URBAN 1: What are the characteristics of urban environments?
Definition of urban area, to include housing and population density, nature of employment, high level functions.
； Ignition exercise of urban images. Study of two contrasting urban landscapes (eg in a historic context and a modern
Pacific Rim city, or planned and unplanned cities).
Most people in the UK live in towns and cities. In 2000 over 5700 million people were living in
towns and cities (study OHT of urban/rural populations)
STUDY THE VARIOUS IMAGES OF URBAN AREAS – what are the features shown? What are the good/bad features?
So what is URBAN?
EMPLOYMENT POPULATION SIZE
How can we
define urban settlements?
GOVERNMENT LEGISLATION FUNCTION/FACILITY
COMPLETE THE EXERCISE ‘Making settlements’
FIND THE POPULATIONS OF THE FOLLOWING URBAN AREAS
URBAN AREA POPULATION URBAN AREA POPULATION
BATH NEW YORK
BRISTOL LOS ANGELES
TOKYO RIO DE JANEIRO
SAO PAULO BUENOS AIRES
URBAN 2: How and why do contrasting urban environments develop?
Concept of urbanisation – relationship to urban growth. Importance of demographic, migratory and economic processes. Cycle of urbanisation, suburbanisation, counter-urbanisation and reurbanisation.
； MEDC urbanisation contrasted with LEDC urbanisation. Cycle applied to a range of countries at different states of
development. Suburbanisation and urban sprawl, counter-urbanisation in MEDCs. Urbanisation in an LEDC context.
Impact of rapid growth – issues of housing, employment, pollution in a selection of LEDC cities as an overview.
URBANISATION: this is the process by which more and more people live in towns and cities. I t is also a process of change from a rural society to a rural society. The proportion of the population living in urban areas is called the LEVEL OF URBANISATION.
URBAN GROWTH: refers to the absolute increase in the physical size and total population of urban areas.
Countries that urbanised many years ago have lower rates of urban growth, whereas LEDC’s tend to have very high rates of urbanisation and urban growth – see diagram below……
Why do cities grow?
There are two main reasons for the growth in population:
1. Migration from the countryside – in the UK the population grew from 10 million living in in
towns of over 20,000 to 54% of a population of 33 miilion in 1891. People migrated from
the rural areas in search of jobs and a better life. Cities in LEDC’s have grown faster
than those in MEDC’s. In 1995 , 63% of the growth in LEDC cities was from natural
growth and 37% was due to in migration [every week 4,000 people arrive in Mexico City].
2. Natural population increase –this increase is related to a declioning death rate which is a
result of better medical care and hygiene.The birth rates are lower in urban areas but
dtill high enough to to be responsible for nearly 66% of urban population increase.
URBAN 3: How do the nature and importance of urban environments vary spatially?
There are contrasts in levels of urbanisation at global and continental scales.
Millionaire cities and the emergence of mega-cities of global importance (world cities).
； Global survey of contrasts in levels of urbanisation and rates of urban growth, spatially and over time.
； Study of global growth of millionaire and mega-cities. Global concentrations in mega-cities and issues of sustainability
(eg in Los Angeles and Mexico City).
3.1 Urbanisation at the global and continental scales
STUDY FIGURE 8.2 ON PAGE 270 AND DESCRIBE THE MAIN FEATURES OF GLOBAL
URBANISTION FROM THE 1920’s TO PRESENT DAY
NOW COMPLETE THE STRUCTURED QUESTIONS ON PAGE 270
3.2 The growth of megacities
Megacities are formed where cities merge together with other cities to form larger urban
regions – Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Lagos and Cairo. In most countries migration is fuelling the
growth of these cities – this process has been called MEGA-URBANISATION.
IN MIGRATION NATURAL INCREASE
Population grows Birth-rates are higher POPULATION OF as people move than death rates. A CITY from rural areas Death rates fall due to urban areas. to better hygiene and
PUSH/PULL medical care. Birth STUDY OHT OF THE
MODEL. rates can remain high CAUSES OF URBAN
in cities. GROWTH IN LEDC’S
STUDY FIGURE 8.5 World cities: a global hierarchy.
URBAN 4: What functions occur in urban areas? What impact has this had on land use zoning in urban areas?
Spatial development of land use within urban areas. Factors influencing this, such as cost and access. Land use zoning. Nature of CBD, inner and outer urban areas in MEDCs and LEDCs. Reasons for contrasts. Relation to concept of urban models
； Land use study of one chosen large urban area, to investigate patterns of retail, office industrial, residential and
recreation use. Decision making exercise on one urban site with competing potential uses.
URBAN 5: What changes are taking place in the city centre and at the rural-urban fringe, and what conflicts have arisen?
Centrifugal forces v centripetal forces in city centres. Issues of people, employment and services. Competition and conflicts at the rural-urban fringe.
； Changing CBD study. Investigation of centrifugal forces, eg move to out of town sites, and centripetal forces, eg
reurbanisation and new leisure and service growth .
Rural-urban fringe surveys to assess changes and conflicts caused by development of retail parks and golf courses. Role of
green belts in controlling development. Case study (eg M25).
URBAN 6: How and why does quality of life vary within urban environments?
Assessment of quality of life. Issues of inequality and social justice. Location and problems of ‘poor’ areas in both MEDCs and LEDCs – zones of deprivation, poverty and social exclusion.
Quality of life profiles of MEDC cities compared with LEDC cities. Study of deprived localities in contrasting LEDCs and MEDCs.
1 What are the challenges of managing urban environments?
2. How do planners and decision makers attempt to resolve these challenges? 3.What is the balance between private and public provision?
4. How successful are the strategies of planners and decision makers in mproving the quality of life for all urban dwellers?
Choose two of the following to illustrate the enquiry questions in 2.8:
; Managing the housing stock – contrasting LEDC and MEDC issues. Getting the right mix of types and price in MEDCs.
Brownfield-greenfield issues. Renewal and gentrification in centre. Issues of homelessness and substandard housing for
the urban poor in inner areas of MEDCs and in many areas of LEDCs.
; Managing movement in cities – problems of providing public transport. Coping with the motor car and management
of the daily commute. The unsustainability of the motor-car. Creation of cycle ways, walking zones. Redesign of land use
to cut down journey to work.
; Managing environmental problems in the city, issues of waste, dereliction, air pollution, noise, water supply, issues
of environmental health of the inhabitants. Greening the city – role of urban ecosystems.
; Managing inequalities and social problems within the city – issues of crime, access to services for the under classes,
divisions within the community caused by eg religion, ethnicity etc. Development of ghettos. Residential segregation in
cultural/ethnic pluralism. How to manage the social and economic polarisation equitably.