital Investing
Andrew W. Hannah
UNDERGRADUATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP PROGRAM
Donald H. Jones Center for Entrepreneurship – Posner Hall 231
Graduate School of Industrial Administration
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Tel: (412) 268-3704
Undergraduate Entrepreneurship Program
The Donald H. Jones Center For Entrepreneurship
Graduate School of Industrial Administration
Carnegie Mellon University
The cornerstone of the Undergraduate Entrepreneurship Program consists of two fall semester courses, Entrepreneurship I for business and non-business majors (70-415) and Technology-Based
Entrepreneurship (70-414), and looks as follows:
Technology-Based Entrepreneurship and sections of Entrepreneurship I assume no background courses in
business and therefore will involve additional sessions in core concepts in business. Students with majors in science, technology, engineering, the arts, or the humanities will be exposed to fundamental concepts and issues in business, such as accounting, finance, marketing, sales, and organization.
Venture Capital: Two additional courses deal with financing entrepreneurial ventures. Venture
Capital Investing (70-397 fall) teaches students how venture capital and angel financing work. Financing Entrepreneurial Ventures (70-418 spring) teaches students how to prepare financial
business plans for their ventures. Both courses are taught by an experienced venture capitalist.
The broad mission of the program is three-pronged:
(1) To develop or at least understand an entrepreneurial frame of mind and
(2) To obtain the basic skills to start a new venture;
(3) To stimulate self-evaluation for life direction.
This mission is translated into the following goals.
A. Entrepreneurial frame of mind
; Self-assessment of one’s strengths and weaknesses.
; The ability to view life from an entrepreneurial perspective -- to view oneself as a
product that has advantages and disadvantages, and learning to enhance the positives
while minimizing the negatives through finding and experimenting with optimal
; Thinking creatively and innovatively.
; An appreciation of the characteristics and motivations of entrepreneurs.
; Understanding the importance of acting as a responsible and ethical individual.
; A better understanding of what kind of person we want to be – finding a sense of
B. Basic skills to start a new venture
; Ability to recognize a good business opportunity; identification and evaluation of the
characteristics that determine a good business opportunity; enhancement of the
student’s ability to determine whether an idea is an opportunity worth pursuing.
; Understanding money and other resources -- it has been said that managers are resource
driven; entrepreneurs are opportunity driven. In fact, once entrepreneurs focus on an
opportunity, they must determine the required resources and how to get them or at
least get the use of them.
; Rudiments of business including core concepts and issues.
; Good partners and how to find them. Kinds of agreements that need to be made.
; Attracting and building a good management team.
; Understanding the essence and “magic” of leadership.
III. Additional Comments re the Goals
; To determine whether the idea is an opportunity for you. To do that, you must first
understand what you want in life, and understand whether there is a market for your
idea. To do that, you must become comfortable in meeting and/or calling strangers.
These strangers are potential customers, investors, competitors, and/or strategic
partners. (It is only by investigating the market by primary and secondary market
research that you can conclude whether or not the idea truly is an opportunity.)
; To construct your own definition of success and plot your paths towards it.
; To know thyself in the context of creating and maintaining productive relationships
with other people.
IV. Methods of Achieving the Goals
Lectures on topics such as:
; Market research
; Financing new ventures
; Negotiating “deals”
Guest speakers including:
Case studies on topics such as:
; Strategies and career paths for entrepreneurs
; Personal inventory and goal setting
Exercises such as:
; Self-evaluation and personal assessments
; Venture Opportunity Screening Guide (VOSG)
; Marketing Plan
Business basics in Technology-Based Entrepreneurship
Technology-Based Entrepreneurship and sections of Entrepreneurship I will include a review of basic
business concepts such as Profit & Loss Statements, Balance Sheets, Cash Flow, Financial Ratios, Net Present Value, and Equity. These concepts can be very useful to non-BA students, even if entrepreneurial careers are not planned.
Dividing the goals between the two courses:
The first semester will involve an overview of entrepreneurship, intrapreneurship, self-evaluation, and the rudiments of opportunity recognition, with an emphasis on market research and competitive analysis. Entrepreneurship II will get deeper into the actual development of a business
plan including different financing methods, specific issues in marketing and putting together a management team, and identify milestones for implementation of the plan. The project of developing a business plan is a good exercise to help students see a business as a total working unit.
Both semesters will emphasize meeting people in the real business world and “learning by doing” entrepreneurship. Students will find ample opportunities to develop and practice effective communication skills -- both written and oral.
V. Concluding Remarks
The essence of the entrepreneurial view of life tackles the problem of finding a sense of self while maintaining a high degree of personal integrity in the pursuit of productive achievement. Non-BA students will also gain an understanding of the rudiment of business by taking this introductory entrepreneurship course; this exposure to business should prove very helpful to most technical track students. Even if the business plan developed in Entrepreneurship II (70-
416 spring semester) never gives birth to a new enterprise, the experience gained by preparing it will be beneficial to the students, whether they get involved in some future start-up, or become an investor in a new venture, or become an employee, vendor, or part of a management team, or whatever career they choose.
Students of the arts and sciences will have an opportunity to reflect on their personal capabilities and interest in a “business” career track. This may influence post-graduate educational plans and
future job selections. Students who conclude that the technical or non-business track is more appropriate will still benefit by the exposure to the business and entrepreneurial concepts and topics covered. Students with an idea of moving to a business orientation will be better prepared to evaluate business opportunities and to consider entrepreneurial endeavors.
Venture Capital Investing
Andrew W. Hannah
Meeting Time: Tuesdays, 6:30 p.m. until 9:00 p.m.
Meeting Place: A317 Doherty
Prerequisites: Working knowledge of basic finance and accounting principles. You should also be
comfortable using spreadsheet, word processing and presentation tools.
Required Text: Winning Angels, Amis and Stevenson, Prentice Hall, 2001 (WA)
Suggested Texts: Angel Investing, Van Osnabrugge and Robinson, Jossey-Bass, 2001 (AI)
Angel Financing, Benjamin and Margulis, Wiley Investments, 2000 (AF)
Case materials and other handout readings will be required or recommended
throughout the course.
Office: Room 231F, Graduate School of Industrial Administration
Office Hours: 5:15 p.m. until 6:15 p.m. on Tuesdays
Contacting Me: The preferred way to find me, make an appointment or ask a question is through e-mail;
telephone messages are a distant second in the best of times. I do my best to answer all
e-mail within twenty-four hours but make no promises on telephone messages.
I’d prefer that you make an appointment to see me during office hours but you are
welcome to try your luck on any given class meeting day. If you do so, though, do not
wager that your luck will be good.
Office Manager: Ms. Ann Grekila
Room 231, DH Jones Center for Entrepreneurship
412.268.3704 or firstname.lastname@example.org
Working With Working with me is actually pretty simple. The rules to remember:
1. Read the syllabus and assignment handouts. The ingredients for success are there.
2. If you don’t understand something, ask!
3. Be on time.
4. Have your assignments and reading done at the beginning of each class.
5. Be ready to appropriately participate in class.
Assignments: 1. Are due at the beginning of class. The preferred method of delivery is hard copy. E-
mail is acceptable on the rare occasion that you must miss a class. E-mail time
stamps must reflect a delivery time prior to the start of class.
2. All assignments must be typed. All assignments must be headed with your name,
due date and assignment name as listed in this syllabus.
3. Each student has one “get out of jail free” card.
If you don’t get an assignment done on time, turn in a statement that it is late in
class prior to the beginning of the class in which it is due. You will have one week
to turn it in without affecting your grade.
The “get out of jail card” does not apply to final assignments or group assignments.
Late assignments will otherwise be knocked down one grade for each day that they
are late. There are no exceptions to this rule; please don’t test it.
4. Solo assignments require solo work; shared originality is not the idea.
5. Group assignments require collaboration; singular heroics are not the norm. Grading: 1. 20% Sum of the weekly assignments
2. 20% Class preparation and participation
3. 10% Midterm project write up and presentation
4. 25% Final project write up
5. 25% Final project presentation
Grading Policy: I use the following criteria in assigning grades:
1. Is the work what was asked for in the assignment?
2. Is the thinking behind the work clear and original?
3. Is the work free of obvious clerical, arithmetic and presentation errors?
4. Is the work presented in a clear, concise way?
I will distribute more information on project and assignment grading as you need it.
WHAT WE WILL COVER
This is a course on the mechanics of venture capital and angel investing. We will focus on how these
two classes of private equity investors (whom we will for the most part treat as one) find, evaluate and price their investments. While the course includes a brief overview of the venture capital and investment lifecycles, we will spend the majority of our time developing the knowledge and skills necessary to find and evaluate private equity deals. These processes – called sourcing, diligence and valuation – are the
heart and soul of private equity investing and the core of this course.
We will examine each of these processes through the eyes of professional venture capitalists and, to some extent, angel investors. We will supplement class discussion and homework with a series of guest speakers covering a range of topics such as venture business models, diligence, deal structure and the working relationship between the investor and the entrepreneur.
We will devote very little time on the other financing avenues available to the entrepreneur. While
friends & family, credit cards and the government represent important sources of private equity financing, they are outside the scope of this course.
The map for the course is described in some detail in the class schedule. As you review the schedule, keep in mind the following questions:
1. What are the primary differences between venture capitalists and angel investors?
2. How do investors decide what sorts of deals they should do?
3. How do investors gather and evaluate information to be used in making investment decisions?
4. How are valuation, deal structure and the investment model inter-related?
5. What is the role of the investor after the investment is made?
Please take some time to reflect on the potential interactions among investors, entrepreneurs, capital markets and the economy and you will uncover a few questions that I haven’t addressed here.
By the end of the semester, you should be able to answer the questions listed in the last section with a strong degree of confidence. You should also be able to:
1. Describe venture investment models using terms like stage, size, industry, markets and the like.
2. Develop an overview of a company, its products, markets, comparables and competition.
3. Describe the mechanics and key ideas underlying sourcing, diligence and valuation.
4. Understand venture deal terms.
5. Prepare simple diligence, comparables and exit analysis.
6. Present an effective, to-the-point investment recommendation.
Learning how to use obscure features in Word, Excel or PowerPoint is not an expected or desired outcome. You will, however, be expected to be able to use these tools to effectively communicate and defend your analysis and decisions.
CLASS AND HOME WORK
Most of our work will be in the classroom or within your teams and in the form of presentations, question-and-answer sessions and discussions with relevant guests. The graded assignments will include:
1. Weekly assignments and preparation for class – readings, question cards and short presentations
in a highly interactive setting; appropriate participation is one of the keys to success in this course.
Be prepared to answer questions, make a presentation or participate in class discussion based on
any reading or other assignments.
2. Investment recommendation – an eight-page document that describes a company, its business
opportunity, the investment opportunity, relevant diligence and investment recommendation.
3. Recommendation presentation – a five-slide presentation that summarizes the recommendation.
4. Recommendation pitch – a ten-minute pitch, to be made in front of a panel of hard-bitten,
cynical venture capitalists and entrepreneurs on whether this deal makes sense. Handouts describing specific assignments and the project will be handed out in class. The final project
and presentation will be due at the beginning of the last class. The pitches will be held during the final
class session. In the class schedule that follows, assignments that must be handed in are underlined, while
the readings are not.
Be sure that you understand my grading policies and criteria. If you have questions, please ask!
Class Date Topics Assignments
1 8.27 Syllabus and course requirements Information Sheet (in-class)
What investors do – raising, investing,
Angels vs. VC’s
2 9.3 The History of venture capital Info Card A – summarizing venture article
Current trends of Venture Capital WA, pp. 1 – 27
3 9.10 The Investment Lifecycle – what happens Info Card B – Venture Investors
when? WA, pp. 31 – 71
Establishing a fund – fund economics The Venture Capitalist (CMR133)
Investment Frameworks (Part 1) Question Card A – Venture Investor
4 9.17 Guest Speaker - venture capital Info Card C – Angel Investors
The Investment Model – what kind of deals
should I do? WA, pp. 73 – 114
Investment Frameworks (Part 2)
5 9.24 Deal Sourcing -- sources, quality, quantity Gurus in the Garage (R00609)
Deal Screening WA, pp. 143 – 177
Deal Evaluation - evaluating the pitch Question Card B – Entrepreneur
6 10.1 Class Project Overview Info Card D – Deal Sourcing
Guest Speaker - Entrepreneur WA, pp. 179 – 222
7 10.8 Deal Diligence – gathering external Question Card C – VC Panel
information. Capital Market Myopia (9-288-005)
8 10.15 Deal Diligence – gathering internal Venture Capital Negotiations (9-800-170)
information WA, pp. 223 – 244
VC Panel – contrasting investment Diligence A – Market business models.
9 10.22 Deal Structure – valuation models and Diligence B – Comparables
ownership Private Equity Securities (9-200-027)
WA, pp. 245 – 284
10 10.29 Deal Structure – contracts and control Pre and Post-money Valuation (9-801-446)
Delivering a term sheet
WA, pp. 285 – 323 Selling and closing the deal; partnership
11 11.5 Investment Recommendation Working Diligence C – Competition
12 11.12 Investment Recommendation Draft Question Card D – CEO
Presentations Draft Presentation – Diligence 13 11.19 Managing the deal - what happens after the Valuation – Multi-round Computations
wire – monitoring, raising more money,
working with CEOs
CEO Panel – working with investors
14 11.26 Harvesting Methods – investing is easy… None!
15 12.3 Investment Team Presentations Investment Recommendation