Contemporary College English
Lesson 6 Groundless Beliefs I. Language Study
(I) Word Study
1. allowance n. a. sth., such as money, given at regular intervals or for a specific purpose 津贴：补助
a travel allowance that covers hotel and restaurant bills b. price reduction, especially one granted in exchange for used merchandise 折价：折扣
The dealer gave us an allowance on our old car.
c. make (an) allowance for sth:
make allowances for sb: regard sb as deserving to treated different by from others for some
You must make allowances for him because he has been ill.
一笔~ a sum of allowance
申请~ apply for a grant of money
Grant n. thing given for a particular purpose student grant
困难~ hardship grant
取暖~ heating subsidy
失业~ unemployment benefit
Allowance of money, etc to which sb is entitled from one insurance policy or from government
实物~ subsidy in kind
in kind (of payment) in goods or natural produce, not in money ；指偿付，以实物偿付
in kind ( of payment) in goods produce, not in money
produce n. 产品；esp 农副产品，
现金~ cash grant
学生~ student aid/assistance；scholarship
医疗~ medical benefit
subsidy n. 津贴：补助；政府为扶持工业：资助艺术事业：平抑物价等而发放的，
grant n. thing given for a particular purpose ；政府的，拨款
student grants 学生助学金
benefit n. allowance of money, etc to which sb is tntitled from an insurance policy or from
2. attribute v. a. to relate to a particular cause or source; attribute sth. to 归因于
b. to regard as the work of a specified agent or creator归属于
David attributed his company's success to the unity of all the staff and their persevering hard
a symphony attributed to Mozart由莫扎特创作的交响乐
n. a. a quality or characteristic inherent in or ascribed to sb. or sth. 特质：属性
b. an object associated with and serving to identify a character, a personage,etc. 人物或其职位
Organizing ability is essential attribute for a good manager.
The sceptre ；节杖，is an attribute of kingly power.
3. belittle v. a. to represent or speak of as contemptibly small or unimportant; disparage
A poor but honest man is not to be belittled.
the habit of minimizing losses in our own forces while maximizing those of the enemy
He depreciates the value of experience.
Shares in the company have depreciated.
disparage v. suggest, esp unfairly, that (sb / sth) is of little value or importance贬低：轻视
disparage sb‟s achievements
Shares in the company have depreciated.
4. classify v. a. to arrange or organize according to class or category
b. to classify sb./sth. (as) sth.; to place sb./sth. in a particular class c. to designate (sth.) as confidential, secret, or top secret 将；资料：文件等，定位官方密件而仅
Would you classify his novels as a serious literature or as mere entertainment? classified advertisements 分类广告
The papers concerning the negotiations are classified and will not be declassified for 30 years.
classified information 机密情报
declassify v. 宣布……不再保密
Fundamental suggests sth. that is a basic thing without which an entire system would collapse.
Essential suggests sth. that is the very basic nature of a thing.；必不可少的特点：本质，
Vital suggests sth. that is necessary to a thing‟s existence, continuation or well-being.；强调对某
Monarchy had undergone fundamental changes.
To seek truth is one of the fundamental principles of Mao Zedong thought.
Social stability is essential to economic construction.
Transportation and communication are vital to economic development.
6. grudge v. a. to be reluctant to give or admit 勉强给或做
b. to resent for having; to begrudge 对……不满或不快
The retired official grudged to answer the questions asked by the newsman.
The brother grudged his sister her brilliant academic record.
n. a deep-seated feeling of resentment or rancor
bear (have) a grudge against sb.
bear (owe) sb. a grudge
7. inherit v. a. to receive (property or a title) from an ancestor by legal succession or will
b. to receive or take over from a predecessor
c. to receive (a characteristic) from one's parents by genetic transmission
The eldest son will inherit the title.
The new administration inherited the economic problems from the previous one.
inherit the tradition
She inherited her mother‟s good looks and her father‟s bad temper.
The period (1920—1933) during which the 18th Amendment forbidding the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages was in force in the United States.
9. originate v. a. originate from/in sth.
originate from/with sb.: to have sb./sth. as a cause of beginning
b. to be the creator or author of (sth.) 发明：创造
All theories originate from/in practice and in turn serve practice.
The optic theory originated with Einstein.
originate a new style of dancing
10. prestige n. a. a person's high standing among others; widely recognized prominence,
distinction, etc. 威望：声望
b. power to impress others, esp. as a result of wealth, distinction, glamour, etc. 影响力
The old universities of Oxford and Cambridge still have a lot of prestige.
have/enjoy/earn prestige in the community
n. (attributive) often used to modify another noun
a prestige address 富有魅力的演说
11. justify v. a. to prove to be just, right or valid 表明或证明……是正当的
b. to be a good reason for sth. 为……的正当理由
The course of events fully justifies our views.
These recommendations will need to be justified before they can be implemented. The fine quality of the cloth justifies its high price.
I cannot really justify taking another day off work.
12. consist v. a. to be made up or composed 组成：构成
b. have sth. as its chief element or feature 以……为主要的或唯一的因素或特点
New York City consists of five boroughs.
The beauty of the artist‟s style consists in its simplicity.
True charity doesn‟t consist in almsgiving. 真正的慈善不在于施舍。
13. keen a. a. having a fine, sharp cutting edge or point
b. having intellectual quickness and acuity
c. sharp; vivid; strong
A kitchen knife needs a keen blade.
A keen north wind blew through the gaps around the door.
Even at the age of 95 he still had a keen mind. “His entire body hungered for keen sensation, something exciting.” (Richard Wright)
(II) Phrases and Expressions
1. as a rule: usually; generally; in most cases一般说来：经常
As a rule, I like to be alone and undisturbed.
I don‟t eat sweets as a rule.
2. make allowances: 体谅：考虑
You make allowances for sth. or sb. when you take sb.‟s special circumstances into consideration
before making a judgment.
I am tired of making allowances for his lack of experiences. Making allowances for bad weather and for my own laziness, I think that the job will be finished
before the end of the year.
3. in fashion: 流行：入时
come into/ be in fashion: to become popular
go/be out of fashion: to become unpopular as a style
in the fashion of sb.: like sb.; imitating the style of sb. Long skirts have come into fashion again.
She paints in the fashion of Picasso.
4. in the light of sth.: in view of sth.; considering sth. 鉴于某事
review the proposals in the light of past experience
5. run out: a. to come to an end; to be used up or finished用光：耗尽
b. to expire; to be no longer valid
c. (run sb. out) to force sb. to leave a place The petrol is running out./ We are running out of petrol.
His driving license/passport has run out.
If he refuses to leave of (stop) his free will, they will run him out.
Direct adj. indirect adj. misdirect direct
6. on the ground of = on the ground that: 以…为理由：基础
ground: the foundation for an argument, a belief, or an action; a basis
Jane was late on the ground of the heavy traffic.
Tom left on the ground that he was ill.
7. a shadow of: a slight trace of sth. 某事物的痕迹
There is not a shadow of justification for your behavior.
not a shadow of doubt
Tonight, she knew without any shadow of doubt that he was lying to her.
8. at all costs: Something that must happen at all costs is so important that everything possible
must be done to make sure it happens. 无论如何
This letter must reach him by this afternoon at all costs.
I must finish the work by tomorrow at all costs.
(III) Word Building
infanticide cide: to cut
fratricide 杀害兄弟姐妹者fraternal adj. 兄弟的：友好的
fraternity n. 兄弟般感情的：手足之情
matricide 杀母者 matri-母亲的
converse verse: to turn
The newspaper did not see fit to publish my letter.
3. prefix: poly-: many
polygamy [pə‟lɪɡəmi] 一夫多妻；制， ；反，monogamy[mə‟nɔgəmi:] n一夫一妻 polysyllable [pɔli‟siləbl] n. 多音节词
polymer [„pɔləmə] n. <化>聚合物(体) adj. 聚合的
polyester [pɒli‟estə(r)] 聚酯纤维, 涤纶
polygon [pɔli:ˊgɔn] n. 多边形,多角形
polytheism [pɔliθi‟izəm] n.多神教,多神论
4. be-: (with ns and adjs forming transitive vs)使：视为
befriend v. act as a friend to (sb); be kind to (esp sb needing help)对；某人，尽朋友之道：对；某人：esp需要帮助者，照顾
They befriended the young girl, providing her with food and shelter.
bewitch v. (1) put a magic spell on (sb) 对；某人，施魔法：蛊惑；某人， The wicked fairy bewitched the prince and turned him into a frog.
(2) delight (sb) very much, enchant 令；某人，心醉：入迷：使喜悦
He was bewitched by her beauty. bedevil v. (esp passive) trouble (sb / sth)greatly, torment, afflict 使大卫困扰：烦恼：折磨 Bad weather bedeviled our plans.
rdbefall v. (used only in the 3 person) (arch) happen to (sb) 降临到；某人，头上：发生 We shall never leave you, whatever befalls. belie v. give a wrong or an untrue idea of (sth) 使人对于某事物产生错误的或不符合实际的想法
His cheerful manner belied his real feelings. 他那快活的样子掩饰了他的真实感情。 behead v.
5. a-: (1) (with ns, adjs and advs)not, withoug 不：无：非
asexual [ei‟sɛkʃuəl] adj. 无性的, 无性欲的 asexual reproduction 无性生殖 atypical [ei‟tipikəl] adj. 非典型的
These days large families are atypical; highly irregular behavior. 现在大家族已经不常见了；极反常的行为。
afresh [ə‟freʃ] adv. 重新
Let‟s start afresh.
anew adv, (usu rhet) Our efforts must begin anew.
afield adv. (idm) far / farther/ further afield 远离；esp家乡，
Some villagers have never been further afield than the neighboring town.
afar adv. 在远处：到远处
Lights visible afar off
(idm) from a far: from a long distance away 从远处
News from afar
sstride adv. With one leg on each side 跨着地：骑着地
Ladies ride horses by sitting astride or side-saddle.
astride prep. 跨着：骑着
sitting astride a horse
astray adv. 歧途：迷路
The misleading sign led me astray. Go astray become mislaid 误置：被放错地方
Have you seen my book? It seems to have gone astray.
(3) (with vs forming adjs) in the state of process of 处于……状态或过程中
Some adjectives, especially those that begin with a-, can only be used predicatively, e.g. alike, alive, alone, asleep, astir, awake, adrift,
ablaze, adj. Set sth ablaze.
The whole building was soon ablaze
aflame adj. ；红似，着火：燃烧
The whole building was soon aflame.
adrift adj. The survivors were adrift on the raft for six days.
afloat adj. The boat stuck on a sandbank but we soon got it afloat again. aground adj. adv (pred) ；船，搁浅The tanker was / went / ran aground.
alight adj. on fire, lit烧着：点着
A cigarette set the dry grass alight.
1. Relative Adverbs
When, where and why used in the following ways are called relative adverbs. When can replace in/at/on which (use of time):
the year when (= in which) he was born
But we should fully face the fact that beliefs which are merely inherited from the past must have originated at a time when(=at which time) men knew much less than they know today. (Para. 5) Where can replace in/at which (use of place):
This is the place where (= in which) a large dormitory will be built for the families of our teachers. Why can replace for which:
There is no reason why (= for which) I should not accept the offer.
2. Abbreviated Adverbial Clause
A. Only when the subject of the clause and that of the sentence are one and the same can
the clause be shortened.
But if the staunchest Roman Catholic and the staunchest Presbyterian had been exchanged when infants…
B. Adverbial clauses of time, condition, concession, manner and comparison can be reduced to
a. conj.+participles (both present and past)
An assumed or dogmatic proposition which had been universally accepted as “obvious”; and which, when challenged, was supported by reference to a dogma of Aristotle.
Because of the opportunities he had while attending college, this young man, like many other
students, experienced a new understanding of the world and of himself. b. conj.+adjectives
Though poor the Smiths are happy.
c. conj.+prepositional phrases or adverbs
While in Rome, do as the Romans do.
d. conj.+infinitive phrases (restricted to ―as if‖)
Often he (the wolf) would sit with his nose to the sky, turning his head this way and that as if
to check the wind.
II. Warm Up
(I) Listening Materials
Trask: Mr. Simms, you are a cover-up artist and you are a liar.
Frank: But not a snitch!
Trask: Excuse me?
Frank: No, I don't think I will.
Trask: Mr. Slade.
Frank: This is such a crock of shit!
Trask: Please watch your language, Mr. Slade; you are in the Baird School, not a 1. Mr. Simms, I'll
give you one final opportunity to speak up.
Frank: Mr. Simms doesn't want it. He doesn't need to be 2, still worthy of being a Baird man!
What the hell is that? What is your 3 here? Boys, inform on your classmates, save your hide, anything short of that, we're gonna burn you at the stake? Well, gentleman, when the shit hits the fan some guys run and some guys stay, here's Charlie, facin' the fire and there's George hidin' in big daddy's pocket. And what are you doing? And you are gonna 4 George, and 5 Charlie.
Keys: 1. barracks 2. labeled 3. motto 4. reward 5. destroy
Trask: Are you finished, Mr. Slade?
Frank: No, I'm just gettin' 1 up! I don't know who went to this place, William Howard Taft, William Jennings Bryant, William Tell, whoever, their 2 is dead, if they ever had one. It's gone.
You're buildin' a rat ship here, a vessel for seagoin' snitches. And if you think you're preparin' these minnows for 3, you better think again, because I say you're killin' the very spirit this institution 4 it instills.
Keys: 1. warmed 2. spirit 3. manhood 4. proclaims
What a sham! What kind of a 1 are you guys puttin' on here today? I mean, the only class in this act is sittin' next to me, and I'm here to tell you this boy's 2 is intact, it's 3, you know how I know,
someone here, and I'm not gonna say who, 4 to buy it, only Charlie here wasn't sellin'.
Keys: 1. show 2. soul 3. non-negotiable 4. offered
Trask: Sir, you're out of order.
Frank: I'll show you out of order. You don't know what out of order is, Mr. Trask, I'd show you, but I'm too old, I'm too tired, I'm too fuckin' blind, if I were the man I was five years ago, I'd take
a 1 thrower to this place! Out of order? Who the hell do you think you're talkin' to? I've been 2,
you know? There was a time I could see, and I have seen, boys like these, 3 than these, their
arms torn out, their legs ripped off, but there is nothin' like the 4 of an amputated spirit.
Keys: 1. flame 2. around 3. younger 4. sight
There is no prosthetic for that, you think you're merely sendin' this 1 foot solider back home to
Oregen with his 2 between his legs, but I say you're executin' his soul! And why? Because he is
not a Baird man. Baird men, you 3 this boy, you're gonna be Baird bums, the lot of you. And Harry, Jimmy, and Trent, 4 you are out there, fuck you too!
Keys: 1. splendid 2. tail 3. hurt 4. wherever
Trask: Stand down, Mr. Slade!
Frank: I'm not finished. As I came in here, I heard those words: cradle of leadership. Well, when the bough breaks, the cradle will fall, and it has fallen here, it has fallen. Makers of men, creators of leaders, be careful what kind of leaders you're producin' here. I don't know if Charlie's silence here today is right or wrong, I'm not a judge or jury, but I can tell you this: he won't sell anybody out to buy his future! And that my friends is called integrity, that's called courage. Now, that's the stuff leaders should be made of.
Now I have come to 1 in my life, I always knew what the right path was. Without exception, I knew, but I never took it, you know why, it was too damn hard. Now here's Charlie, he's come to the crossroads, he has chosen a 2. It's the right path, it's a path made of principle that leads to 3.
Let him continue on his journey. You hold this boy's future in your hands, committee, it's a 4 future, believe me. Don't destroy it, 5 it. Embrace it. It's gonna make you proud one day, I promise you. How's that for cornball?
Keys: 1. crossroads 2. path 3. character 4. valuable 5. protect
(II) Do You Know?
Do not accept anything on mere hearsay
It is your inner judgment that you must obey
Do not accept anything by mere tradition
Think for your self and learn, even from your opposition
Do not accept anything on account of mere rumors
In this life, do not be a blind and mindless consumer
Do not accept anything just because it accords with your scriptures
You have been given a mind, come to your own conclusions and conjectures Do not accept anything by mere suppositions
Find the truth, the right, the definition
Do not accept anything by merely considering the reasons
It may have a false front and change with the seasons
Do not accept anything merely because it agrees with your pre-conceived notions This is a higher believe you are searching for, put aside your emotions Do not accept anything merely because it seems acceptable
Be strong in your own verdict, do not be so susceptible
Do not accept anything thinking that the ascetic is respected by us
To come to believe in a religion, you must bring more into it then blind trust .
(III) Warming-up Questions
Choose one of these beliefs and talk about them in your familiar aspects. Buddhism Religion Beliefs History
Hinduism Beliefs Hindu Gods
Confucianism Confucius Beliefs
Christianity Jesus Christ Christian
Catholicism Catholic Church
Islam Muslim Religion Quran
(IV) Warming-up Activities
1) Try to work out a list of different religious beliefs in the world.
2) Please give a simple feature of your chosen belief.
3) Talk about one example of believing something groundless in your childhood memories.
II. Background information
(I) Catholic Belief
To gain the happiness of heaven we must know, love, and serve God in this world. Man must know, love and serve God in a supernatural manner in order to gain happiness of heaven. Man is raised to the supernatural order only by grace, a free gift of God.
We learn to know, love, and serve God from Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who teaches us through the Catholic Church.
“In order to be saved, all persons who have attained the use of reason must believe explicitly that God exists and that he rewards the good and punishes the wicked; in practice they must also believe in the mysteries of the Blessed Trinity and the Incarnation.
By the Blessed Trinity we mean one and the same God in three divine persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.
By the Incarnation is meant that the Son of God, retaining His divine nature, took to Himself a human nature, that is, a body and soul like ours.
The Church is the congregation of all baptized persons united in the same true faith, the same sacrifice, and the same sacraments, under the authority of the Sovereign Pontiff and the bishops in communion with him.
We find the chief truths taught by Jesus Christ through the Catholic Church in the Apostles' Creed.
(II) Presbyterian Belief
We believe the Bible is the written word of God, inspired by the Holy Spirit and without error in the original manuscripts. The Bible is the revelation of God‟s truth and is infallible and
authoritative in all matters of faith and practice.
We believe in the Holy Trinity. There is one God, who exists eternally in three persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
We believe that all are sinners and totally unable to save themselves from God‟s displeasure,
except by His mercy.
We believe that Jesus Christ is the eternal Son of God, who through His perfect life and sacrificial death atoned for the sins of all who will trust in Him, alone, for salvation.
We believe that the Holy Spirit indwells God‟s people and gives them the strength and wisdom to trust Christ and follow Him.
We believe that Jesus will return, bodily and visibly, to judge all mankind and to receive His people to Himself.