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By Helen Carter,2014-12-11 13:12
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    AL Paper II Section A Table/ P.1 of 4 Paper II ―― Essays ―― 2:00 5:00 p.m. Section A Natural Landscapes

; Spend 5 minutes to choose questions

    ; Start with questions that you are most familiar with

    ; Use 45 minutes to answer a question on average

    ; You can spend more time (45-60 minutes) to answer the questions you are most familiar

    with

    ; Leave 2 lines to add additional materials after each paragraph ; Write

    nd Short intro. (def. Geographical terms, Transition to 2 paragr. + Case studies; must be concise +

    precise)

     Short paragraphs ( 1 pt. in each paragr. + topic sentences)

     Extra points instead of conclusion if time is insufficient ; Draw annotated diagrams to save time; never repeat the key words shown in the figures drawn.

A1 : Weather & Climate

    03#2 : radiation budget : earth surface, atm. gases + clouds ? T + econ. activities changes atm. composition ?

    radiation balance

    02#1 : Monsoon Asia : air mass ? climate + atmospheric circulation ? climates in ITCZ & PF in W. Pacific 01#2 : Monsoon : spatial extent + formation + impact on weather and farming activities in S. China

    00#2 : Natural + man-induced climatic changes on a local, regional + global scale 99#2 : Compare TRF + Tundra’ ppt + T & the role of insolation + atmospheric circulation

    98#3 : Spatial patterns of climatic regions with extreme energy supplies + e.g. + modification by man

    97#1 : Monsoon + seasonal climatic variations with air masses + associated hazards

    96#3 : Atmospheric cooling processes leading to condensation + formation of precipitation

    95#1 : Influence of latitudinal energy budget on atmospheric circulation + elements not covered by traditional

    circulation models

    94#1 : Climate in the tropics + local variations

    93#1 : Atmospheric stability in relation to lapse rates + katabatic winds

    92#1 : Diagram : atmospheric energy budget + Climate in TRF

    91#1 : Water cycle + conditions leading to condensation + reasons for frequent condensation in H.K.

    90#2 : Main forms of precipitation + formation of precipitation + relative importance in TD

    89#2 : Influence of atmospheric circulation and surface wind systems on moisture availability in TD

    88#1 : Mechanisms of heat transfer + 2 atmospheric features to show their relative importance

     88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03

    climatic changes (local, regional + global) 2 2

    Climate (TRF, TD + Tundra) + local variations 1 2

    energy budget + heat transfer 1 3 2 1

    1 Water cycle + Condensation + ppt + air masses 2 1 3

    atmospheric circulation + surface wind 2 1

    1 Monsoon (spatial + impact + hazards) 1 2

    AL Paper II Section A Table/ P.2 of 4 A2 :Landform System :Plate tectonics, denudation and weathering & channel subsystem

     88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03

    Plate tectonics 2 1 2 1 1

    Slope + denudation +weathering 2 2 1 1

    channel subsystem 1 2 2 4 2

Plate tectonics

    03#1 : Contrast oceanic ridges + terrestrial mt. ranges + locations of them supports theory + mechanism

    01#1 : Plate tectonics : marine landforms + evidences

    93#2 : Mountain building processes + landform features , exp. with plate tectonics theory 89#1 : Plate tectonics : global distribution of extrusive vulcanicity associated with plate movements + vulcanicity

    reflects instability along destructive plate margins

    88#2 : Plate tectonics : relationship between island arcs and deep sea trenches + associated natural hazards

Slope + denudation +weathering

    00#1 : Slope : human and natural causes of slope failure + diff. Processes in diff. Landscapes + veg ? slope stability 98#1 : Mass wasting + slope development : role of water + contrast relative importance in TRF & TD

    94#2 : Weathering : TD & Tundra : contrast weathering processes + resultant landform features

    91#2 : Denudation : sources of water in TD + water as an agent of denudation and landforms

channel subsystem

    00#2 : Flood plain : development factors + effects of time

    99#4 : Water cycle of drainage basin : TD & polar regions + human activities ? flooding in TD in LDC 97#2 : Channel : TD & TRF : contrast their stream characteristics + impact of afforestation on channel shape +

    processes in lower course

    92#2 : Dam construction : impact on quantity and quality of discharge downstream + effect on channel morphology

    and ecology

    90#1 : Channel : Tundra & TRF : contrast annual pattern of stream discharge and consequences on erosion

    AL Paper II Section A Table/ P.3 of 4

    A3 : Biotic System : Ecosystem & Vegetation, Soils

Ecosystem

    96#4 : Ecosystem : physical, chemical and biological processes + human impact + measures 95#3 : TRF & TD ecosystem : compare and contrast components and interaction

    88#3 : TRF : reasons of luxuriant vegetation + unfavourable factors for farming + impact

Vegetation

    03#3 : TRF : climate ; soil fertility + veg. productivity + importance of maintaining floral diversity +

     ways to biodiversity loss

    97#3 : TD : rainfall pattern + vegetation adaptation + comparison of NPP with TRF

    94#3 : TD : vegetation adaptation + man’s impact

    93#3 : Tundra : environmental constraints on plants and animals 92#4 : TD : vegetation adaptation (survival, structural forms + spatial characteristics) 91#3 : Tundra : spatial variation in vegetation

    89#3 : TRF & TD : vegetation gradient + human impact on vegetation.

Soils

    02#3 : environmental gradient ? climate & soil from 0? to temperate lat. + 1 biome (man disturbs ecological

    balance)

    01#3 : salinization + relative importance of physical and human factors 00#3 : TD soils characeteristics + human & physical factors ; soil degradation + Ass soil conservation measures 99#1 : 5 soil formation factors (stress the importance of climate) + exp. Climate not so important 98#2 : laterization and salinization + compare biotic and climatic conditions + man ? saline soil 96#1 : weathering + soil formation

    95#2 : podzolization + gleying

    92#3 : Tundra : spatial variation of soil + role of vegetation in soil formation 90#3 : soil formation processes + conditions hinder soil formation

     88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 Ecosystems 3 3 4 3 Vegetation TD 4 3 3 Vegetation Tundra 3 3 Vegetation gradient 3

    3 Soils - TD 2 3 3 Soils - Tundra 3 2 Soils Soil formation processes + factors (Climate, veg.) 3 1 1 3

    AL Paper II Section A Table/ P.4 of 4 A4 : Man-Land Relationship

     88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03

    TRF : sustainability + biodiversity + resources + measures 3 4 4 2 4 4 4 4

    TD : resources + constraints + human modification + (4) 4 4 4 3 3 3 4

    desertification : human & phy. factors + +/- impact + measures

Man-Land Relationship : TRF

    02#4 : TRF : MDCs are blamed for ?TRF + global problems + how govt achieve balance economic growth & forest

    conservation + egs.

    01#4 : TRF : des. native people’ sustainable livelihood + reasons of disruption + ways to maintain + egs. 00#4 : TRF : def. biodiversity + significance + diff meaning of resources (developers + environmentalists) affects

    biodiversity + conservation measures

    97#4 : TRF : operation of shifting cultivation + sustainable land use + national park + egs.

    96#2 : TRF : causes of deforestation in LDCs + environmentalist + egs.

    95#4 : TRF : causes of deforestation + environmental constraints + solution + case

    94#4 : TRF: human activities - survival & profit making + harmonious man-environment relationship

    88#3 : TRF : reasons of luxuriant vegetation + unfavourable factors for farming + impact

Man-Land Relationship : TD

    03#4 : TD : poverty + inappropriate use of technology ; desertification + impact of climatic change + areas

    99#3 : TD : environmental resources + positive impacts of development on local landscape and people + egs. 98#3 : TD : reasons of desertification ( human + climate) + measures + regional eg.

    97#3 : TD : rainfall pattern + adaptation of vegetation

    93#4 : TD : water cycle + impact of components in water cycle upon human use + regional eg.

    91#4 : TD : causes of desertification + measures

    90#4 : TD : environmental constraints + human modification + factors that may lead to a change in direction of the

    relationship + places

    89#4 : TD & Tundra (Out of syllabus) similarities and differences of man-environment relationships + case studies

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