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pterygomaxillary

By Edna Williams,2014-12-11 12:17
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pterygomaxillary

    PART I THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM

     The locomotor system includes bones?joints and muscles?

    Chapter 1 Osteology (Bone System)

    Section 1 General Description 一、 Classification of Bones

    According to their shape?four kinds of bones are classified?Those are long?short?flat and

    irregular bones?

    1 Long Bones? a shaft or body and two ends or extremities

     2 Short Bones

    3 Flat Bones

    4 Irregular Bones

    In addiction, sesamoid bone.

    二、 The Structure of Bones

    Bones consist of bony substance, periosteum and bone marrow, and are abundant in blood

    and nerve supply.

    1 Bony Substance: the compact or dense bone and

    the cancellous or spongy bone

    2 Periosteum

    3 Bone Marrow : the red marrow and the yellow marrow 4 The blood and nerve of bones

    三、 The Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of Bones

    The organic component ? resilience and toughness

    The inorganic component ? hardness and rigidity

    四、 The Functions of Bones

    Section 2 The Bones of Trunk

     The bones of trunk include the vertebrae, the sternum, and the ribs.

    一、 The Vertebrae

    number child adult

    cervical vertebrae 7 7

    thoracic vertebrae 12 12

    lumbar vertebrae 5 5

    sacral vertebrae 5 1

    coccygeal vertebrae 3?4 1

    :一, General Features of the Vertebrae

    vertebral body ? vertebral foramen

    vertebral arch ? pedicles and laminae

     seven processes, viz.,

    four articular and two transverse

    processes and a spine

    intervertebral foramen

    :二, The Main Characteristics of Vertebrae in Each Region

    1 The cervical vertebrae (7 in number)

    a. transverse foramen

    except the first and the seventh b. bifid spines

     The first cervical vertebra known as the atlas.

     The second cervical vertebra known as axis.

    The seventh cervical vertebra known as vertebra prominens.

    2 The thoracic vertebrae (12 in number)

     a. costal facets (on each side of their bodies and on their transverse processes )

     b. sloping caudaward spines

    3 The lumbar vertebrae (5 in number) a. large body

    b. horizontal quadrilateral spines 4 The sacrum

    promontory sacral hiatus sacral cornua or horns 5 The coccyx

二、 The Ribs (Costae)

    1 costal bone : head, neck and body ? costal groove 2 costal cartilage

三、 The Sternum

    Manubrium

     ? sternal angle

    body

    xiphoid process

    Section 3 The Bones of Limbs

    The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of upper limbs and the bones of the lower limbs.

    一、 The Bones of Upper Limb

    The bones of upper limb include shoulder girdle and the bones of free upper limb which are divided into three segments, the upper arm, the forearm and the hand.

    :一, The Shoulder Girdle The shoulder girdle consist of the clavicle and the scapula.

1 The clavicle

    medial (or sternal) end

    lateral (or acromial) end

2 The scapula

    two surfaces ?

    anterior surface: subscapular fossa

    dorsal surface: spine of scapula

     acromion

    supraspinous fossa

    infraspinous fossa

    three borders (the medial, lateral and superior borders)

     superior border ? coracoid process

    three angles (the superior, inferior and lateral angles )

     lateral angle ? glenoid cavity

:二, The Bones of Free Upper Limb

    Those include the bone of upper arm (the humerus), the bones of forearm (the radius and

    ulna), and the bones of hand (the carpal bones, metacarpal bones and phalanges).

1 The humerus: a body (shaft) and two ends (extremities)

    The upper (proximal) end : head of humerus

    lateral ?greater tubercle

    anterior ?lesser tubercle

    surgical neck

    Body: deltoid tuberosity

    sulcus for radial nerve

    The lower end: lateral ? capitulum

    medial ?trochlea

    coronoid fossa

    olecranon fossa

    lateral and medial epicondyles

    sulcus for ulnar nerve.

2 The bones of forearm

1The radius

    The proximal end: a head, neck and tuberosity

    The shaft: interosseous border The distal end: styloid process

2The ulna

    The proximal end: olecranon

    coronoid process

    trochlear notch

    ulnar tuberosity

    The shaft: interosseous border The distal end: a head and a styloid process

    3 The bones of hand

     Which include three parts: the carpal bones, the metacarpal bones and phalanges

    1) The carpal bones (or the bones of the wrist)

    The proximal row? scaphoid, lunate, triquetral and pisiform bones

    The distal row :trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate bones

    2) The metacarpal bones

     a base, a shaft, and a head

    3) The phalanges

     They are long bones, and 14 in number, two for the thumb and three for each of other digits.

    二、The Bones of Lower Limb

    The free lower limb is divided into three segments, the thigh, the leg and the foot. :一, The Pelvic Girdle

     It is formed by two hip bones.The hip bone consists of three cqmponents: a superior ilium, an anteroinferior pubis, and a posteroinferior ischium.

    1 Hip bone: obturator foramen and acetabulum

    2 Formation :

    1) The ilium :

     a body

    a wing or ala :iliac crest ? anterior superior iliac spine

posterior superior iliac spine anterior inferior iliac spine posterior inferior iliac spine tubercle of

    iliac crest

    iliac fossa

    arcuate line

    2) The ischium : a body :ischial tuberosity

    a ramus:ischial spine

    lesser sciatic notch

    greater sciatic notch

    3) The pubis

    a body: iliopubic eminence

    Rami: inferior ramus

    superior ramus : pecten pubis

     pubic tubercle

:二, The Bones of Free Lower Limb

    1 The femur

    The upper end: a head a neck, and two trochanters

    The shaft: linea aspera gluteal tuberosity

     pectineal lin

    The lower end: medial condyle and lateral condyle

     medial and lateral epicondyles

     adductor tubercle

    2 The patella

    3 The tibia

    The upper end: medial and lateral condyles

    intercondylar eminence

    tibial tuberosity

    The shaft: soleal line interosseous border

    The lower end : medial malleolus fibular notch

    4 The fibula

    The upper end: a head and neck

    The shaft: interosseous border

    The lower end : lateral malleolus

     5 The bones of foot The bones of the foot has three parts: the tarsal bones, the metatarsal

    bones and the phalanges

    l) The tarsal bones

    proximal row: talus, calcaneus, navicular and cuboid

     distal row: medial, intermedial and lateral cuneiforms 2) The metatarsal bones

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