Talk about self-care theory in nursing care classification
Orem's self-care model  emphasized that the ultimate goal of nursing is to restore and enhance people's self-care ability of the
nursing practice has an important guiding role. Self-care is an individual
in order to maintain their own lives, maintenance and promotion of health and physical and mental development, there is awareness of a series of consecutive acts of self-regulation, the ability to complete such an act as self-care ability, that is, the individual's self-care ability.
Individual's self-care ability and means to personal growth is the process of gradually learn and improve, the need for experience and wisdom, guidance and assistance of others. Able to complete the self-care
activities, known as self-care body, under normal circumstances the adult body is its own self-care; but children, the sick, the disabled and other self-care body part is itself part of the health services or caregivers. Orem that: at a particular period of time, individuals have a specific therapeutic self-care ability and self-care needs (therapeutic self-care
needs is the need for care and the activities of self-care needs), when
such care needs of more than self-care body of self-care capacity will
need nursing care through the nursing interventions that nurses take various measures to compensate for their self-care deficiencies, lack of
self-care theory of Orem self-care model of the heart, describes the
individual in need of care when it clear that the The scope of work of
nursing. Care system theory explains how the patient's self-care needs
met. According to the patient's self-care needs and self-care ability, the
care system is divided into three categories: compensation system that is to say, some compensation systems and support - education system.
Grading nursing  is based on the patient's conditions of light, heavy, slow, acute and patient assessment of self-care ability (and the
doctors opened doctor's orders), given different levels of care (and to
make Logo: intensive care Red Triangle , a nursing Blue Triangle, 23 not do IDs).
An intensive care
1.1 applies to the object: the patient in critical condition, need to observe at any time for rescue. Such as severe trauma, the complex
problematic after major surgery, organ transplantation, a large area burns, and some serious medical disorders, etc..
1.2 care content: ? assign special personnel to 24h care, close
observation of changes in patient's condition and vital signs. ? develop
care plans and strict implementation of the clinics, and nursing measures, timely and accurately complete and objective record of special care, fill
out one by one single (critical patient care record sheets). ? prepare
the necessary first-aid medicines and the use of materials, ready to aid. ? good basic care, prevent complications, ensure patient safety.
1.3 Application of self-care theory: When the patient completely lost the ability to self-care can not meet the therapeutic self-care needs, the
patient should be given compensation for the implementation of complete systems to meet the patient oxygen, water, nutrition, excretion,
individual health, activities and sensory stimulation, and other needs.
Two levels of care
2.1 applies to the object: the patient in critical condition, the absolute need to stay in bed and the living can not fully care for
themselves or live part of the patient take care of themselves, but the condition of patients change over time. If, after a variety of major surgery, shock, coma, paralysis, high fever, bleeding, liver and kidney failure and premature infants and so on.
2.2 The care content: ? 15 ~ 30min each time the patient visits to observe the condition and vital signs changes. ? to develop care plans,
the strict implementation of the clinics, and nursing measures to promptly complete and accurate records of special care. ? prepare the necessary
first-aid medicines and the use of materials, ready to do basic first aid ? care, prevent complications, to meet the physical and psychological needs of patients.
2.3 Application of the theory of self-care: When the patient is
absolutely limited self-care capacity can not meet the therapeutic self-
care needs, the patient should be given compensation for the implementation of complete systems to meet the patient oxygen, water, nutrition, excretion, individual health, activities and sensory
stimulation, and other needs.
3 2 Care
3.1 applies to the object: the patient serious condition, life can not completely take care of themselves (living part of the self-care).
After major surgery in stable condition, such as persons, as well as the
frail elderly, chronically ill is not appropriate to the activities of persons, children and so on.
3.2 The care content: ? 1 ~ 2h visit the patient every time, observe the condition. ? take appropriate care measures, according to routine
nursing care. ? give the necessary life and psychological assistance to meet the physical and psychological needs of patients, guiding patients to improve their self-protection capabilities, the promotion of physical and mental health. ? do a good job in general nursing records.
3.3 Application of the theory of self-care: When the patient's self-
care capacity-building component to meet the demand for therapeutic self-
care can play a part of the compensation system's role, nurses and
patients shared the patient's self-care activities are divided into
different levels according to nurse-assisted self-completion care demand-
driven (as directed by your doctor to give timely and accurate medication, for wounds and drainage tube care), and the completion of self-care needs
of the patient-based (such as the assistance and guidance of patients in the early proper physical activity and functional exercise, reasonable diet, adequate rest and sleep, etc.). Activities include the adjustment of
the patient self-care capacity to meet demand for self-protection and
accept the help of nurses. Nurse's activities include the implementation of a number of self-protection for the patients activities, compensatory patient self-care deficiencies, according to the patient need to be helped
to adjust the patient's self-care ability.
4 3 Care
4.1 applies to the object: patients less severe, life can basically take care of themselves. Such as general chronic, disease, recovery and selection of pre-operative preparation phase and so on.
4.2 The care content: ? daily visits to the patient two times,
observe the condition. ? according to routine nursing care, the nursing staff under the guidance of self-care. ? to give health care to guide and
supervise the patient to comply with hospital regulations, to meet the physical and psychological needs of patients. ? do a good job in general
4.3 Application of self-care theory: When the patient has the ability to meet therapeutic self-care needs, but when you need health advice,
health care workers should use education - support system to meet the
needs of patients, under the guidance of nurses, patients through the study of disease rehabilitation-related knowledge and skills, changes the
way the completion of self-care activities. Nursing activities include the adjustment and improve the patient's self-care capacity to provide support
and guidance to help patients access to knowledge and skills to enhance self-care ability.
5 Orem advanced self-protection mode
5.1 to give holistic nursing philosophy and practice of new features: in the implementation of the overall nursing process, the use of Orem theory of self-care patients to assess accurately identify the patients
and their families self-care deficiencies, propose targeted nursing
interventions and as the patient condition changes and changes in self-
care ability, with self-care theory, three kinds of Orem care system to provide different levels of help, especially the part of the compensation
system and supporting the education system to guide patients and their families to participate in nursing in an effort to maintain and restore health to become the main body, fully mobilize the enthusiasm of patients and their families to explore self-care ability, promoting the
rehabilitation of the patient's illness, to achieve a greater degree of self-care, reflects the patient's self-worth, improve the survival of the
patient quality, and reduce the patient's burden on the family and
society, broadening the overall content of nursing practice, constitute a holistic nursing philosophy and practice of the unique characteristics of . Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
5.2 to Orem self-care theory to guide nursing care with the
traditional classification, compared with a strong targeted, Orem self-
care theory of self-care for the center, the ultimate goal is to enable the individual to assume responsibility for self-care, to is especially
useful for disabled elderly patients. By nurses and patients together to discuss and formulate specific, and feasible care plan will help achieve the goal of shared care, to embody the concept of people-centered care.
The traditional manner of grading nursing care, nursing care level
according to doctor's orders, according to the content classification to complete the nursing care activities in the implementation of some patients lack the specificity required too much emphasis on alternative-
type care, strengthen the role of the patient, the patient and the habit of passive acceptance of family care, foster dependence on nursing is not conducive to functional recovery .
5.3 reflects the nurse's value: Orem theory of self-care so that
nurses from simple, repetitive technical operations into one of health care advocates to expand the nurse in the treatment of prevention and health care, and improve the health of nurses in the maintenance of The status of the nurse's job-rich content, the more time left to patients,
not only improved the quality of care, and the closer nurse-patient
relationship. Through the help of the patient guidance and education, training, restore it to its normal self-care ability, and more reflect the
value of nurses, while encouraging nurses nursing research, reflection and exploration, improve the professional level of nurses .
6 Orem limitations of self-protection mode
In the practical application of Orem self-care model of care for
patients with the nurse before the first requires the practice of nursing depth study, and understand the connotation of self-care model, in order
to reasonably correct application of the theory put forward for nurses high professional requirements  . Orem self-protection mode of the
application process is very complicated, and require not only nurses have a certain level, which has a solid level of expertise, but also with the humanities, sociology, psychology and knowledge and nurse-patient
communication knowledge and skills, keen insight, rich of clinical work experience, but also nurses, with a high sense of responsibility, it is necessary to fully meet the needs of the patient's self-care, but also to
fully grasp their responsibilities, so as not to affect the patient's
recovery or even unnecessary medical blunders, under the present circumstances the theory the suitability of China's national conditions, to be further explored.
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