lesoon 6 (Book 4)

By Henry Martin,2014-10-06 09:59
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lesoon 6 (Book 4)

    Contemporary College English

    Book 4

    Lesson 6 Groundless Beliefs I. Language Study

    (I) Word Study

    1. allowance n. a. sth., such as money, given at regular intervals or for a specific purpose 津贴:补助

    a travel allowance that covers hotel and restaurant bills b. price reduction, especially one granted in exchange for used merchandise 折价:折扣

    The dealer gave us an allowance on our old car.

    c. make (an) allowance for sth:

    make allowances for sb: regard sb as deserving to treated different by from others for some


    You must make allowances for him because he has been ill.


    一笔~ a sum of allowance

    申请~ apply for a grant of money

Grant n. thing given for a particular purpose student grant

    困难~ hardship grant

    取暖~ heating subsidy

    失业~ unemployment benefit

    Allowance of money, etc to which sb is entitled from one insurance policy or from government


    实物~ subsidy in kind

    in kind (of payment) in goods or natural produce, not in money ;指偿付,以实物偿付

    in kind ( of payment) in goods produce, not in money

    produce n. 产品;esp 农副产品,

    现金~ cash grant

    学生~ student aid/assistancescholarship

    医疗~ medical benefit

    subsidy n. 津贴:补助;政府为扶持工业:资助艺术事业:平抑物价等而发放的,

    grant n. thing given for a particular purpose ;政府的,拨款

    student grants 学生助学金

    benefit n. allowance of money, etc to which sb is tntitled from an insurance policy or from

    government funds)保险金:救济金:抚恤金:补助金

2. attribute v. a. to relate to a particular cause or source; attribute sth. to 归因于

    b. to regard as the work of a specified agent or creator归属于


    David attributed his company's success to the unity of all the staff and their persevering hard


    a symphony attributed to Mozart由莫扎特创作的交响乐

    n. a. a quality or characteristic inherent in or ascribed to sb. or sth. 特质:属性

    b. an object associated with and serving to identify a character, a personage,etc. 人物或其职位


    Organizing ability is essential attribute for a good manager.

    The sceptre ;节杖,is an attribute of kingly power.

3. belittle v. a. to represent or speak of as contemptibly small or unimportant; disparage

    A poor but honest man is not to be belittled.


    belittle 贬低,努力使事缩小到被轻视的地步

    minimize 使事情降低到最小程度或者作用:使事情尽可能渺小

    depreciate 将某人或某事价值表现为低于常有水平

    the habit of minimizing losses in our own forces while maximizing those of the enemy

    He depreciates the value of experience.

    Shares in the company have depreciated.

    disparage v. suggest, esp unfairly, that (sb / sth) is of little value or importance贬低:轻视

    disparage sbs achievements

    Shares in the company have depreciated.

    4. classify v. a. to arrange or organize according to class or category

    b. to classify sb./sth. (as) sth.; to place sb./sth. in a particular class c. to designate (sth.) as confidential, secret, or top secret 将;资料:文件等,定位官方密件而仅


    Would you classify his novels as a serious literature or as mere entertainment? classified advertisements 分类广告

    The papers concerning the negotiations are classified and will not be declassified for 30 years.

    classified information 机密情报

    declassify v. 宣布……不再保密

5. fundamental/essential/vital

    Fundamental suggests sth. that is a basic thing without which an entire system would collapse.


    Essential suggests sth. that is the very basic nature of a thing.;必不可少的特点:本质,

    Vital suggests sth. that is necessary to a thing‟s existence, continuation or well-being.;强调对某


    Monarchy had undergone fundamental changes.

    To seek truth is one of the fundamental principles of Mao Zedong thought.

    Social stability is essential to economic construction.

    Transportation and communication are vital to economic development.

6. grudge v. a. to be reluctant to give or admit 勉强给或做


     b. to resent for having; to begrudge ……不满或不快

    The retired official grudged to answer the questions asked by the newsman.

    The brother grudged his sister her brilliant academic record.

    n. a deep-seated feeling of resentment or rancor

    bear (have) a grudge against sb.

    bear (owe) sb. a grudge

    7. inherit v. a. to receive (property or a title) from an ancestor by legal succession or will

    b. to receive or take over from a predecessor

    c. to receive (a characteristic) from one's parents by genetic transmission

    The eldest son will inherit the title.

    The new administration inherited the economic problems from the previous one.

    inherit the tradition

    She inherited her mother‟s good looks and her father‟s bad temper.

8. prohibition

    The period (19201933) during which the 18th Amendment forbidding the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages was in force in the United States.


9. originate v. a. originate from/in sth.

     originate from/with sb.: to have sb./sth. as a cause of beginning

    b. to be the creator or author of (sth.) 发明:创造

    All theories originate from/in practice and in turn serve practice.

    The optic theory originated with Einstein.

    originate a new style of dancing

    10. prestige n. a. a person's high standing among others; widely recognized prominence,

    distinction, etc. 威望:声望

    b. power to impress others, esp. as a result of wealth, distinction, glamour, etc. 影响力

    The old universities of Oxford and Cambridge still have a lot of prestige.

    have/enjoy/earn prestige in the community

    n. (attributive) often used to modify another noun

    a prestige address 富有魅力的演说

    prestigious adj.

11. justify v. a. to prove to be just, right or valid 表明或证明……是正当的

     b. to be a good reason for sth. ……的正当理由

    The course of events fully justifies our views.

    These recommendations will need to be justified before they can be implemented. The fine quality of the cloth justifies its high price.

    I cannot really justify taking another day off work.

12. consist v. a. to be made up or composed 组成:构成


     b. have sth. as its chief element or feature ……为主要的或唯一的因素或特点

    New York City consists of five boroughs.

    The beauty of the artist‟s style consists in its simplicity.

    True charity doesn‟t consist in almsgiving. 真正的慈善不在于施舍。

    13. keen a. a. having a fine, sharp cutting edge or point