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Unit 2 AP Forces Practice Problems

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Unit 2 AP Forces Practice Problems

Linear Forces Practice Problems

    * = Problems we do together; all other problems are homework.

    1. *Together a bike and its rider have a mass of 275 Kg. The bike is slowed down with an acceleration of 4.5 m/s/s. What

    is the net force on the bike? Describe the direction of the force and the meaning of the negative sign. (1.24 E3 N; F is net

    opposite dxn of motion)

    2. A car with a mass of 1225 Kg, traveling at 23m/s, slows to a stop in 53m. What is the size and direction of the net force

    that acts on the car? What provided the force? (6.11 E3 N, opp dxn of motion; friction of road)

    3. A person with a black belt in karate has a fist that has a mass of 0.70 kg. Starting from rest, this fist attains a velocity of

    8.0 m/s in 0.15 s. What is the magnitude and direction of the average net force applied to the fist to achieve this level of

    performance? (37.33 N in the dxn of motion)

    4. What is the weight of each of the following objects?

    a. 0.113-kg hockey puck b. 108-kg football player c. 870-kg automobile (1.11 N, 1.06 E3 N, 8.53 E3 N)

    5. Find the mass of each of these weights.

    a. 98 N b. 80 N c. 0.98 N (10 Kg, 8.16 Kg, 0.1 Kg)

    6. An astronaut with mass 75 kg travels to Mars. What is his weight

    a. On Earth? (735 N) 2b. What is his weight on Mars where g = 3.8 m/s? (285 N)

    c. What is the value of g on top of a mountain if the astronaut weighs 683 N? (9.11 m/s/s)

    7. *Suppose Joe, who weighs 600 N, stands on a bathroom scale calibrated in Newtons.

    a. What force would the scale exert on Joe? In what direction? (600 N, up)

    b. If Joe now holds a 50N cat in his arms, what force would the scale exert on him? (650 N, up)

    c. After Joe puts down the cat, his father comes up behind him and lifts upward on his elbows with a 100-N force.

    What force does the scale now exert on Joe? (500 N, up)

    8. *Why do you lunge forward when your car suddenly comes to a halt? Why are you pressed backward against the seat

    when your car rapidly accelerates? In your explanation, refer to the most appropriate one of Newton’s three laws of

    motion. 29. *When you drop a 0.40-kg apple, Earth exerts a force on it that accelerates it at 9.8m/s toward Earth’s surface.

    According to Newton’s third law, the apple must exert an equal and opposite force on Earth. If the mass of Earth is 5.98 24x 10 kg, what's the magnitude and direction of Earth's acceleration? (6.56 E -25 m/s/s, up)

    10. *A 150-kg box is pushed horizontally along the floor with a force of 650 N. If the coefficient of friction between the box

    and the floor is 0.21, calculate its acceleration. (2.28 m/s/s, in dxn of motion)

    11. A 52-N sled is pushed across a cement sidewalk at constant velocity. A horizontal pushing force of 36 N is exerted.

    a. What is the coefficient of sliding friction between the sidewalk and the metal runners of the sled? (0.69)

    b. Suppose the sled now runs on packed snow. The coefficient of friction is now only 0.12. If a person weighing

    650 N now sits on the sled, what applied force is now needed to slide the sled across the snow at constant

    velocity? (84.24 N)

    12. The coefficient of sliding friction between rubber tires and wet pavement is 0.50. The brakes are applied to a 750-kg car

    traveling 30 m/s, and the car skids to a stop.

    a. What is the size and direction of the force of friction that the road exerts on the car? (3.68 E3 N, opp motion)

    b. What would be the size and direction of the acceleration of the car? (4.9 m/s/s, opp motion)

    c. How far would the car travel before stopping? (91.84 m)

    13. *Traveling at a speed of 22 m/s, the driver of an automobile suddenly locks the wheels by slamming on the brakes. The

    coefficient of friction between the tires and the road is 0.68. How much time does it take for the car to come to a halt?

    As usual, ignore the effects of air resistance and anything else that could interfere with this problem. (3.3 s)

    Tension and Lift Problems

    14. A rubber ball weighs 49 N.

    a. What is the mass of the ball? (5 Kg)

    b. If someone picks it up and applies an upward force of 69 N, what is the acceleration of the ball while in the hand?

    (4 m/s/s, up)

    15. A small weather rocket weighs 14.7 N.

    a. What is its mass? (1.5 Kg)

    b. The rocket is carried up by a balloon. The rocket is released from the balloon and fired so its engine exerts an

    upward force of 10.2 N. What is the acceleration of the rocket? (3 m/s/s, down)

    c. Is the rocket in free-fall? How can you tell? (no, a is not equal to g)

    16. A 7.0 E 5 Kg spider is moving down on its thread. There is 1.2 E-4N of tension in the thread. What is the acceleration

    of the spider? (-8.09 m/s/s)

    17. In the previous problem: What if the maximum tension the thread could handle without breaking is 2.12 E-3N. What is

    the maximum acceleration the spider can safely climb up the strand without breaking it? (20.49 m/s/s)

    18. What lift force is necessary for a 5200 Kg helicopter to have an acceleration of 2.3 m/s/s? (6.29 E 4 N)

    Unit 2 AP Practice Problems Linear Forces 1

    19. A 6Kg squirrel is attached to a weather balloon. The balloon is released from rest and exerts an upward force of 98N on

    the squirrel.

    a. What is the acceleration of the squirrel while attached to the balloon? (6.53 m/s/s, up)

    b. After the balloon has accelerated for 10 seconds, the squirrel is released (okay, its a flying squirrel). What is

    the velocity of the squirrel the moment its released? (65.33 m/s)

    s not in flying mode yet)? (just its weight, mg) c. What net force acts on the squirrel after it is released (it

    d. How many seconds later does the squirrels velocity become negative? (the moment after 6.67 s)

    Elevator Problems

    20. If you have a mass of 55 kg and you are in an elevator that that is moving up with constant velocity, what is your apparent

    weight (the weight that a scale would show if you were standing on it in the elevator)? (539 N)

    21. What if the elevator was under an acceleration of 3m/s/s? (704 N)

    22. What if the elevator was under an acceleration of -2m/s/s? (429 N)

    Fun Problems

    23. *Two blocks are connected by a massless cord (yes, there IS such a thing in this classcrazy, huh?) on a horizontal

    surface. A force F pulls on the blocks to the right. Find the acceleration of the blocks and the tension in the connecting

    cord if

    a. The surface is frictionless. (3 m/s/s to the right, 75 N)

    b. The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.20. 15 kg (1.04 m/s/s, right; 75 N) F = 120 N 25 kg

    24. *A 25 Kg paint bucket is hanging by a massless cord from another 50Kg paint bucket, also hanging by a massless cord.

    a. If the buckets are at rest, what is the tension in each cord? (735 N, 245 N)

    b. If the two buckets are pulled upward with an acceleration of 1.50 m/s/s by the upper cord, calculate the tension

    in each cord. (847.5 N, 282.5 N)

    25. *Repeat the previous problem with a 15 Kg bucket hanging from a 27 Kg bucket. (411.6 N, 147 N; 474.6 N, 169.5 N)

    26. *A 2 Kg mass and a 3 Kg mass are attached to a massless cord that passes over a frictionless pulley. The masses are free

    to move.

    a. Draw the scenario, showing all forces acting on both masses. (in class)

    b. What direction does the smaller mass move? (up)

    c. What is the acceleration of the system? (1.96 m/s/s)

    d. What is the tension in the rope? (23.52 N)

    27. *Repeat the previous question for masses of 4Kg and 9Kg. (up, 3.77 m/s/s, 54.28 N)

    28. *Two masses (2.3 Kg and 4.2 Kg) connected by a massless rope hang over opposite ends of a frictionless pulley. Each

    mass is initially 1.50m above the ground, and the top of the pulley is 6.5 m above the ground. What maximum height

    does the lighter object reach after the system is released? (3.44 m)

    29. *An 80.0 kg box rests on a table. The left side of the 80 kg box is attached to a 10.0 kg box by a massless string that

    passes over a frictionless pulley. The right side of the 80 kg box is attached to a 25.0 kg box by a massless string that

    passes over a friction-free pulley. The 10 and 25 kg boxes are suspended above the ground. When the system is released,

    the objects move. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the middle object and the surface of the table is 0.100.

    a. What is the acceleration of the three objects? (0.6 m/s/s)

    b. Find the tension in each of the two strings. (230 N, 104 N)

    Vectors and 2-D Forces 030. Two boys push on a box. One pushes with a force of 125N to the west (180). The other exerts a force of 165N to the 00north (90). What is the resultant force (size and direction) on the box? (207 N, 127.15) 0031. Three boys push on a box. One pushes with a force of 13N East (0), another 18N South (270), and another 23N West 00(180). What is the resultant force on the box? (20.59 N, 240.95) o32. A heavy box is pulled across a wooden floor with a rope. The rope makes an angle of 60 with the floor. A force of 75N

    is exerted on the rope.

    a. What is the component of the force parallel to the floor? (37.5 N in dxn of motion)

    b. What is the component of the force perpendicular to the floor? (64.95 N, up)

    33. A student exerts a force of 72N along the handle of a lawn mower to push it across the lawn. Find the horizontal and

    vertical components of this force when the handle is held at an angle with the lawn of o ooa. 60.0b. 40.0 c. 30.0 (Fy = 62.35N, down, Fx = 36N in dxn of motion; 46.28N, 55.16N; 36N, 62.35N)

    34. Two people push on a 4Kg object. One force is 60N, North. The second force is 40N, East. Find the acceleration of the 0object (magnitude and direction). Ignore friction. (18.03 m/s/s, 56.31)

    Unit 2 AP Practice Problems Linear Forces 2

    35. Two people trying to move a 20Kg box along the ground pull on separate ropes that are attached to the box at the same 0 place. One rope has a force of 60N in it held 35above the ground. The second rope has a 40N force in it and is parallel

    to the ground. Ignoring friction, what is the acceleration of the box? (4.46 m/s/s, in dxn of motion)

     o36. A 40-kg crate is pulled across the ice with a rope. A force of 100 N is applied to the rope at an angle of 30 with the

    horizontal. Neglecting friction, calculate

    a. the acceleration of the crate. (2.17 m/s/s)

    b. the normal force the ice exerts on the crate as it is pulled. (342 N, up) 37. Repeat the above problem to find the acceleration of the crate if there is friction and the coefficient of friction between the

    crate and the ice is 0.09. (1.40 m/s/s in dxn of net force) 038. A 150N sled is being pulled with a rope that has 78N of force in it and is held at an angle of 30 to the ground. The

    coefficient of friction between the sled and the ground is 0.09. Find

    a. The normal force. (111 N up) b. The friction force. (9.99 N, opposite dxn of motion) c. The acceleration of

    the sled. (3.76 m/s/s forward) 039. *A 100N lawnmower is being pushed with a handle that makes a 37 angle to the ground. There is 10N of friction

    between the mower and the ground. What force must be applied to the handle of the mower to get it to accelerate at

    3m/s/s? (50.85N) o40. Joe pushes on the handle of a 10-kg lawn mower. The handle makes a 35 angle with the horizontal. Joe wishes to

    accelerate the mower from rest to 1.39 m/s in 1.5 s. What force must Joe apply to the handle if there is 10N of friction

    between the mower and the ground? (23.52 N)

    41. A person pushes a 16-kg lawn mower at constant speed with a force of 80 N directed along the handle, which is at an

    angle of 35; to the horizontal.

    a. Draw the free-body diagram showing all the forces acting on the mower.

    b. Calculate the friction force on the mower. (65.53 N)

    c. Find the normal force exerted vertically upward on the mower by the ground. (202.69 N)

    d. Find the force the person must exert on the lawn mower handle to accelerate it from rest to 1.5 m/s in 2.5

    seconds (assuming the same friction). (91.72 N)

    42. *Two blocks (block #1 = 422N, block #2 = 185N) are connected by a mass-less rope over a frictionless pulley. Block #1

    is resting on a table and Block #2 is hanging from the pulley over the edge of a table. The coefficient of friction between

    Block #1 and the table is 0.12. Calculate the acceleration of the system upon release and the tension in the rope. (2.17

    m/s/s, 144.04 N)

    43. *The “log” problem. Two people are pulling a log up out of a ditch with two ropes attached to it. Rope “a” has a force 000of 8N in it and the rope is 120 away from 0. Rope “b” has a force of 12N in it and is 10 from zero. What is the 0resultant force acting on the log? (11.93 N, 49.04) 0044. Find the resultant force on the log if “a” remains the same and “b” is changed to 14N at 150. (21.30 N, 139.17) o45. Three teenagers push a heavy crate across the floor. Dion pushes with a force of 185 N at 0. Shirley exerts a force of oo0165N at 30, while Joan pushes with a 195 N force at 300. What is the resultant force on the crate? (434.07 N, 348.52) oo46. Three people are pulling on a tree. The first person pulls with 15N at 65.0; the second with 16N at 135; the third with o011N at 195. What is the resultant force on the tree? (27.01 N, 125)

    47. *A net force of 55 N acts due west on an object. What added single force on the object produces equilibrium? (55 N,

    East) 0048. Two forces act on an object. One force is 6.0 N East (0) and the second force is 8.0 N South (270). 0a. Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant. (10 N, 306.87)

    b. If the object is in equilibrium, find the magnitude and direction of the force that produces equilibrium. (10 N, 0126.87) oo49. A 62-N force acts at 30.0 and a second 62-N force acts at 60.0. Determine the resultant and the equilibrant forces. 00(119.77 N, 45; 119.77 N, 225) oo50. Two forces act on an object. A 36-N force acts at 225. A 48-N force acts at 315. What would be the magnitude and 00direction of their equilibrant? (60 N, 278.12; 60 N, 98.12) o51. *The sign problem. A 168N sign is supported from its top surface by two ropes that each make a 22.5 angle with the

    horizontal. The sign is not moving. How much force is in each rope? (219.50 N) o52. The sign in the last problem is now hung by ropes that each make an angle of 42 with the horizontal. How much force is

    now in each rope? (125.54 N)

    53. The people who hung the sign in the last two problems decided to raise it higher by pulling the two ropes more horizontal.

    They increase the force in each rope to 575N and keep the angles they make with the horizontal equal to each other. 0What angle does each rope make with the horizontal now? (8.40)

    Unit 2 AP Practice Problems Linear Forces 3

     o54. *Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750N outside his store so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30.0 angle with

    the vertical wall of the store as shown in the figure below. Cable B is horizontally attached to the vertical side of another

    building. Calculate the tension in cable B. (B and A are two different cables) (433 N)

     A

     0 30

     B

    55. A 43.8 kg sign is suspended by two wires. Find the tension in each of the wires. ( T1 = 328.27 N, T2 = 388.72 N)

     00 30 43

     1 2

    56. Find the tension in wire A and the weight of the unknown mass. ( mg=222.50 N, T= 183.63 N) A

     A

     0 42

     B 0 35

    W = ?

     150 N

Forces on inclined planes 057. *A box weighing 215 N is placed on an incline plane that makes an angle of 35 with the horizontal.

    a. Compute the component of the gravitational force acting down the incline plane. (123.32 N)

    b. Compute the component of the weight perpendicular the plane. (176.12 N) 058. *A 563N trunk is placed on a frictionless inclined plane that forms a 66 angle with the horizontal.

    a. Calculate the F and F (514.33 N, 228.99 N) ??b. Find the acceleration of the trunk (8.95 m/s/s down the incline)

    59. *Find the acceleration of the trunk in the previous problem if 20N of friction exists between the trunk and the plane.

    (8.60 m/s/s down the incline) 060. You push a 325 N trunk up a 20 incline with a constant velocity with a force of 211N parallel to the incline.

    a. What is the component of the trunk’s weight parallel to the plane? (111.16 N)

    b. What is the sum of your applied force, friction, and the parallel component of the trunk’s weight equal to? Why?

    (0 N---constant velocity = no acceleration = no net force)

    c. What is the size and direction of the friction force? (99.84 N down the incline)

    d. What is the coefficient of friction? (0.33 ) 061. A car weighing 1.2 E4 N is parked on a 36 slope. The brakes on the car fail and the car starts to roll down the hill. The

    coefficient of friction between the tires and the ground is 0.5.

    a. What is the acceleration of the car? (1.80 m/s/s---down the incline)

    b. After the car has moved 30m, how fast is it moving? (10.36 m/s, down the incline) 062. *A 2.5 Kg block accelerates down a 25 incline plane. The block starts from rest at the top. At the bottom of the ramp its

    speed is 0.65 m/s. The length of the incline is 1.6m.

    Unit 2 AP Practice Problems Linear Forces 4

    a. What is the acceleration of the block? (0.13 m/s/s down the incline)

    b. What is the coefficient of friction between the plane and the block? (0.45)

    63. The roof on a house rises 1m over a horizontal distance of 3.5m. A 71 Kg roofer stands on the roof. What is the value of

    the frictional force that keeps him from sliding off? (191.20 N) 064. *A student is skateboarding down a ramp that is 6m long and inclined at 18 to the horizontal. The initial speed of the

    skateboarder at the top of the ramp is 2.6m/s. Ignoring friction, what is her speed at the bottom of the ramp? (6.57 m/s)

    65. *A sled slides down an 11.3 degree incline at constant velocity. What is the coefficient of friction between the sled and

    the ground? (0.20) 066. *A block (m1) lying on a 33 inclined plane is connected by a mass-less cord that passes over a frictionless pulley to

    another mass (m2) hanging over the high edge of the incline. The coefficient of friction between m1 and the plane is 0.21

    and m1 = m2 = 3.1 Kg. What is the acceleration of the masses? (1.37 m/s/s)

    Unit 2 AP Practice Problems Linear Forces 5

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