The responsibility for the implementation and management of the Air Force SBIR program is with the Air force
SBIR program manager is Mr. James R. Meeker. Inquires of a general nature or where a problem may exist
requiring the AF SBIR program manager’s attention should be sent to:
Department of the Air Force
HQ AFSC/DLSR (Mr. J.R. Meeker)
Andrews AFB DC 20334-5000
Under no circumstance shall a SBIR proposal be submitted to the above.
Five (5) copies of each Phase I topic proposal shall be addressed to office as designated in the following:
AF87-001 thru AF87-020
Building 350, Room 428
Eglin AFB FL 32542-5000
AF87-021 thru AF87-027
Building 1099 Mail Stop 900
Arnold AFS TN 37389-5000
AF87-028 thru AF87-036
SBIR Program Manager
Hanscom AFB MA 01731-5000
AF87-037 thru AF87-065
(ATTN: Mr. B. M. Donovan)
Griffiss AFB NY 13441-5700
AF87-066 thru AF87-072
Tyndall AFB FL 32403
AF87-073 thru AF87-090
HQ Aerospace Medical Division
(ATTN: Ms. B. Williams)
Brooks AFB TX 78235-5000
AF87-091 thru AF87-108
Area ―B‖ Building 653 Room 406
Wright-Patterson AFB OH 78235-5000
AF87-109 thru AF87-123
Area ―B‖ Building 45 Room 149
Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-6553
AF87-124 thru AF87-139
Building 18A, Room A-103
Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-6563
AF87-140 thru AF87-157
Avionics Program Office
Building 22, Room S-110
Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-6543
AF87-158 thru AF87-159
Special Assistant for Program Coordination
Building 57/Bay 5
Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-6503
AF87-160 thru AF87-165
Director of Planning Strategy
Building 11A, Room 201
Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-6503
AF87-166 thru AF87-178
PO Box 92960
Los Angeles AFS CA 90009-2960
AF87-179 thru AF87-180
ATTN: Lt. Steele
Building 497, Room 205
Kirtland AFB NM 87117-6008
AF87-181 thru AF87-184
Building 1107, Room 229
Hanscom AFB MA 01731-5000
AF87-185 thru AF87-192
Building 8582, Room 12
Edwards AFB CA93523-5000
AF87-193 thru AF87-200
Building 413, Room 282
Kirtland AFB NM 87117-6008
AF87-201 thru AF87-240
Building 523, Room 302
Norton AFB CA 92409-6468
Building 410, Room A-113
Washington DC 20332-5000
AF87-001 TITLE: Armament Research
OBJECTIVE: To develop new and innovative ideas/concepts and analysis methodologies in the area of non-nuclear munitions and armaments.
DESCRIPTION: New and innovative ideas/concepts and analysis methodologies are desired in the area of non-nuclear munitions and armaments. These include explosives, energy sources and conversions, bombs, submunitions, warheads, fuses, dispensers, guns, rockets, ammunition feed systems, sensors and seekers, explosives, propellants, carriage and release equipment, aerodynamic and structural technologies, tactical missile guidance and control technologies, exterior ballistics, analysis, and lethality and vulnerability assessment techniques. Some examples of desired research are low drag/observable weapon airframes, conformal ejector racks, integrated fusing, millimeter wave seekers/sensors for midcourse and terminal guidance, heavy metal self-forging fragment warheads, heavy metal shaped charges, long rod penetrators, reactive fragment warheads, and Computational Fluid Dynamics.
AF87-002 TITLE: Bomb Terminal Guidance
OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and specifications of terminal seekers, their costs and applicable targets for future use with weapons equipped with low cost inertial guidance.
DESCRIPTION: The Air Force Armament Division (AD) is currently entering into a program to demonstrate low cost inertial guidance applied to unguided bombs. The accuracy on target of bombs equipped with this low cost inertial system is expected to be improved by an order of magnitude or better depending upon the launch conditions. The program is called the Inertial Guidance Technology Demonstration (IGTD).
For points targets or hard targets one still needs Precision Guided Munitions (PGMs). The accuracy of the IGTD weapon will allow the use of a small field of view, strap down terminal seeker permitting attack of a certain class of targets with very small CEPs. The seeker and associated electronics must be low cost in order to consider any future use.
AF87-003 TITLE: Microstrip Phased Array Millimeter Wave Radar Antenna
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of developing a micro strip phased array millimeter wave antenna.
DESCRIPTION: The Air Force is in need of ―Brilliant Weapon‖ radar guided missile technology for both air-to-
ground and air-to-air missiles. This entails the need for radar seekers that are small, low cost, lightweight, yet have a high power output. One of the components, which can advance the state-of-the-art in radar missile guidance technology, is in the area of the antenna. By using a phased array antenna the gimbal can be eliminated, thereby saving space and weight in the missile. Additionally, elimination of the gimbal reduces the hardware needed in front of the warhead, allowing the warhead to operate against the target with less obstructions, and making a micro strip antenna reduces the weight of the antenna itself.
This program will concentrate on the design of a phased-array antenna, as well as developing micro strip techniques. It should have a +20 degrees steering capability in azimuth with a scan rate of 40 degrees per second. It should be capable of handling 100 watts of output power. The antenna should be developed for a missile which has approximately 12-15 inch diameter body shell .
AF87-004 TITLE: Monopulse Optics for Radar
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of using optics to replace monopulse waveguide feed networks.
DESCRIPTION: The Air Force has a need for ―Brilliant Weapon‖ radar guided missiles for air-to-air and air-to-
ground applications. It is a major objective to make these radars more powerful, have greater target detection capability, operate in high clutter environment and yet be small and have low power requirements. This effort is to
take one aspect of the radar and attempt to microminiaturize it. When attempting to identify targets, the polarization of the return signal is invaluable. For tracking targets a radar must be able to determine the direction of the target relative to where the antenna is pointing. This can be done by several techniques. The most popular is monopulse where the angular error is obtained on the basis of a single pulse. However, the feed networks required for waveguide monopulse can be complicated, large and lossy, Using optics to miniaturize and simplify the waveguide network should reduce the losses and ease the complexity of the system.
This program shall investigate the potential of using optics to replace monopulse waveguide feed networks. A cluster of four feeds is necessary to obtain both elevation and azimuth error signals. It should be able to handle approximately 100 watts of transmit power through the sum channel. The optical monopulse system should provide high efficiency, compactness, be simple and lightweight, have low losses, provide low aperture blockage, and have excellent boresight stability independent of frequency. An additional area of interest is the separation of the polarization received signal. It should be constructed to handle millimeter wave frequencies.
AF87-005 TITLE: Real-Time Optical Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)/Computers
OBJECTIVE: To examine the capability of using real-time optical fast Fourier transform/computer for processing radar data such as that from synthetic aperture radar.
DESCRIPTION: There is a need in the Air Force for ―Brilliant Weapons‖ radar to guide missiles in both air-to-
ground and air-to-air applications. These radars must be powerful, yet small, compact, and lightweight. One aspect of the radar which can be redesigned to meet those requirements is to examine the capability of using real-time optical fast Fourier transform/computer for processing radar data such as that from synthetic aperture radar. This FFT/computer should provide high speed, high volume operation while keeping the processor small and lightweight. The signal processor should handle 20 million operations per second (MOPS) for the FFT and 50 million operations per second for image matching with a memory of 10 bits.
AF87-006 TITLE: Recrystallization of Nitroguanidine
OBJECTIVE: To investigate methods of recrystalization of standard low bulk density nitroguanidine into large cubical or spherical shaped particles suitable for use in insensitive castable formulations.
DESCRIPTION: The Air Force is interested in developing an insensitive explosive to replace the current explosive used in MK80 series general purpose bombs. Utilitizing an explosive that is less sensitive to shock and thermal stimuli will increase operational readiness by allowing more munitions to be stored in existing facilities. Nitroguanidine holds great promise as an ingredient in insensitive explosive formulations. Formulations being investigated utilize high bulk density (greater than 0.9 grams/cc) nitroguanidine and other solid ingredients with minimum amount of liquid binder to obtain a pourable mixture. Due to high solids content (84%-86%), the relative sizes and shapes of the solid particles and critical in obtaining a pourable mixture. Current facilities produce high bulk density nitroguanidine crystalic that are small (les than 100 micron) and needle shaped. This type of nitroguanidine is unsuitable solids insensitive for use in high-particles that have an average particle diameter of 400-600 microns are needed for use in insensitive castable formulations.
The program will concentrate on continuous methods that are feasible for scale-up to production requirements (about 10 million pounds per year).
AF87-007 TITLE: Correlation of Small Scale Tests for Explosive Sensitivity and Performance to the Full
OBJECTIVE: To develop better small scale correlation of explosive sensitivity and performance tests to eliminate costly large scale testing.
DESCRIPTION: The current process of developing a new explosive formulation involves many small scale screening tests which do not translate or correlate to the all up full scale munition. This could be due to mass, confinement and critical diameter. Improved methodology is needed in small scale testing to improve correlation with large scale testing and screening capability.
AF87-008 TITLE: Concepts for Advanced Weapon Suspension Devices
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this program is to develop advanced weapon suspension devices that do not protrude into the airstreams after the weapons have been released fro the aircraft.
DESCRIPTION: Weapons are currently attached to aircraft with suspension devices. There are two general categories of these suspension devices, bomb lugs and missile hangers. Both are attached to and extend from the surface of the weapon to the aircraft. When the weapon is released from the aircraft, the free flight. Your advanced standoff weapons and missiles, this degradation in unacceptable.
Contractor developed advanced weapon suspension devices should not protrude into the airstreams after the weapons have been released from the aircraft and these devices should be compatible with or readily adaptable for use with existing bomb racks and missile launchers.
AF87-009 TITLE: Precision Tracking Platform for Portable Time, Space, Position Information (TSPI)
OBJECTIVE: To develop a highly portable radar tracker capability which utilities Global Position System (GPS) capabilities, celestial navigation, or any other physical phenomena to make real-time platform data corrections.
DESCRIPTION: With the increased sophistication of guided weapon systems under development, requirements to crack these weapons at lower altitudes and with better accuracies are exceeding the capabilities of our fixed based precision trackers. Most precision tracking systems are fixed based radar systems with coverage over specific ranges and above specified altitudes. A need exists to develop a technique by which a portable, medium precision tracking system can be used to provide high precision data in range and angles. With the ability to locate the radar system close to the coverage zone, the radar system will not require high transmitted power or contain a highly accurate angle tracking system. With current electronics and additional inputs such as Global Position System (GPS) and celestial navigation, a system could be designed to provide real-time correction to the tracking platform data for increased accuracy.
AF87-010 TITLE: Lightweight Composite Gun Barrels
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this program is to identify and analyze possible composite materials for application to aircraft gun barrels and to design, fabricate, and test a lightweight composite gun tube.
DESCRIPTION: Advancements in materials have extended their possible application to modern rapid fire aircraft guns. Of particular interest is the development of a lightweight composite gun barrel that will withstand the internal ballistic cycle of 20-30mm aircraft guns. Rapid fire weapons produce temperatures in the 1600F-1800F range and pressures up to 70,000 PSI during a single shot cycle less than 5 milliseconds in duration. Larger bore, lower pressure rocket launchers and 105mm composite gun tubes have been developed and successfully produced. Smaller bore composite gun tubes have been demonstrated but not successfully produced. Smaller bore composite gun tubes have been demonstrated but not successfully tested at operational temperatures and pressures. Thirty millimeter gun tubes made by wrapping a steel liner with wire reinforced composite have been fabricated. The next step in advancing the state-of-the-art in aircraft gun tubes is an all composite, lightweight (i.e., approximately half of the current production weight) tube, capable of withstanding the operational environment.
AF87-011 TITLE: Portable High Explosive Pressure Transducer Calibration
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this program will be to investigate mechanical, hydraulic, or pneumatic devices capable of generating pressure pulses up to 200 psi with rise times of less than 25 microseconds, with an accuracy of one percent or less.
DESCRIPTION: The measurement of tree air high explosive pressure waves is an important part of the development of new non-nuclear weaponry. The calibration of a high explosive pressure transducer is the key to accurate data and presently is a major weak link in the measurement of high explosive phenomena. The present calibration procedure is to use various means of quick opening valves, drop ball devices and vibration type calibrators. All simulated high explosive pressure pulse.
This program shall investigate mechanical, hydraulic, or pneumatic devices capable of generating pressure pulses up to 200 psi with rise times of less than 25 microseconds, with an accuracy of one percent or less. The pressure pulse generator must be portable, with a minimum of ancillary equipment and must be designed for a one or two-man operation.
AF87-012 TITLE: Development of Explosive Technology for Preferred Path of Detonability Warheads
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this effort is to determine the feasibility of and techniques for locally altering the sensitivity of the parent explosive of a warhead.
DESCRIPTION: Current and developmental non-unitary and directional warheads require complex and costly multipoint initiation systems such as explosive hydra networks to produce plane wave detonation systems typically require the inclusion of non-reactive inert materials and a variety of explosive types to accomplish the desired or preferred path of detonation through the warhead fill. By removing the need for non-reactive materials and simplifying the initiation system to a single point system these warheads could be made more efficient and less costly with identical effects on fusing system cost and complexity.
This effort shall determine the feasibility of and techniques for locally altering the sensitivity of the parent explosive of a warhead, including Insensitive High Explosive (IHE), along specific paths from a single initiation point such that detonation fronts are propagated along these paths to the desired main full detonation sites without initiating the main fill in the process. A direct analog is the doping and alteration of the electrical characteristics of silicon substrates for integrated circuits. Alteration of the parent explosive by implanting analogs to those for integrated circuits (Ics) will be explored as well as more obvious mechanical techniques wherein the preferred paths are molded or machined into the parent explosive and then filled with a suitably modified form of the parent explosive.
AF87-013 TITLE: New High Energy Storage devices for Inline and Electronic Fuses
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this effort is to identify and investigate non-capacitive technologies for storage of electrical energy in Air Force fuses.
DESCRIPTION: Current inventory and development electronic fuses use electrical energy from environmental devices such as ram air turbine generators. In some cases the electrical energy is provided to the fuse via an umbilical to the aircraft during the initial motion following release. In all cases the electrical energy must be stored after generation for use by logic circuits and safe, arm and fire mechanisms. Typically the energy is stored in a capacitor of some description or in an inductor then drawn off the fuse mechanism to operate its circuits. When the target is detected, energy is used to initiate the explosive train by setting off an electrical detonator. With the advent of more and more complex fuses, which require the stored energy to last for long flight times or to survive severe impacts or power high drain electronic devices, the demands placed on current capacitor technology have exceeded its capabilities. Generation of sufficient electrical energy for fusing requirements is not a problem, but storing that energy at a sufficiently high density, in a small enough volume and with high enough efficiency of extraction is a notable problem. Efforts to advance the state-of-the-art for capacitive devices are already underway. The intent of this effort is to explore alternatives to capacities for storage of electrical energy in fuses.
This effort shall identify and investigate non-capacitive technologies for storage of electrical energy in Air Force fuses. Critical factors are: 1) small size, 2) high energy density, 3) high (1500 volts) and low voltage capabilities, 4) impact survivability, 5) maximum discharge rates compatible with slapper detonator technology, 6) high energy capacity (several joules), required to advance these technologies shall be assessed.
AF87-014 TITLE: Low Cost Recyclable High Voltage Switch
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this effort is to investigate recyclable low cost switching techniques.
DESCRIPTION: In-line fuse firing systems under development by the AIR Force utilize a solid dielectric explosively activated switch as the primary candidate for slapper detonator triggering. This technology has been explored extensively and has proven advantages for many weapon applications. However, an alternative approach is desired especially for applications where high shock survivability is not required. The explosive switch is not recyclable, limiting the testability/reliability of the total fusing system. It is highly desirable to eliminate such explosive components housed with testable components (electronics, etc.). The explosive switch is the only component that now prevents the development of a totally testable fuse electronic subsystem.
This effort shall investigate recycable low cost switching techniques. The switch must have a short function delay (100 nanoseconds or less) for a 2000 volt firing system voltage. It is highly desirable to eliminate such explosive components housed with testable components (electronics, etc.). The explosive switch is the only component that now prevents the development of a totally testable fuze electronic subsystem.
This effort shall investigate recyclable low cost switching techniques. The switch must have a short function delay (100 nanoseconds or less) for a 2000 volt firing system voltage. It is preferred that the switch be capable of manufacture using semiconductor micromachining technology.
AF87-015 TITLE: Conversion of Stored Chemical Energy to ElectroMagnetic Energy
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this program will be to investigate concepts of converting chemical energy into electromagnetic energy.
DESCRIPTION: Because of current trends of targets of interest, there is a need for unique and innovative methods of energy partitioning and enhancement of target coupling techniques. Maximizing the efficiency in the conversion of chemical energy into various forms of electromagnetic energy is of interest.
AF87-016 TITLE: Non-acceleration Techniques for Determining Rigid Body Motion of Penetrating
Weapons in High Shock Environments
OBJECTIVE: The objective or this effort is to develop and evaluate at least one new device for measuring the rigid body motion of penetrating weapons in real time.
DESCRIPTION: Current Air Force development efforts for ―smart‖ fuses for penetrating weapons rely upon electronic accelerometers using piezo effects to gather real-time data on the rigid body motion of penetrating weapons for burst point control. These accelerometers, be they normal instrument type or solid state, have operating features which severely complicate the processing of data by fuse logic to determine distance, velocity and acceleration changes in the weapon caused by target features. Severe difficulties arise when trying to discriminate between the actual low frequency rigid body accelerations which are reflective of projectile motion within the target and the higher frequency body responses indicative of body ringing caused by short shock pulses of high amplitude. Added to this problem is the difficulty in identifying and rejecting or accounting for apparent motion data caused by the elastic/plastic responses of the penetrator such as bending and the off-axis components of motion resulting from unpredicted angles of attack, etc. A new device capable of providing real-time motion data to a ―smart‖ fuse under
conditions of high shock is needed. This effort shall find or develop and evaluate at least one new device for
measuring the rigid body motion of penetrating weapons in real time. Potential viable technologies will be identified and the effort required to advance them to practice will be determined.
AF87-017 TITLE: Advanced Radiographic Techniques and Applications
OBJECTIVE: This effort is to advance in the area of radiography as an analytical tool.
DESCRIPTION: This requirement is for advances in the area of radiographic instrumentation for diagnosis of high explosive dynamics and terminal effects of high velocity projectiles. Specific topics of interest include multiple pulsed flash x-ray sources; large format, high resolution x-ray imaging detectors; high resolution, small aperture sources; multispectral radiographic sources; and tomographic signal processing for flash radiography. Also of interest is radiographic electronic data reduction for density, volumetric measurement, velocity, fragment size, frame-to-frame correlation and other image reduction techniques.
This effort is to improve the productivity of advanced development and test programs, to provide time resolved multiple exposure images of terminal/in bore hypervelocity projectiles, automate and standardize reduction of radiographic imagery and to advance the utility of radiography as an analytical tool.
AF87-018 TITLE: Feasublity Study of Pre-Impact Target mapping for Air Force Penetrating Weapons
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this effort is to study the feasibility of providing the current and planned Air Force hard target weapons with a pre-impact target mapping capability.
DESCRIPTION: Current Air Force weapon development programs include the development of penetrating weapons capable of defeating hardened underground structures and facilities. The capability of physically penetrating a given target has been achieved as well as a degree of post impact burst point control by monitoring the rigid body motion of the penetrator in real time. In spite of these achievements the effectiveness of the weapons is limited by the degree to which the impact parameters can be controlled and the extent of pre-encounter target knowledge. The effect of target variability on weapon effectiveness is substantial in that the post impact path of the weapon can become unpredictable (making current burst point control mechanisms useless), and the placement of critical components within a complex target is easily varied. A method for determining the position and structural detail of the target immediately prior to impact is required. Given this real-time intelligence the existing burst-point control mechanisms can be enhanced to provide an optimized burst point irrespective of target variability. This effort shall carry out a study wherein the feasibility of providing the current and planned Air Force hard target weapons with a pre-impact target mapping capability is determined. Millimeter wave technology holds some promise of providing this capability but may not be the only avenue to purse. This effort will determine the feasibility of pre-impact target mapping and identify the technologies requiring further development to achieve this goal.
AF87-019 TITLE: Application of Artificial Intelligence to Target Vulnerability Assessments
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this effort is to develop Artificial Intelligence techniques for target vulnerability assessment methodologies.
DESCRIPTION: The assessment of the vulnerability of targets to conventional weapon kill mechanisms has evolved over three years to an empirical science. Major methodology development efforts have been directed toward developing analytical tools and techniques for predicting the target component damage resulting from the kill mechanism/target component interaction. These efforts have resulted in several models, one of which is the Pointburst Damage Assessment Method (PDAM), used largely in the vulnerability assessment of armor targets. These analytical models and algorithms, used to estimate vulnerability, rely on an experimental database to make realistic estimates of actual damage achieved. Frequently, there is a data base deficiency from which to make vulnerability assessments; thus the vulnerability analyst is asked to use expert opinion in employing the methods of assessments. Artificial Intelligence (AI) advancements have resulted in capabilities to substantiate machine
intelligence for human decision-making. There appear to be applications of AI to vulnerability methodology that may improve assessments.
This effort shall developed Artificial Intelligence techniques for target vulnerability assessment methodologies. Specific comparisons of these new techniques to existing methods are required. As the results of this effort will be used by vulnerability analysts, emphasis must be placed on clear communications. Reliance on Artificial Intelligence jargon should be minimized.
AF87-020 TITLE: Variable Configuration E/O Simulator Development
OBJECTIVE: This effort would define concepts and fabricate prototypes of modular simulators which could be used for the performance testing of optical threats in the 532 Nanometer to 14 micrometer region.
DESCRIPTION: Research and development is required for variable cross section electro-optical simulators to provide an analytical resource for the testing of various electro-optical threat/countermeasures systems. This effort would define concepts and fabricate prototypes of modular simulator which can be used for the performance testing of optical threats in the 532 Nanometer to 14 micrometer region. Parameters to be simulated include entrance aperture, number of reflecting or transmissive components, exit pupil, focal length and number of focal planes. Parameters to be measured include spectral power density, pulse duration, interpulse period, wave front distortion and percent of time on target. The simulator will also be utilized to present a typical threat system cross section to a countermeasure system under test. This effort will also define operational techniques for effective use of the simulator including remote operation, and pointing at and tracking of the threat source.
AF87-021 TITLE: Cryogenic radiation Monitoring Microscope
OBJECTIVE: Develop a cryogenic radiation monitoring microscope as a diagnostic instrument to evaluate cryogenic arrays when they are produced.
DESCRIPTION: The demand for a cold background, IR scene generator has led to several developmental programs to produce cryogenic arrays which have elements which can be selectively heated. A cryogenic radiation monitoring microscope is needed as a diagnostic instrument to evaluate these arrays when they are produced. The microscope would have to operate at cyrogenic temperatures and under vacuum conditions in order to reduce its own radiation loads. It would require all reflective optics to cover the wavelength range from 1-25 micrometer and would need a mechanism to remotely select bandpass filters. The system would have a scanning capability over the surface in 0.1 mil steps.
The detector in the instrument should have sufficient sensitivity throughout the wavelengths of interest to detect features ranging in temperature from 1500K to 20.
AF87-022 Title: Dynamic Pressure Response Calibrator
OBJECTIVE: Develop an improved dynamic pressure calibrator.
DESCRIPTION: Dynamic pressure measurements, made in support of turbine engine and rocket propulsion testing, require use of complex transducer/tubing configurations. Analytical estimates of system frequency response need to be verified experimentally. Current devices for determining the frequency response characteristics are often limited in amplitude range, bandwidth, etc. An improved dynamic pressure calibrator is needed. The operating frequency range should be 2 to 500 Hz with the output amplitude flat within +0.5 dB over this range. Absolute amplitude accuracy is of secondary importance but should be within +1dB. The output level should be selectable from 1 x 103 to 1 psi rms, The output waveform options to include sinewave and random is highly desirable. External volumes up to 10in and tubing diameters up to ? ― ID must be accommodated. Means for measuring the generated pressure levels and signal phase during operations must be included.