2020 Vision for Social Investment

By Lori Barnes,2014-08-11 17:39
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2020 Vision for Social Investment

    Also available from the UNICEF Caribbean Area Office Working Paper Series

    No.1:The Socio-Economic Prospects for the Anglophone Eastern Caribbean in the Short and Medium Term.

    Dr. Neville Duncan.

No.2:“I Did Not Finish School, School Finished With Me.” Preparing Today’s Children For 21st Century

    Life. Macharia Kamau and Fabio Sabatini.

No.3:Youth in Conflict with the Law. The Case of Grenada.

    Legal Aid and Counselling Clinic.

To request a copy please write or mail e-mail to:

UNICEF Caribbean Area Office

    Hastings Building, Hastings, Christ Church, BARBADOS, P.O. Box 1232


An electronic copy of these papers is also available at the UNICEF website

    Working Papers are working documents. They present new ideas, innovative approaches, case studies, biographies and research results, prepared either by UNICEF staff or by consultants or others supported by UNICEF. Their purpose is to facilitate the rapid exchange of knowledge and perspectives among field offices and to stimulate discussions. The contents of this working paper do not necessarily reflect the policies or the views of UNICEF. The typescript has not been edited to official publications standards, and UNICEF accepts no responsibility for errors. The designations employed in this publication and the presentation of the material do not imply on the part of the United Nations Children’s Fund the expression of any opinion whatsoever concerning the legal status of any country or territory, or of its authorities, or the delimitation of its frontiers,.

    Any part of this paper may be copied, reproduced or adapted without prior permission from UNICEF Caribbean Area Office, provided that credit is given to UNICEF and the authors, and that parts reproduced, copied or adapted are not distribute for profit, in which case permission must be obtained by the authors and the Representative, UNICEF Caribbean Area Office, Hastings, Christ Church, Barbados. UNICEF would appreciate information on how the material has been used or a copy of such material, if appropriate.

Text: Macharia Kamau and Fabio Sabatini

    Concept:Fabio Sabatini

    Design and Graphics:Judith Hinds

    These Working Papers constitute one of UNICEF Caribbean Area Office’s ways of engaging itself, its partners -in both government and non-governmental institutions and in Academia- in an open intellectual and programmatic discourse that is premised on the belief that “information is power” and, furthermore, sharing of information is empowering.

    The crossroad of economic, social and cultural transformation at which the Caribbean is situated demands that choices about the way forward be informed through open and consultative discourse. These Working Papers are part of UNICEF’s contribution to the making of these informed choices. The Papers are based on practical development experiences and problems that UNICEF and its partners confront while seeking to achieve the objectives and goals of UNICEF’s mission, and the development intentions of its collaborating partners.

    We hope that you will find the subjects interesting and the treatment of the material thorough and pertinent to the realm of development practice.

    Macharia Kamau

    Area Representative


    “State Parties recognise the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for

    the child's physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development..

    Article 27.1 - CRC (emphasis added).

    Caribbean countries are extremely open small developing economies with limited population and market size, and therefore particularly susceptible to changes in global trends. Exports of goods and services from the subregion represent two-thirds of the GDP on average, while imports are equivalent to as much as 80 percent. A favourable world trade period for the Subregion (including a burgeoning tourist industry, and advantageous marketing arrangements for key agricultural exports), allowed the Caribbean, particularly the smaller island territories, to achieve high economic growth up until the late 1980s. This played a major role in sustaining investment in health and education, which resulted in improvements in people’s welfare, as testified by the substantial gains in child survival, life expectancy and education of the past three decades.

    Unfortunately, contrary to the belief that GDP increase alone would eliminate poverty and other social ills, the subregion witnessed the paradoxical co-existence of expanding economies and worsening income distribution, with widening gaps between the rich and the poor. This is because, while the per capita income appears to be relatively high, it is characterised by skewed distribution. By the beginning of this decade, families at the top 10 per cent income bracket had improved their

    absolute as well as relative wealth, and were earning between 15 and 20 times the incomes of the poorest 10 per cent (Green, 1995). This

    growing disparity has been shown to have a strong correlation with the social disintegration that is emerging in many Caribbean communities.

    In addition, changes in global

    market and political conditions

    have had a negative effect on the

    regional economic climate. Since

    the beginning of this decade,

    increased competition stemming

    from world trade adjustments, the

    erosion of preferential market

    access, the decline in official

    capital flows from bilateral and

    multi-lateral sources, and the

    fluctuations of the regional tourist

    industry, created adverse changes

     in the terms of trade and global

    demand for exports, while

    generating rising interest rates on external debt.

    As a result, during the 1990s, the region has been experiencing a general deceleration of economic performance, whereby GDP growth rates in

    some smaller countries fell by almost half between 1990 and 1994.

    This decline has also been attributed to inadequate domestic policy responses, including a sharp increase in external borrowing and expansionary monetary and fiscal policies to finance capital projects, and to enable Governments to maintain the noted high levels of social expenditure and public sector

    employment. Table 1.

     Poor Population, Percentage Today in the Caribbean, around 30 Selected Countries

    Country % Poor per cent of the population live in

    Antigua and Barbuda 12 poverty, (Table 1) that is 1.8 Barbados 8 million people who are not able Dominica 33

    Grenada 20 to adequately satisfy their basic Guyana 43 human needs Jamaica 34 St. Kitts and Nevis 15

    St. Lucia 25 The findings of the 1996 Survey of St. Vincent and the Grenadines 39 Living Conditions in St.Vincent Suriname 47 and the Grenadines (where it Trinidad and Tobago 21

    REGIONAL AVERAGES was estimated that almost 40

    Latin America and Caribbean 25 percent of the population lives East Asia and Pacific 11 below the poverty line), clearly Middle East and North Africa 33

    Eastern Europe 7 pointed to the “feminization of

    South Asia 49 poverty”, for there are far more Sub-Sahara Africa 48 female headed households among Source: World Bank, 1996 These estimates were arrived at using different methodologies and the poor; and to the fact that, on therefore cannot be used to compare country situations. The only average, there are many more figures that can be used for this purpose are those appearing at the rightmost side of the table children in these households (Graph 2). The St.Vincent and the

    Grenadines Poverty Assessment

    Study also demonstrated that women in the poorest 20 percent of household have the lowest participation in the labour force and are employed at the bottom end of the salary scale, and, therefore, they, and their children, face serious economic and human deprivation.

Likewise, the 1994 St. Kitts and Nevis Labour Force Study estimated that

    over a third of the households headed by women had three or more dependent children under fifteen years of age, and in that year only about half of them were working in 1994.

This is also confirmed in Grenada where, despite the lack of specific data

    on children in poverty, it is possible to infer that since approximately 45 percent of households are headed by women, 55 percent of whom are unemployed, there is a large number of children living below the poverty line.

    Likewise, the 1994 St. Kitts and Nevis Labour Force Study estimated that over a

    third of the households headed by women had three or more dependent children

    under fifteen years of age, and in that year only about half of them were working

     20/20 Vision for Social Investment - 7

in 1994.

    This is also confirmed in Grenada where, despite the lack of specific data on children in poverty, it is possible to infer that since approximately 45 percent of

    households are headed by women, 55 percent of whom are unemployed, there is

    a large number of children living below the poverty line.

    Overcrowding (two or more persons per

    room) can also be used as a proxy

    indicator of poverty and of conditions that

     may expose the child to serious risks of

    diseases, school failure, and sexual or

    other forms of abuse. The 1991 Census

    returns reveal that more than half the

    population in Dominica (where the

    Poverty Assessment Study estimates

    27.6 percent of poor households) was

    living in overcrowded homes.

The result of this economic downturn Femaleplus the failure to provide marketable Graph 3.

    MaleYouth Unemployment by Sexskills to the young is that

    Grenada, Percentage 1994Bothemployment generation has not kept