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(Problem-Solution

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(Problem-Solution

    Unit 2 (8 periods)

    Section A: Environmental Protection Throughout the World (4 periods) ; Period 1-2

    I. Warm-up Questions / Activities

    1. Work in pairs to discuss what kind of environment you prefer to have?

    clean air and water, green trees, mild climate,

    convenient traffic but not much noise,

    convenient shopping environment

2. List whatever environmental problems you know.

    1) global warming

    2) water pollution

    3) dust storm

    4) air pollution

    5) soil erosion

II. Comprehension of the Text

    Deal with the comprehension Exercise of the text on Page38.

III. Text Structure

    (Combined with Text Structure Analysis and Structured Writing)

    Divide the text into 2 parts and find the topic sentence in every part. Topic: The environmental situation and the corresponding measures taken throughout the world. Part 1 (Para. 1): Most countries neglect the environmental problem in their development.

    However, with the increasing of the environmental problem, some countries have taken

    measures to protect the environment.

    Part 2 (Para. 2-14): A list of countries and their environmental problems, solutions and the effects.

     (Problem-Solution Pattern)

     Para. 2-4: Canada: excessive fishing

    ? set strict limits on catches, issue fishing ban

    Para. 5: Costa Rica: removal of forests, soil erosion

    ? issue environmental laws, create parks and nature preserves

    ? some species have recovered but many people lost job.

    Para. 6-8: Brazil: clearing of the rain forest

    ? end tax favors that had encouraged forest removal; finance forest protection

    projects

    Para. 9-10: Eastern Europe: industrial contamination

    ? sign a series of treaties to protect environment from industrial contamination;

    set up special funds for environmental cleanups and improving the power

    plants

    Para. 11-12: Ghana: explosive population growth

    ? share farmland; sponsor the growing of cash crop and regenerate the waste

    land

    Para. 13-14: Indonesia: large population?encourage birth control

IV. Background Information

    1. Ecology

     Ecology is the study of the relationships among plants, animals, people, and their environment, and the balance among these relationships.

    2. New England

    New England is the most northeastern region of the U.S.A., including the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont. It was so named by John Smith when he explored it in 1614. A New Englander is a native or resident of New England.

    3. Grand Banks

     Grand Banks is a vast extension of the ocean off southeast Newfoundland,纽芬兰岛!in the

    North Atlantic, one of the worlds greatest cod-fishing grounds.

    4. Islam

    Islam is a religion and social way of life based on the teachings of Mohammed as preserved in the Koran (可兰经) and the Sunna (伊斯兰教教规). It is centered in Mecca (麦加), and includes

    the worship of gods represented by holy stones called the Kaaba (建于麦加的伊斯兰教寺院内的

    圣堂).

    5. Mecca

    Mecca or Makkah, with a population of 200,000, is the chief holy city of Islam, capital of the Hejaz (汉志省, 沙特阿拉伯省名), Saudi Arabia, in a valley surrounded by hills, 80 km. from the Red Sea. It was the birthplace of Mohammed. Its economy depends upon pilgrims (朝圣者).

V. Intensive Reading

    1. The great majority of nations concern themselves with economic development, regardless of

    its effect on the global ecology.

    Meaning: Most countries in the world are interested in developing the economy and careless

    about protecting the environment of the earth.

    concern oneself with: give attention because you think that it is important.

    ----I didnt concern myself with political matters.

    ----A good doctor should always concern himself with the health of his patients. 2. But in recent years, as environmental damage has increased, signs of change have sprung up in

    various pockets around the world.

     Meaning: However, because lately the environment is increasingly damaged, people in a

    number of areas all over the world have changed their attitudes quickly and even

    taken action towards the damage.

    spring up: suddenly appear or come into existence

    ---Towns have sprung up in what was a dry desert.

    ----New theatres and arts centers sprang up all over the country. 3. ... undertaking new environmental initiatives.

    Meaning: starting on some new important acts or movements that are intended to deal with the

    damage caused to environment

    undertake: vt. 1) take up a position, start on a task or job

    ----She undertakes the responsibility for changes.

    ---She undertook the organization of the whole plan.

    2) agree or promise to do sth.

    ----He undertook to finish the job by Friday.

    ----We cant undertake that you will make a profit.

    initiative: n. 1) [C] action taken to solve a difficulty

     ----It is hoped that the government’s initiative will bring the strike to an end.

    2) the initiative (sing.) power or right to take action

    ----The initiative has passed to us. 主动权已转到了我们一方。

    ----Because of a stupid mistake, we lost the initiative in the business discussions 4. ... together with the creation of parks and nature reserves ...

    nature reserve: an area of land or water kept for nature protection自然保护区

    5. But in 1991, under pressure from environmentalists around the world, Brazil reversed course.

    Reverse course: change one’s course of action completely. Here the phrase means that the

    government of Brazil changed its policies to the opposite.

    6. The government promises it will protect the region’s native people, but questions remain as to its true level of commitment.

    Meaning: Though the government makes a promise to give protection to the native people, the

    Amazon Indians who live in the area, people still have doubts about its actual efforts

    to keep the promise.

    7. It has sponsored the growing of cash crops such as cassava, maize, and cotton, and the

    planting of trees to regenerate waste land.

    Meaning: The government of Ghana has officially supported the people to grow cassava, maize,

    and cotton, which are crops grown in order to be sold, and to replant the land that

    has been destroyed.

    sponsor: vt. 1) support ... by giving money, encouragement or other help

    ----The team is sponsored by Sony, so the players wear the letters S o n y on their shirts.

    ----The football match is sponsored by a big company.

    2) initiate; hold

    ----The church sponsored the fair to raise money for elderly people.

    教会为老年人筹集福利基金而举办了这次义卖。

    ----He sponsored the plan at the meeting. 他在会上倡议了这一计划。

     n. [C] a person or organization that sponsors something or someone

    ----the sponsor of the new employee 新雇员的担保人

    ----Coca-Cola is the sponsor of the yearly Christmas party.

    ----The firm is the sponsor of ten engineering students at the university. cash crop: a crop that is grown for sale rather than for use by the grower 经济作物

    regenerate: v. develop and improve something to make it more active, successful, or important,

    esp. after a period when it has been declining; give or obtain new life; grow again

    ----The Chinese government will try to regenerate the damaged area.

    ----This kind of animal’s tail will regenerate if it is cut off.

     这种动物的尾巴如被切除会重新长出来。

    8. But it remains to be seen whether these measures will have enough impact to slow the rate of removing the forests.

remain to: ?Exercise VII on Page 40

----It remains to be seen whether her parents will agree.

; Period 3-4

    VI. Language Points

    1. abundant: a. more than enough; present in large quantities (~ in / with)

    ----There are abundant supplies of wood for fires in the forest.

    ----This is a land abundant in minerals.

    ----The rivers of the New World were abundant with fish.

2. diverse: a.

    1) of different kinds; various种类不同的,多种多样的

    ----people from diverse cultures 来自不同文化背景的人

    ----His interests are very diverse.

    2) different (from each other); not the same

    ----My sister and I have diverse ideas on how to raise children. diversity n.

    ----His writing shows the diversity of human behavior and ability.

    ----There is a cultural diversity in the United States. 美国文化具多样性。

3. series n. [pl. unchanged] number of things, events, etc. of a similar kind, esp. placed or

    happening one after another 一连串,一系列,连续的事物,件!

    ----a series of good harvests 连年的丰收

    ----a television series 电视系列节目

    ----world series 世界系列比赛,如美国垒球或橄榄球的重要比赛!

4. reverse

    vt. 1) turn (sth.) the other way round or up, or inside out

    ----Writing is reversed in the mirror.

    2) exchange (two functions, positions, etc.) 互换,功能、地位等!

    ----The husband and the wife have reversed their roles.

    ----Their situations are now reversed as the employee has become the employer.

    3) remove or wipe out 撤消,取消

    ----reverse the decision of the lower court 撤消下级法院的判决

    n. 1)sing.a thing that is the contrary or opposite to what is expected

    ----In hot weather, the reverse happens. 气候炎热时,时常出现反常的天气。

    ----The exact reverse was the case. 情况正好相反。

    2) [C] other side or back of sth. 背面,反面

    ----The British ten-pence piece has a lion on the reverse.

    ----His name is on the reverse of the medal.

    3) [C] change for the worse; bad luck or trouble 挫折,不幸

    ----He used to be rich, but he met with reverses in his business.

    ----The Party's fortunes went into reverse. 该党的时运发生了逆转。

    a. contrary or opposite to what is expected 相对的,相反的,颠倒的

    ----Please read the names on this list in reverse order.

    ---The record showed a reverse trend to that in other countries. 5. finance

vt. provide money for (a project, etc.)

    ----The project is partly financed by the government. ----The repairs to the school will be financed by a private company. n. 1) [U] management of (esp. public) money 理财,尤指公款!,金融财政

    ----The company needs a man who knows finance.

    ----State finance has also entered a new stage. 2)pl. money available to a person, company or country

    ----Are the firm’s finances sound? 这个公司的资金充实吗(

    ----Whether it can be done depends on your finances.

6. conflict

    n. 1) [C, U] (of opinions, desires, etc.) opposing; difference; clash

    ----the conflict between one's duty and one's desire

    ----It is not surprising that such a view has led to great conflict. 2) [C, U] struggle; fight 斗争,战斗

    ----A conventional conflict might become a nuclear war. vi. be against or in disagreement with; clash

    ----The statements of the two girls conflict.

    ----Has France ever conflicted with England in modern history?

7. impact

    n. 1) [C] usu. sing. strong impression or effect on sb./sth.

    ----Her speech made a great impact on everyone.

    ----The news did not make much impact on me.

    2) [U] hitting of one object against another

    ----The cup hit the wall and broke on impact.

    v. 1) to leave a powerful effect on a situation or person

    ----These accidents will impact our school's name.

    ----Falling trade rates have impacted on the country's economy. 2) strike, hit

    ----The ball impacted against the bat with a loud noise.

8. frown:

    v. 1) (on/upon) disagree; disapproved 不赞成,反对

    ----Smoking is frowned upon in many restaurants.

    ----Many doctors frown on a diet which has a lot of fat. 2) 皱眉,蹙额

    ----She frowned as she stared at the blank piece of paper, wondering what to write.

    ----The teacher frowned at the class of noisy children but it had no effect.

    n. [C] 皱眉

    ----"Stop doing that." she said with a frown.

    ----I noticed a slight frown of disagreement on his face.

9. shelter

n. 1) [U] a living place住所,住处

    ----The farmers' immediate need is for food, clothing and shelter.

    2) [C] structure built to give protection, esp. from rain, wind or attack

    ----Everyone looked for a shelter from the bad weather.

    3) [U] condition of being protected, kept safe, etc.

    ----We gave the old man shelter for the night.

    ----The temple provided shelter for hundreds of families whose homes had been flooded.

    vt. give shelter to sb./sth.; protect sb./sth.

    ----The trees shelter the house from the wind.

    ----He is trying to shelter his boss from critical comment.

    他竭力使他的老板不受批评。

    vi. find a place that gives shelter; take shelter

    ----We sheltered under a tree until the rain passed.

10. convert: v.

    1) change one’s belief, attitude, etc.

    ----He honestly converted to Christianity. 他真诚地改信了基督教。

    ----My daughter has converted me to pop music.

    2) change something from one form or use to another

    ----This seat converts easily into a bed.

    ----They converted their money from pounds into dollars.

    ----Does electricity convert easily to other forms of power?

11. regardless of: paying no attention to

    ----Regardless of the danger, he climbed the tower.

    ----Regardless of whether he is right or wrong, we have to obey his decision.

VII. Summary

    1. Ask students to summarize the text with the help of reference words. 2. Finish story summary on P42.

VIII. In-Class Exercises

     Vocabulary: Exercise III, IV,

    Word Building: Exercise V, VI,

    Structure: Exercise VII, VIII

IX. Homework

    1. Finish the rest exercises of Section A

    2. Practice the writing technique: Problem Solution Pattern

     Topics: Against Smoking in Public

     Against Cheating on Exams

    3. Preview Section B.

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