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examda2008022812233706827

    考试大:英语专业八级全真模拟冲刺卷,1

    TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS

    GRADE EIGHT

     TIME LIMIT: 195 MIN PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION (35 MIN)

SECTION A MINI-LECTURE

    In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after a mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your note, and another ten minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.

SECTION B INTERVIEW

    In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on you colored answer sheet.

    Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the interview.

    1. Which of the following is NOT among the criteria of the 100 most powerful women in the world? A. the amount of money they control

    B. their previous jobs

    C. their public profile

    D. their attitude toward the press

    2. Who is an unpredictable candidate among the women of this year?

    A. Angela Merkel B. Condoleezza Rice

    C. Angela Ahrendts D. Rose Marie Bravo

    3. The Chileans felt _________ when they saw Michelle Bachelet on this list.

    A. angry B. excited

    C. indifferent D. surprised

    4. Which of the following statement is true about Margaret Whitman?

    A. She’s one of the richest women in the world.

    B. She’s a founder of eBay.

    C. She helped build eBay into the second most successful companies on the Internet. D. She’s at No. 20 on the list of the 100 most powerful women in the world.

    5. Which of the following reasons CANNOT explain why Meredith Vieira was on the list of the 100 most powerful women in the world?

    A. Because she’s going to be taking the role of the Today Show from Wednesday.

    B. Because she’s accomplished a lot over the course of her many years in this profession.

    C. Because she’s going to be so influential in what she does.

    D. Because she is an award-winning newswoman, and she’s spent nine years on the View.

SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST

    In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that

    follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your colored answer sheet.

    Question 6 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to

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answer the question. Now listen to the news.

    6. What is the public reaction towards the news that a vaccine against cervical cancer is to be put on the market? A. Surprised. B. Indifferent. C. Suspicious. D. Excited.

    Question 7 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.

    7. The news is mainly about ________.

    A. the history of Germans in the World Cup Football Championships

    B. the performance of the teams in the World Cup Football Championship

    C. the victory of the host nation in the beginning

    D. the response of the football fans

    Questions 8 and 9 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the two questions. Now listen to the news.

    8. The Palestinian militant group Hamas announced its threat to restart attacks on Israel ________. A. on newspaper B. on TV

    C. through Internet D. by radio

    9. Hamas has threatened to restart attacks on Israel because ______?

    A. it took power in parliamentary elections in January

    B. it has felt compelled to react to what it regards as a massacre of innocent Palestinian civilians C. it has killed hundreds of Israelis in suicide bombings and other attacks in past years. D. it has been under pressure enforced by the international community.

    Question 10 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.

    10. Which group is NOT mentioned by Annan as one most at risk from AIDS?

    A. homosexuals B. prostitutes

    C. drug users D. conservatives

PART II READING COMPREHENSION (30 MIN)

    In this section there are several reading passage followed by a total of twenty multiple-choice questions. Read the passage and then mark your answers on your answer sheet.

    TEXT A

    Manners nowadays in metropolitan cities like London are practically non-existent. It is nothing for a big, strong schoolboy to elbow an elderly woman aside in the dash for the last remaining seat on the tube or bus, much less stand up and offer his seat to her, as he ought to. In fact, it is saddening to note that if a man does offer his seat to an older woman, it is nearly a Continental man or one from the older generation.

    This question of giving up seats in public transport is much argued about by young men, who say that, since women have claimed equality, they no longer deserve to be treated with courtesy and that those who go out to work should take their turn in the rat race like anyone else. Women have never claimed to be physically as strong as men. Even if it is not agreed, however, that young men should stand up for younger women, the fact remains that courtesy should be shown to the old, the sick and the burdened. Are we really so lost to all ideals of unselfishness that we can sit there indifferently reading the paper or a book, saying to ourselves “First come, first served,” while a gray-haired woman, a mother with a young child or a cripple stands? Yet this is all too often seen.

    Conditions in travel are really very hard on everyone, we know, but hardship is surely no excuse. Sometimes one wonders what would have been the behavior of these stout young men in a packed refugee train on its way to a prison-camp during the War. Would they have considered it only right and their proper due to keep the best

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places for themselves then?

    Older people, tired and irritable from a day’s work, are not angle, either — far from it. Many a brisk

    argument or an insulting quarrel breaks out as the weary queues push and shove each other to get on buses and tubes. One cannot commend this, of course, but one does feel there is just a little more excuse.

    If cities are to remain pleasant places to live in, however, it seems imperative, not only that communications in transport should be improved, but also that communication between human beings should be kept smooth and polite. All over cities, it seems that people are too tired and too rushed to be polite. Shop assistant won’t bother to

    assist, taxi-drivers growl at each other as they dash dangerously round corners, bus conductors pull the bell before their desperate passengers have had time to get on or off the bus, and so on and so on. It seems to us that it is up to the young and strong to do their small part to stop such deterioration.

    11. From what you have read, would you expect manners to improve among people ____?

    A. who are physically weak or crippled

    B. who once lived in a prison-camp during the War

    C. who live in big modern cities

    D. who live only in metropolitan cities

    12. What is the writer’s opinion concerning courteous manners towards women?

    A. Now that women have claimed equality, they no longer need to be treated differently from men.

    B. It is generally considered old-fashioned for young men to give up their seats to young women .

    C. “Ladies first” should be universally practiced.

    D. Special consideration ought to be shown to them.

    13. What does the author try to convey by giving the example of stout young men in a packed refugee train during

    the War?

    A. Young men do not need to consider their behaviour during War time.

    B. Young men need to care more about themselves during War time.

    C. Conditions in travel are really very hard during War time.

    D. Young men should not use hardship as an excuse for their bad behaviour.

    14. According to the author, communication between human beings would be smoother if ____.

    A. people were more considerate towards each other

    B. people were not so tired and irritable

    C. women were treated with more courtesy

    D. public transport could be improved

    15. What is the possible meaning of the word “deterioration” in the last paragraph?

    A. worsening of general situation

    B. lowering of moral standards

    C. declining of physical constitution

    D. spreading of evil conduct

    TEXT B

    It was eleven oclock that night when Mr. Pontellier returned from Kleins hotel. He was in an excellent

    humor, in high spirits, and very talkative. His entrance awoke his wife, who was in bed and fast asleep when he came in. He talked to her while he undressed, telling her anecdotes and bits of news and gossip that he had gathered during the day. From his trousers pockets he took a fistful of crumpled bank notes and a good deal of silver coin, which he piled on the bureau indiscriminately with keys, knife, handkerchief, and whatever else happened to be in his pockets, she was overcome with sleep, and answered him with little half utterances.

    He thought it very discouraging that his wife, who was the sole object of his existence, evinced so little interest in things which concerned him, and valued so little his conversation.

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    Mr. Pontellier had forgotten the bonbons and peanuts for the boys. Notwithstanding he loved them very much, and went into the adjoining room where they were resting comfortably. The result of his investigation was far from satisfactory. He turned and shifted the youngsters about in bed. One of them began to kick and talk about a basket full of crabs.

    Mr. Pontellier returned to his wife with the information that Raoul had a high fever and needed looking after. Then he lit a cigar and went and sat near the open door to smoke it.

    Mrs. Pontellier was quite sure Raoul had no fever. He had gone to bed perfectly well, she said, and nothing had ailed him all day. Mr. Pontellier was too will acquainted with fever symptoms to be mistaken. He assured her the child was consuming at that moment in the next room.

    He reproached his wife with her inattention, her habitual neglect of the children. If it was not a mothers

    place to look after children, whose on earth was it? He himself had his hands full with his brokerage business. He could not be in two places at once; making a living for his family on the street, and staying at home to see that no harm befell them. He talked in a monotonous, insistent way.

    Mrs. Pontellier sprang out of bed and went into the next room. She soon came back and sat on the edge of the bed, leaning her head down on the pillow. She said nothing, and refused to answer her husband when he questioned her. When his cigar was smoked out he went to bed, and in half a minute he was fast asleep.

    Mrs. Pontellier was by that time thoroughly awake. She began to cry a little, and wiped her eyes on the sleeve of her peignoir. Blowing out the candle, which her husband had left burning, she slipped her bare feet into a pair of satin mules at the foot of the bed and went out on the porch, where she sat down in the wicker chair and began to rock gently to and fro.

    It was then past midnight. The cottages were all dark. A single faint light gleamed out from the hallway of the house. There was no sound abroad except the hooting of an old owl in the top of a water-oak, and the everlasting voice of the sea, that was not uplifted at that soft hour. It broke like a mournful lullaby upon the night.

    The tears came so fast to Mrs. Pontelliers eyes that the damp sleeve of her peignoir no longer served to dry

    them. She was holding the back of her chair with one hand; her loose sleeve had slipped almost to the shoulder of her uplifted arm. Turning, she thrust her face, steaming and wet, into the bend of her arm, and she went on crying there, not caring any longer to dry her face, her eyes, her arms. She could not have told why she was crying. Such experiences as the foregoing were not uncommon in her married life. They seemed never before to have to have weighed much against the abundance of her husbands kindness and a uniform devotion which had come to be

    tacit and self-understood.

    An indescribable oppression, which seemed to generate in some unfamiliar part of her consciousness, filled her whole being with a vague anguish. It was like a shadow, like a mist passing across her souls summer day. It

    was strange and unfamiliar; it was a mood. She did not sit there inwardly upbraiding her husband, lamenting at Fate, which had directed her footsteps to the path which they had taken. She was just having a good cry all to herself. The mosquitoes made merry over her, biting her firm, round arms and nipping at her bare insteps.

    The little stinging, buzzing imps succeeded in dispelling a mood which might have held her there in the darkness half a night longer.

16. Mr. Pontellier came back in a/an ____________ state of mind.

    A. excited B. exasperated C. depressed D. dejected

    17. Mr. Pontellier felt extremely frustrated because ________________.

    A. his wife overslept

    B. his wife greeted late

    C. his wife was indifferent to his talk

    D. his wife showed too much interest in his talk

    18. Mr. Pontellier scolded his wife for _____________________.

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    A. she neglected their children

    B. she abused their children

    C. she seldom played with them

    D. she failed to clean the room their children slept in

    19. Mrs. Pontellier cried _______________ after she was reproached by her husband.

    A. little B. a lot C. moderately D. controllably

    20. Mrs. Pontellier was seized by a sense of _______________ after she awoke at midnight.

    A. joy B. hostility C. depression D. tolerance

    TEXT C

    Teachers and other specialists in early childhood education recognize that children develop at different rates. Given anything that resembles a well-rounded life with adults and other children to listen to, talk to, do things

    with their minds will acquire naturally all the skills required for further learning.

    Take for example, reading. The two strongest predictors of whether children will learn to read easily and well at school are whether they have learned the names and the sounds of letters of the alphabet before they start school. That may seem to imply that letter names and sounds should be deliberately taught to young children, because these skills will not happen naturally.

    But in all the research programs where they have done just that instructed children, rehearsed the names

    and sounds over and over the results are disappointing. The widely accepted explanation is that knowledge of the alphabet for it to work in helping one to read, has to be deeply embedded in the child's mind. That comes from years of exposure and familiarity with letters, from being read to, from playing with magnetic letters, drawing and fiddling with computers.

    So parents can do some things to help, although many do these things spontaneously. Instead of reading a story straight through, the reader should pause every so often and ask questions but not questions which can be answered by a yes or no. Extend their answers, suggest alternative possibilities and pose progressively more challenging questions.

    And with arithmetic do not explicitly sit down and teach children about numbers, but all though those early years count when walking up steps. Recite nursery rhymes. Talk to children. Say this is a red apple, that is a green one. Please get three eggs out of the fridge for me

    The technical term in vogue for this subtle structuring of children's early learning is "scaffolding". Based on recent extensions of the work of the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky the idea is that there ate things a child may be almost ready to do. Anna, for example, cannot tie a shoelace by herself, but if an adult or a competent child forms one of the loops for her, she will soon learn to do the rest. Applying this concept to older children, one wonderful teacher has her children keep lists of "Words 1 can Almost Spell".

    While this has all the hallmarks of common sense, it represents a significant change of emphasis from the idea of Piaget, which have dominated the theory of early childhood learning. the child in Piaget's theory looks, more than anything, like a little scientist exploring the environment, observing, experimenting, thinking and

    slowly coming to his or her conclusions about how the world works. The image is of a rather solitary pursuit with all the real action in the child's head.

    The Vygotsky model re-introduces all the people who also inhabit the child's world parents, care-givers,

    relatives, siblings and all those other children at play or school. They are not simply noise, clattering in the background while the child's developing mind struggles on its own. The cognitive development of the child, that is, the learning of colors or numbers or letters depends on learning how to interact socially, how to learn from

    the people (as well as the things) in the environment.

    What is important is that the child develops the range of social skills being able to express a preference,

    knowing how to take rums, being able to stand up for themselves. being able to get into a group, being able to make decisions, being able to share, having confidence to go off on their own. These all require careful nurturing.

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No one is telling parents not to think about their children's development

    It is just that it is more important to think about a child's desire to chat and the importance of social behavior and play activity, than the actually more trivial markers of intellectual achievement such as being the first kid in the group to cut a circle that looks like a circle.

    21. When children begin their schooling, they will learn to read quickly if previously .

    A. letter names and sounds are deliberately taught to them.

    B. parents read stories very often without frustrating the children with questions.

    C. they have never learned letters.

    D. they play with letters unconsciously.

    22. The word scaffolding in the sixth paragraph indicates according to the context.

    A. framework B. stage C. capital punishment D. scathing

    23. When the writer discusses Piagets theory, .

    A. he is in favour of it.

    B. he is critical of it.

    C. his view is balanced.

    D. he strongly despises it.

    24. Vygotskys theory is different from Piagets in that the former more emphasizes on the childs .

    A. exploration B. achievement C. interaction D. nurturing

    25. Which is the best title of the passage?

    A. Vygotskys Theory B. Good Qualities in a Student

    C. Children Develop Differently D. How to Raise a Bright Child

    TEXT D

    With its common interest in lawbreaking but its immense range of subject matter and widely-varying methods of treatment, the crime novel could make a legitimate claim to be regarded as a separate branch of literature, or, at least, as a distinct, even though a slightly disreputable, offshoot of the traditional novel.

    The detective story is probably the most respectable (at any rate in the narrow sense of the word) of the crime species. Its creation is often the relaxation of university teachers, literary economists, scientists or even poets. Fatalities may occur more frequently and mysteriously than might be expected in polite society, but the world in which they happen, the village, seaside resort, college or studio, is familiar to us, if not from our own experience, at least in the newspaper or the lives of friends. The characters, though normally realized superficially, are as recognizably human and consistent as our less intimate associates. A story set in a more remote environment, African jungle, or Australian bush, ancient China or gas-lit London, appeals to our interest in geography or history, and most detective story writers are conscientious in providing a reasonably authentic background. The elaborate, carefully assembled plot, despised by the modern intellectual critics and creators of significant novels, has found refuge in the murder mystery, with its sprinkling of clues, its spicing with apparent impossibilities, all with appropriate solutions and explanations at the end. With the guilt of escapism from Real Life nagging gently, we secretly revel in the unmasking of evil by a vaguely super-human detective, who sees through and dispels the cloud of suspicion which has hovered so unjustly over the innocent.

    Though its villain also receives his rightful deserts, the thriller presents a less comfortable and credible world. The sequence of fist fights, revolver duels, car crashes and escapes from gas-filled cellars exhausts the reader far more than the hero, who, suffering from at least two broken ribs, one black eye, uncountable bruises and a hangover, can still chase and overpower an armed villain with the physique of a wrestler. He moves dangerously through a world of ruthless gangs, brutality, a vicious lust for power and money and, in contrast to the detective tale, with a near-omniscient arch-criminal whose defeat seems almost accidental. Perhaps we miss in the thriller the security of being safely led by our imperturbable investigator past a score of red herrings and blind avenues to a final gathering of suspects when an unchallengeable elucidation of all that has bewildered us is given and

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justice and goodness prevail. All that we vainly hope for from life is granted vicariously.

    26. The crime novel may be regarded as .

    A. a not quite respectable form of the conventional novel

    B. not a true novel at all

    C. related in some ways to the historical novel

    D. an independent development of the novel

    27. The text suggests that intellectuals write detective stories because .

    A. the stories are often in fact very instructive

    B. they enjoy writing these stories

    C. the creation of these stories demands considerable intelligence

    D. detective stories are an accepted branch of literature 28. What feature of the detective story is said to disqualify it from respectful consideration by intellectual critics?

    A. The many seeming impossible events.

    B. The fact that the guilty are always found out and the innocent cleared.

    C. The existence of a neat closely-knit story.

    D. The lack of interest in genuine character revelations. 29. One of the most incredible characteristics of the hero of a thriller is .

    A. his exciting life

    B. his amazing toughness

    C. his ability to escape from dangerous situations

    D. the way he deals with his enemies

    30. In what way are the detective story and thriller unlike?

    A. In introducing violence.

    B. In providing excitement and suspense.

    C. In appealing to the intellectual curiosity of the reader.

    D. In ensuring that everything comes right in the end.

PART III GENERAL KNOWLEDGE (10 MIN)

    There are ten multiple-choice questions in this section. Choose the best answer to each question. Mark

    your answers on your answer sheet.

    31. ______________ is William Shakespeares hometown.

    A. Canterbury B. Stratford-on-Avon C. Liverpool D. London 32. Tower of London used to be a ___________________.

    A. supermarket B. park C. prison D. garden

    33. Kangaroo means _______________ in the native language of Aborigines.

    A. I know B. I love C. I dont know D. Run

    34. The native people of New Zealand are _______________.

    A. Maoris B. Indians C. Aborigines D. Celts

    35. The allusion A Pound of Flesh comes from Shakespeares _____________.

    A. Hamlet B. The Merchant of Venice C. King Lear D. Othello

    36. The name Heathcliff probably appears in ______________.

    A. Tess B. Wuthering Heights C. Bleak House D. Jane Eyre

    37. American Transcendentalism attaches great importance to ______________.

    A. Inspiration B. Imagination C. Intuition D. Reason 38. The minimal phonological unit is ____________________.

    A. phoneme B. morpheme C. root D. syllable

    39. ______________ proposed TG grammar.

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    A. Hymes B. Chomsky C. Halliday D. Saussure

    40. ________________ is the scientific study of the internal structure of words and of the rules by which words

    are formed.

    A. Semantics B. Syntax C. Pragmatics D. Morphology

PART IV PROOFREADING& ERROR CORRECTION (15 MIN)

    Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.

PART V TRANSLATION (60 MIN)

    SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH

    Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

    我常常听人说,他想读一点书,苦于没有时间。我不太同意这种说法。不管他是多么忙,他总不至于

    忙得一点时间都抽不出来。一天当中如果抽出一小时来读书,一年就有365小时,十年就有3650小时,积

    少成多,无论什么研究都会有惊人的成绩。零碎的时间最可宝贵,但也最容易丢弃。我记得陆放翁有两句

    诗(“呼僮不应自升火,待饭未来还读书。”这两句诗给我的印象很深。待饭未来的时候是颇难熬的,用

    来读书岂不甚妙;我们的时间往往于不知不觉中被荒废掉。例如,现在距开会还有50分钟,于是什么事都

    不做了,磨磨蹭蹭,50分钟便打发掉了。如果用这时间读几页书,岂不较为受用。

SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

    Translate the underlined part of the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

    I find it wholesome to be alone the greater part of the time. Being in company, even with the best, is soon wearisome and dissipating. I love to be alone. I have never found a companion that was as friendly as solitude. We are for the most part lonelier when we go abroad among men than when we stay in our homes. A man thinking or working is always alone. Solitude is not measured by the miles of space that intervene between a man and his fellow men. The really diligent student in one of the crowded rooms of a college is as a hermit in the desert. The farmer can work alone in the field or the woods all day, weeding or chopping, and not feel lonesome, because he is employed. But when he comes home at night, he cannot be alone. He must be where he can see “the

    folks”, and he thinks, repay himself for his day’s solitude. So he wonders how the student can sit alone in the

    house all night and most of the day without boredom and the “blues”. But he does not realize that the student,

    although in the house, is still at work in his field, and chopping in his woods.

PART VI WRITING (45 MIN)

    Through his famous character Hamlet Shakespeare said, To be or not to be, that is a question. For

    hundreds of years, people have never stopped giving explanations and definitions to the saying. There seems to have had no consensus on the interpretation of the saying. Write an essay of about 400 words entitled: Six Famous Words giving your own understanding of the saying and stating whether you agree or disagree with him.

    Six Famous Words

    In the first part of your writing you should state your opinion in respond to Shakespeares view, and in the

    second part you should support your argument with appropriate details (or examples). In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.

    Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.

    Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.

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ANSWER SHEET ONE

    TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS

    GRADE EIGHT

PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION (35MIN)

SECTION A MINI-LECTURE (10MIN)

    Complete the gap-filling task. Some of the gaps below may require a maximum of THREE words. Make

    sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically & semantically acceptable. You may refer to your note.

    The effectiveness of a person

1. believe there is no such thing as (1) ________, (1) ___________

    so the solution is (2)________ when it is optimum (2) ___________ or close to the best.

    2. believe (3)____________ of life, the universe, (3) ___________

    people, etc, is relatively good

    If we believe that people are evil, we may react to them (4)___________________. (4) ___________

    When we believe they do (5)_________, from a good intention, (5) ___________ then we begin to understand them better.

    3. seek only obtaining a result, a decision,

    a change, not to (6)____________. (6) ___________

    Losing is the (7) _____________. (7) ___________

    Therefore, it cannot be good or bad, it's where we start off from. 4. believe there is no failure or success,

    only (8)__________________. (8) ___________

    The Effective person obtain feedback not failure or success. 5. act with integrity and honesty.

    And sometimes telling the truth is (9)____________, (9) ___________ as when this causes great upset in the other person for no good reason. By putting aside our childish definitions, we can understand and live (10)______________and reap all the benefits. (10) __________

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ANSWER SHEET TWO

    TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS

    GRADE EIGHT

PART IV PROOFREADING& ERROR CORRECTION (15 MIN)

    The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case,

    only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

    For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at

     the end of the line.

    For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "?" sign and write the word

    you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

    For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash " / " and put the word in the blank

    provided at the end of the line.

Example

    When ? art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an

    it never buys things in finished form and hangs (2) never

    them on the wall. When a natural history museum

    wants an exhibition, it must often build it. (3) exhibit

    There are many a career in which the increasing emphasis is (1) ___________ in specialization. You find these careers in engineering, in (2) ___________ production, in statistical work, and in teaching. And there (3) ___________ is an increasing demand for people who are capable to take (4) ___________ in a great area at a glance, people who perhaps do not know

    too much about any one field. There is, in the other words, (5) ___________ a demand for people who are capable of seeing the forest

    rather than the trees, making general judgment. We can call (6) ___________ these people generalists. And these generalists are particular (7) ___________

    needed for position in administration, where it is his job to (8) ___________ see that other people do the work, where they have to plan for other people, to organize other peoples work, to begin it and

    judge it.

    The generalist understands one field; his concern is with (9) ___________ technique and tools. He is a trained man; and his education

    background is properly technical or professional. The generalist deals with people; his concern is with leadership, with planning, and on direction giving. He is an educated man; and the (10) __________

    humanities are his strongest foundation.

    10

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