Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of Due Attention Should Be Given to the Study of Chinese. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below:
Due Attention Should Be Given to the Study of Chinese
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Obama's success isn't all good news for black Americans
As Erin White watched the election results head towards victory for Barack Obama, she felt a burden lifting from her shoulders. "In that one second, it was a validation for my whole race," she recalls.
"I've always been an achiever," says White, who is studying for an MBA at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. "But there had always been these things in the back of my mind questioning whether I really can be who I want. It was like a shadow, following me around saying you can only go so far. Now it's like a barrier has been let down."
White's experience is what many psychologists had expected - that Obama would prove to be a powerful role model for African Americans. Some hoped his rise to prominence would have a big impact on white Americans, too, challenging those who still harbour racist sentiments. "The traits that characterise him are very contradictory to the racial stereotypes that black people are aggressive and uneducated," says Ashby Plant of Florida State University. "He's very intelligent and eloquent."
Sting in the tail
Ashby Plant is one of a number of psychologists who seized on Obama's candidacy to test hypotheses about the power of role models. Their work is already starting to reveal how the "Obama effect" is changing people's views and behaviour. Perhaps surprisingly, it is not all good news: there is a sting in the tail of the Obama effect.
But first the good news. Barack Obama really is a positive role model for African Americans, and he was making an impact even before he got to the White House. Indeed, the Obama effect can be surprisingly immediate and powerful, as Ray Friedman of Vanderbilt University and his colleagues discovered.
They tested four separate groups at four key stages of Obama's presidential campaign. Each group consisted of around 120 adults of similar age and education, and the test assessed their language skills. At two of these stages, when Obama's success was less than certain, the tests showed a clear difference between the scores of
the white and black participants—an average of 12.1 out of 20, compared to 8.8, for
example. When the Obama fever was at its height, however, the black participants performed much better. Those who had watched Obama's acceptance speech as the Democrats' presidential candidate performed just as well, on average, as the white subjects.After his election victory, this was true of all the black participants.
What can explain this dramatic shift? At the start of the test, the participants had to declare their race and were told their results would be used to assess their strengths and weaknesses. This should have primed the subjects with "stereotype threat" – an
anxiety that their results will confirm negative stereotypes, which has been shown to damage the performance of African Americans.
Obama's successes seemed to act as a shield against this. "We suspect they felt inspired and energised by his victory, so the stereotype threat wouldn't prove a distraction," says Friedman.
If the Obama effect is positive for African Americans, how is it affecting their white compatriots (同胞)? Is the experience of having a charismatic (有魅力的) black
president modifying lingering racist attitudes? There is no easy way to measure racism directly; instead psychologists assess what is known as "implicit bias", using a computer-based test that measures how quickly people associate positive and negative words—such as "love" or "evil"—with photos of black or white faces. A similar test
can also measure how quickly subjects associate stereotypical traits—such as athletic
skills or mental ability—with a particular group.
In a study that will appear in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Plant's team tested 229 students during the height of the Obama fever. They found that implicit bias has fallen by as much as 90% compared with the level found in a similar study in 2006. "That's an unusually large drop," Plant says.
While the team can't be sure their results are due solely to Obama, they also showed that those with the lowest bias were likely to subconsciously associate black skin colour with political words such as "government" or "president". This suggests that Obama was strongly on their mind, says Plant.
Drop in bias
Brian Nosek of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, who runs a website that measures implicit bias using similar test, has also observed a small drop in bias in the 700,000 visitors to the site since January 2007, which might be explained by Obama's rise to popularity. However, his preliminary results suggest that change will be much slower coming than Plant's results suggest.
"People now have the opportunity of expressing support for Obama every day," says Daniel Effron at Stanford University in California. "Our research arouses the concern that people may now be more likely to raise negative views of African Americans." On the other hand, he says, it may just encourage people to talk more honestly about their feelings regarding race issues, which may not be such a bad thing.
Another part of the study suggests far more is at stake than the mere expression of views. The Obama effect may have a negative side. Just one week after Obama was elected president, participants were less ready to support policies designed to address racial inequality than they had been two weeks before the election.
It could, of course, also be that Obama's success helps people to forget that a disproportionate number of black Americans still live in poverty and face huge obstacles when trying to overcome these circumstances. "Barack Obama's family is
) image, we generalise it and fail to see the larger picture—that such a salient (出色的
there's injustice in every aspect of American life," says Cheryl Kaiser of the University of Washington in Seattle. Those trying to address issues of racial inequality need to constantly remind people of the inequalities that still exist to counteract the Obama's effect, she says.
Though Plant's findings were more positive, she too warns against thinking that racism and racial inequalities are no longer a problem. "The last thing I want is for people to think everything's solved."
These findings do not only apply to Obama, or even just to race. They should hold for any role model in any country. "There's no reason we wouldn't have seen the same effect on our views of women if Hillary Clinton or Sarah Palin had been elected," says Effron. So the election of a female leader might have a downside for other women.
We also don't yet know how long the Obama effect—both its good side and its
bad—will last.Political sentiment is notoriously changeable: What if things begin to go wrong for Obama, and his popularity slumps?
And what if Americans become so familiar with having Obama as their president that they stop considering his race altogether? "Over time he might become his own entity," says Plant. This might seem like the ultimate defeat for racism, but ignoring the race of certain select individuals—a phenomenon that psychologists call
subtyping—also has an insidious (隐伏的) side. "We think it happens to help people
preserve their beliefs, so they can still hold on to the previous stereotypes." That could turn out to be the cruellest of all the twists to the Obama effect.
1. How did Erin White feel upon seeing Barack Obama's victory in the election?
2. Before the election, Erin White has been haunted by the question of whether ______.
A) she could obtain her MBA degree
B) she could go as far as she wanted in life
C) she was overshadowed by her white peers
D) she was really an achiever as a student
3. What is the focus of Ashby Plant's study?
A) Racist sentiments in America.
B) The power of role models.
C) Personality traits of successful blacks.
D) The dual character of African Americans.
4. In their experiments, Ray Friedman and his colleagues found that ______.
A) blacks and whites behaved differently during the election
B) whites' attitude towards blacks has dramatically changed
C) Obama's election has eliminated the prejudice against blacks
D) Obama's success impacted blacks' performance in language tests
5. What do Brian Nosek's preliminary results suggest?
A) The change in bias against blacks is slow in coming.
B) Bias against blacks has experienced an unusual drop.
C) Website visitor's opinions are far from being reliable.
D) Obama's popularity may decline as time passes by.
6. A negative side of the Obama effect is that ______.
A) more people have started to criticise President Obama's racial policies
B) relations between whites and African Americans may become tense again
C) people are now less ready to support policies addressing racial inequality
D) white people are likely to become more critical of African Americans
7. Cheryl Kaiser holds that people should be constantly reminded that ______.
A) Obama's success is sound proof of black's potential
B) Obama is but a rare example of black's excellence
C) racial inequality still persists in American society
D) blacks still face obstacles in political participation
8. According to Effron, if Hillary Clinton or Sarah Palin had been elected, there would also have been a negative effect on ______.
9. It is possible that the Obama effect will be short-lived if there is a change in people's ______.
10. The worst possible aspect of the Obama effect is that people could ignore his race altogether and continue to hold on to their old racial ______.
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11.A) The man failed to keep his promise.
B) The woman has a poor memory.
C) The man borrowed the book from the library.
D) The woman does not need the book any more.
12.A) The woman is making too big a fuss about her condition.
B) Fatigue is a typical symptom of lack of exercise.
C) The woman should spend more time outdoors.
D) People tend to work longer hours with artificial lighting.
13.A) The printing on her T-shirt has faded.
B) It is not in fashion to have a logo on a T-shirt.
C) She regrets having bought one of the T-shirts.
D) It is not a good idea to buy the T-shirt.
14.A) He regrets having published the article.
B) Most readers do not share his viewpoints.
C) Not many people have read his article.
D) The woman is only trying to console him.
15.A) Leave Daisy alone for the time being.
B) Go see Daisy immediately.
C) Apologize to Daisy again by phone.
D) Buy Daisy a new notebook.
B) Garden tools.
D) Light bulbs.
17.A) The speakers will watch the game together.
B) The woman feels lucky to have got a ticket.
C) The man plays center on the basketball team.
D) The man can get the ticket at its original price.
18.A) The speakers will dress formally for the concert.
B) The man will return home before going to the concert.
C) It is the first time the speakers are attending a concert.
D) The woman is going to buy a new dress for the concert.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A) He wants to sign a long-term contract.
B) He is good at both language and literature.
C) He prefers teaching to administrative work.
D) He is undecided as to which job to go for.
20.A) They hate exams.
B) The all plan to study in Cambridge.
C) They are all adults.
D) They are going to work in companies.
21.A) Difficult but rewarding.
B) Varied and interesting.
C) Time-consuming and tiring.
D) Demanding and frustrating.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
22.A) Interviewing a moving star.
B) Discussing teenage role models.
C) Hosting a television show.
D) Reviewing a new biography.
23.A) He lost his mother.
B) He was unhappy in California.
C) He missed his aunt.
D) He had to attend school there.
24.A) He delivered public speeches.
B) He got seriously into acting.
C) He hosted talk shows on TV.
D) He played a role in East of Eden.
25.A) He made numerous popular movies.
B) He has long been a legendary figure.
C) He was best at acting in Hollywood tragedies.
D) He was the most successful actor of his time. Section B
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each
passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be
spoken only once.After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from
the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on
Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 29 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
A) It carried passengers leaving an island.
B) A terrorist forced it to land on Tenerife.
C) It crashed when it was circling to land.
D) 18 of its passengers survived the crash.
A) He was kidnapped eight months ago.
B) He failed in his negotiations with the Africans.
C) He was assassinated in Central Africa.
D) He lost lots of money in his African business.
A) The management and union representatives reached an agreement.
B) The workers' pay was raised and their working hours were shortened.
C) The trade union gave up its demand.
D) The workers on strike were all fired.
Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
A) Some of them had once experienced an earthquake.
B) Most of them lacked interest in the subject.
C) Very few of them knew much about geology.
D) A couple of them had listened to a similar speech before.
A) By reflecting on Americans' previous failures in predicting earthquakes.
B) By noting where the most severe earthquake in U. S. history occurred.
C) By describing the destructive power of earthquakes.
D) By explaining some essential geological principles.
A) Interrupt him whenever he detected a mistake.
B) Focus on the accuracy of the language he used.
C) Stop him when he had difficulty understanding.
D) Write down any points where he could improve.
Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
A) It was invented by a group of language experts in the year of 1887.
B) It is a language that has its origin in ancient Polish.
C) It was created to promote economic globalization.
D) It is a tool of communication among speakers of different languages.
A) It aims to make Esperanto a working language in the U. N.
B) It has increased its popularity with the help of the media.
C) It has encountered increasingly tougher challenges.
D) It has supporters from many countries in the world.
A) It is used by a number of influential science journals.
B) It is widely taught at schools and in universities.
C) It has aroused the interest of many young learners.
D) It has had a greater impact than in any other country.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
George Herbert Mead said that humans are talked into humanity. He meant that we gain personal identity as we communicate with others. In the earliest years of our
lives, our parents tell us who we are. "You're (36) ______." "You're so strong." We first see ourselves through the eyes of others, so their messages form important (37) ______ of our self-concepts. Later we interact with teachers, friends, (38) ______ partners, and co-workers who communicate their views of us.Thus, how we see ourselves (39) ______ the views of us that others communicate.
The (40) ______ connection between identity and communication is (41) ______ evident in children who are (42) ______ of human contact. Case studies of children who were isolated from others reveal that they lack a firm self-concept, and their mental and psychological development is severely (43) ______ by lack of language.
Communication with others not only affects our sense of identity but also directly influences our physical and emotional well-being. Consistently, (44) ________________________________________________. People who lack close friends have greater levels of anxiety and depression than people who are close to others. (45) ________________________________________________. The
conclusion was that social isolation is statistically as dangerous as high blood pressure, smoking and obesity. Many doctors and researchers believe that (46)
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
Question: My ninth-grade art teacher doesn't give any grade above 94% because, she says, "There's always room for improvement." In previous years, I earned a 99% and a 100%. The 94 I received this term does not reflect the hard work that I put into this course. Because of her "improvement" theory, I got a lower grade than I deserve. Is her grading philosophy ethical (符合职业道德规范的)?
Answer: Your teacher's grading system may be unwise, but it is not unethical. A teacher deserves wide latitude in selecting the method of grading that best promotes learning in her classroom; that is, after all, the prime function of grades. It is she who has the training and experience to make this decision. Assuming that your teacher is neither biased nor corrupt and that her system conforms to school rules, you can't fault her ethics.
You can criticize her methodology. A 100 need not imply that there is no possibility of improvement, only that a student successfully completed the course work. A ninth grader could get a well-earned 100 in English class but still have a way to go before she writes as well as Jane Austen. What's more, grades are not only an educational device but are also part of a screening system to help assign kids to their next class or program. By capping her grades at 94 while most other teachers grade on a scale that tops out at 100, your teacher could jeopardize a student's chance of getting a scholarship or getting into a top college.
What it is wrong to condemn her for is overlooking your hard work. You diligence is worthy of encouragement, but effort does not equal accomplishment. If
scholars suddenly discovered that Rembrandt had dashed off "The Night Watch" in an afternoon, it would still be "The Night Watch."
I could spend months sweating over my own "paintings", but I'd produce something you wouldn't want to hang in your living room. Or your garage.
One feature of a good grading system is that those measured by it generally regard it as fair and reasonable—not the case here. Simmering (难以平息的)
resentment is seldom an aid to education.And so your next step should be to discuss your concerns with your teacher or the principal.
47. The ninth-grader thought that his art teacher should have given him ______.
48. According to the answer, a teacher should have the freedom to ______ to encourage learning.
49. We learn from the answer that a student who gets a 100 should still work hard and keep ______.
50. The example of Rembrandt's painting suggests that a distinction should be made between ______.
51. The ninth-grader is advised to go to his teacher or the principal to ______.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 51 to 56 are based on the following passage.
Only two countries in the advanced world provide no guarantee for paid leave from work to care for a newborn child. Last spring one of the two, Australia, gave up the dubious distinction by establishing paid family leave starting in 2011. I wasn't surprised when this didn't make the news here in the United States—we're now the
only wealthy country without such a policy.
The United States does have one explicit family policy, the Family and Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993. It entitles workers to as much as 12 weeks' unpaid leave for care of a newborn or dealing with a family medical problem. Despite the modesty of the benefit, the Chamber of Commerce and other business groups fought it bitterly, describing it as "government-run personnel management" and a "dangerous precedent". In fact, every step of the way, as (usually) Democratic leaders have tried to introduce work-family balance measures into the law, business groups have been strongly opposed.
As Yale law professor Anne Alstott argues, justifying parental support depends on defining the family as a social good that, in some sense, society must pay for. In her book No Exit: What Parents Owe Their Children and What Society Owes Parents, she argues that parents are burdened in many ways in their lives: there is "no exit" when it comes to children. "Society expects—and needs—parents to provide their
children with continuity of care, meaning the intensive, intimate care that human beings need to develop their intellectual, emotional and moral capabilities. And
society expects—and needs—parents to persist in their roles for 18 years, or longer if needed."
While most parents do this out of love, there are public penalties for not providing care. What parents do, in other words, is of deep concern to the state, for the obvious reason that caring for children is not only morally urgent but essential for the future of society. The state recognizes this in the large body of family laws that govern children' welfare, yet parents receive little help in meeting the life-changing obligations society imposes. To classify parenting as a personal choice for which there is no collective responsibility is not merely to ignore the social benefits of good parenting; really, it is to steal those benefits because they accrue (不断积累) to the
whole of society as today's children become tomorrow's productive citizenry (公民).
In fact, by some estimates, the value of parental investments in children, investments of time and money (including lost wages), is equal to 20-30% of gross domestic product. If these investments generate huge social benefits—as they clearly do—the
benefits of providing more social support for the family should be that much clearer.
52. What do we learn about paid family leave from the first paragraph?
A) America is now the only developed country without the policy.
B) It has now become a hot topic in the United States.
C) It came as a surprise when Australia adopted the policy.
D) Its meaning was clarified when it was established in Australia.
53. What has prevented the passing of work-family balance laws in the United States?
A) The incompetence of the Democrats.
B) The existing Family and Medical Leave Act.
C) The lack of a precedent in American history.
D) The opposition from business circles.
54. What is Professor Anne Alstott's argument for parental support?
A) The cost of raising children in the U. S. has been growing.
B) Good parenting benefits society.
C) The U. S. should keep up with other developed countries.
D) Children need continuous care.
55. What does the author think of America's large body of family laws governing children's welfare?
A) They fail to ensure children's healthy growth
B) The fail to provide enough support for parents
C) They emphasize parents' legal responsibilities.
D) They impose the care of children on parents.
56. Why does the author object to classifying parenting as a personal choice?
A) It is regarded as a legal obligation.
B) It relies largely on social support.
C) It generates huge social benefits.
D) It is basically a social undertaking. Passage Two
Questions 57 to 62 are based on the following passage.