PART I THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
The locomotor system includes bones?joints and muscles?
Chapter 1 Osteology (Bone System)
Section 1 General Description 一、 Classification of Bones
According to their shape?four kinds of bones are classified?Those are long?short?flat and
1 Long Bones? a shaft or body and two ends or extremities
2 Short Bones
3 Flat Bones
4 Irregular Bones
In addiction, sesamoid bone.
二、 The Structure of Bones
Bones consist of bony substance, periosteum and bone marrow, and are abundant in blood
and nerve supply.
1 Bony Substance: the compact or dense bone and
the cancellous or spongy bone
3 Bone Marrow : the red marrow and the yellow marrow 4 The blood and nerve of bones
三、 The Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of Bones
The organic component ? resilience and toughness
The inorganic component ? hardness and rigidity
四、 The Functions of Bones
Section 2 The Bones of Trunk
The bones of trunk include the vertebrae, the sternum, and the ribs.
一、 The Vertebrae
number child adult
cervical vertebrae 7 7
thoracic vertebrae 12 12
lumbar vertebrae 5 5
sacral vertebrae 5 1
coccygeal vertebrae 3?4 1
：一， General Features of the Vertebrae
vertebral body ? vertebral foramen
vertebral arch ? pedicles and laminae
seven processes, viz.,
four articular and two transverse
processes and a spine
：二， The Main Characteristics of Vertebrae in Each Region
1 The cervical vertebrae (7 in number)
a. transverse foramen
except the first and the seventh， b. bifid spines ：
The first cervical vertebra known as the atlas.
The second cervical vertebra known as axis.
The seventh cervical vertebra known as vertebra prominens.
2 The thoracic vertebrae (12 in number)
a. costal facets (on each side of their bodies and on their transverse processes )
b. sloping caudaward spines
3 The lumbar vertebrae (5 in number) a. large body
b. horizontal quadrilateral spines 4 The sacrum
promontory 、sacral hiatus、 sacral cornua or horns 5 The coccyx
二、 The Ribs (Costae)
1 costal bone : head, neck and body ? costal groove 2 costal cartilage
三、 The Sternum
? sternal angle
Section 3 The Bones of Limbs
The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of upper limbs and the bones of the lower limbs.
一、 The Bones of Upper Limb
The bones of upper limb include shoulder girdle and the bones of free upper limb which are divided into three segments, the upper arm, the forearm and the hand.
：一， The Shoulder Girdle The shoulder girdle consist of the clavicle and the scapula.
1 The clavicle
medial (or sternal) end
lateral (or acromial) end
2 The scapula
two surfaces ?
anterior surface: subscapular fossa
dorsal surface: spine of scapula
three borders (the medial, lateral and superior borders)
superior border ? coracoid process
three angles (the superior, inferior and lateral angles )
lateral angle ? glenoid cavity
：二， The Bones of Free Upper Limb
Those include the bone of upper arm (the humerus), the bones of forearm (the radius and
ulna), and the bones of hand (the carpal bones, metacarpal bones and phalanges).
1 The humerus: a body (shaft) and two ends (extremities)
The upper (proximal) end : head of humerus
lateral ?greater tubercle
anterior ?lesser tubercle
Body: deltoid tuberosity
sulcus for radial nerve
The lower end: lateral ? capitulum
lateral and medial epicondyles
sulcus for ulnar nerve.
2 The bones of forearm
The proximal end: a head, neck and tuberosity
The shaft: interosseous border The distal end: styloid process
The proximal end: olecranon
The shaft: interosseous border The distal end: a head and a styloid process
3 The bones of hand
Which include three parts: the carpal bones, the metacarpal bones and phalanges
1) The carpal bones (or the bones of the wrist)
The proximal row? scaphoid, lunate, triquetral and pisiform bones
The distal row :trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate bones