Guidance for crews on the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code
In conjunction with
4 1. General requirements for carrying solid bulk cargoes 4 Accepting cargoes for shipment Loading 6
7 2. The Code’s three cargo groups Group A cargoes – cargoes which may liquefy 8 10 Group B cargoes – cargoes with chemical hazards Group C cargoes – cargoes which are neither liable to 14 liquefy nor possess chemical hazards
15 3. Other hazards associated with carrying solid bulk cargoes
16 4. Checklist and flowchart for accepting and loading solid bulk cargoes
Appendix 1 19 IMO regulations and guidance relating to the transport of solid bulk cargoes Appendix 2 21 The Code section by section
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Carrying solid bulk cargoes involves serious risks, which must be managed carefully to safeguard the crew and the ship. These risks include reduced ship stability, (and even ccapssiizziing,) due tto ccargo lliiquefacttiion;; fire or explosiion due tto chemical hazards; and damage to ship structures due to poor loading procedures. The main legislation governing safe carriage of solid bulk cargoes is the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code, which became 1mandatory on January 1, 2011, under the SOLAS Convention.
This pocket guide will help you understand the IMSBC Code‟s key requirements and give you greater confidence in managing the risks oasfscoacriraytiendg wsoitlidtbhuelk carriaogese aonfdsoalcidhibeuvilnkgcacrogmoepsli.aIntcoeuwtliinthesStOhLeApSr.eIctaouutitolinsesyothuesphroeucladuttaioknesbyeofuore sahcoceupldtintagkceabrgeofoersefaocrcsehpiptimngenctaragnodesthfeorpsrhocipemduernetsaynodu tshheopurldocfeodlluorwesfoyor usasfheould lofalldoiwngfoarnsdacfearlroiagdein,ganadnddectaarirlisagthee, apnridmdaerytahilasztahredspraimssoarcyiahteadzawrditshatshseocdiaiftfeedrent twyiptehsthofe sdoilfifderbeunltktcyparegsoo. f solid bulk cargo.
It also contains a quick reference checklist and flowchart summarising the steps you need to follow.
Note: This guide is only an introduction to the IMSBC Code; you should always Note: This guide is only an introduction to the IMSBC Code; you should consult the full Code to check the requirements for each cargo you are carrying. It always consult the full Code to check the requirements for each cargo you does not cover carriage of grain in bulk; this is covered by the International Grain are carrying. It does not cover carriage of grain in bulk; this is covered by the Code. International Grain Code. Look for “Consult the Code” headings within this publication, which refer Look for “Consult the Code” headings within this publication, which you to specific sections of the Code for more information. refer you to specific sections of the Code for more information. 1For a list of other IMO legislation and guidance relating to bulk cargoes, see Appendix 1. Carrying solid bulk cargoes safely ? Lloyds‟ Register/UK P&I Club/Intercargo, 2013 Page 3
General requirements for 1.
carrying solid bulk cargoes No matter what solid bulk cargo you are carrying, the same general requirements apply for accepting them for shipment and loading them. Section 2 of this pocket guide covers the typical requirements for different types of cargo. Accepting cargoes for shipment
Information required from the shipper Before you can accept a cargo for shipment, the shipper must provide the Master with valid, up-to-date information about the cargos‟ physical and chemical properties. The exact information and documentation they must provide is listed in the Code under „Assessment of acceptability of consignments for safe shipment; Provision of Information‟, and includes the correct Bulk Cargo Shipping 2 Nameand a declaration that the cargo information is correct. Consult the Code – see Section 4
Checking the cargo schedule Individual cargoes are listed in „schedules‟ which are contained in Appendix 1 of the Code. These describe each cargos‟ properties and detail the requirements for handling, stowing and carrying it safely. You must always consult the relevant schedule in the Code to find out what hazards the cargo presents. Cargo being worked Consult the Code – see Appendix 1
2This is the cargos‟ official name used in the Code.
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Accepting cargoes not listed in the IMSBC Code The list of individual cargoes contained in the Code is not exhaustive. If a cargo not listed in the Code is presented for shipment, the shipper and the appropriate 3 competent authoritiesmust follow this process:
1. Before loading, the shipper must provide details of the characteristics and properties of the cargo to the competent authority of the port of loading. 2. Based on this information the competent authority of the port of loading will assess the acceptability of the cargo for shipment. 4– If the assessment defines the cargo as Group A or B, the competent 3 authoritieswill set the preliminary suitable conditions for carriage. 4 – If the cargo is Group Cthen carriage can be authorised by the port of loading and the competent authorities of the unloading port and flag state will be informed of the authorisation.
3. In both cases, the competent authority of the port of loading will give the Master a certificate stating the characteristics of the cargo and the required conditions for carriage and handling. The competent authority of the port of loading will also provide the same information to the IMO. Consult the Code – see Section 1.3
Exemptions Under section 1.5 of the Code, a competent authority (or authorities) can grant an exemption which allows ships to carry a cargo outside the requirements specified in its schedule, provided that equivalent provisions have been put in place. Agreement of all three competent authorities is required to ship a cargo under an exemption. Acceptance of an exemption by authorities not party to it is discretionary: i.e., if the loading port authority issues an exemption, the unloading port and flag state authorities can choose to accept it or reject it. An exemption can be valid for up to five years and does not necessarily lead to the creation of a new or revised schedule .
Consult the Code – see Section 1.5
3The competent authorities of the port of loading, the port of unloading and the flag state. 4The Code categorises cargo into three Groups – A, B and C. See page 7 for their definitions. Carrying solid bulk cargoes safely ? Lloyds‟ Register/UK P&I Club/Intercargo, 2013 Page 5
Inspecting and preparing cargo spaces In general, before loading a cargo you must inspect and prepare the cargo spaces, checking that:
– bilge wells and strainer plates are prepared to facilitate drainage and prevent cargo entering the bilge system
– bilge lines, sounding pipes and other service lines are in good order – cargo space fittings are protected from damage, and
– measures are in place to minimise dust entering living quarters or other interior spaces, or coming into contact with moving parts of deck machinery and external navigational aids.
Distribution and stability You must also make sure that cargoes are properly distributed throughout the ship‟s holds to provide adequate stability and ensure that the ship‟s structure is never overstressed. Information can be found in the ship‟s stability information booklet or you can use loading calculators if they are available. The Master will need to calculate the stability for the anticipated worst conditions during the voyage as well as for departure and demonstrate that the stability is adequate. Loading Plan Before loading or unloading, the Master and the terminal representative must agree a Loading Plan to ensure that the permissible forces and moments on the ship are not exceeded. What this Plan should include is detailed in the Code of Practice for the Safe Loading and Unloading of Bulk Carriers (the BLU Code) and in the checklist on page 16.
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The Code’s three cargo groups 2.
The IMSBC Code categorises cargoes into three groups:
Group A – cargoes which may liquefy if shipped at a moisture content exceeding 5their Transportable Moisture Limit (TML).
Group B – cargoes which possess a chemical hazard which could give rise to a dangerous situation on a ship.
Group C – cargoes which are neither liable to liquefy (Group A) nor possess chemical hazards (Group B). Cargoes in this group can still be hazardous. You can find the Group for a particular cargo in its schedule.
5The TML is the maximum moisture content considered safe for carriage. See page 9. Carrying solid bulk cargoes safely ? Lloyds‟ Register/UK P&I Club/Intercargo, 2013 Page 7
Group A cargoes (cargoes which may liquefy)
What is liquefaction and how does it affect cargo? Liquefaction means that a cargo becomes fluid (liquefies) .On ships ,this happens when the cargo is compacted by the ship‟s motion. Cargoes which are prone to liquefaction contain a certain quantity of moisture and smal lparticles, although they may look 6 relatively dry and granular when loaded. Liquefaction can lead to cargo shiftand even to the capsize and total loss of the ship, and can occur even when cargoes are cohesive and trimmed level.
Consult the Code – see Section 7
Examples of Group A cargoes
Mineral concentrates Mineral concentrates are refined ores in which valuable components have been enriched by eliminating most waste materials. They include copper concentrate, iron concentrate, lead concentrate, nickel concentrate and zinc concentrate.
7Nickel ore There are several types of nickel ore which vary in colour, particle size and moisture content. Some may contain clay-like ores.
Coal Coal (bituminous and anthracite) is a natural, solid, combustible material consisting of amorphous carbon and hydrocarbons. It is best known as a Group B cargo due to its flammable and self- heating properties, but it can also be classed as Group A because it can liquefy if predominantly fine (i.e., if 75% is made up of particles less than 5mm in size) .In these cases ,it is classed as both Group A and B.
6Cargo shift can be divided into two types: sliding failure or liquefaction consequence. Trimming the cargo can prevent sliding failure. 7Nickel ore is not to be confused with nickel concentrate.
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Typical requirements for accepting and loading Group A cargoes
Information required from the shipper To control the risks of liquefaction ,Group A cargoes are tested to determine their Transportable Moisture Limit (TML )and their actual moisture content before they can be shipped. The TML is the maximum moisture content considered safe for carriage. The actual moisture content of the cargo must be below the TML.
The information supplied by the shipper to the master must include a signed certificate stating the TML ,and a signed certificate or declaration of the cargos ‟ actual moisture content.
What you need to do Follow these steps when carrying Group A cargoes to reduce the risk of liquefaction: – Make sure the shipper has supplied the required information, including the TML and the actual moisture content.
– Only accept the cargo if the actual moisture content is less than its TML. – Carry out visual monitoring during loading. If there are any indications of high moisture content, stop loading and seek further advice.
– Consider trimming the cargo to reduce the likelihood of cargo shift. – Take measures to prevent water or other liquids entering the cargo space during loading and throughout the voyage.
Practical guidance on managing the risks of liquefaction is also available from the UK P&I Club at www.ukpandi.com/loss-peventionr
Consult the Code – see Sections 7 and 8
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Group B cargoes (cargoes with chemical hazards)
Group B cargoes are classified in two ways within the Code: „Dangerous goods in solid form in bulk‟ (under the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code; and „Materials hazardous only in bulk‟ (MHB).
You will find this information in the “characteristics” section of the cargos‟ schedule. Cargoes classified as dangerous goods in solid form in bulk will also have a „UN‟ number in the Bulk Cargoes Shipping Name.
Consult the Code – see Section 9
Dangerous goods in solid form in bulk In the Code these cargoes are classed as follows: Class 4.1: Flammable solids Class 4.2: Substances liable to spontaneous combustion Class 4.3: Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases Class 5.1: Oxidizing substances Class 6.1: Toxic substances Class 7: Radioactive materials Class 8: Corrosive substances Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles.
Materials hazardous only in bulk (MHB) MHB cargoes are materials which possess chemical hazards when transported in bulk that do not meet the criteria for inclusion in the IMDG classe sabove. They present significant risks when carried in bulk and require specia lprecautions .They are described as follows: Combustible solids: materials which are readily combustible or easily ignitable Self-heating solids: materials that self-heat
Solids that evolve into flammable gas when wet: materials that emit flammable gases when in contact with water
Solids that evolve toxic gas when wet: materials that emit toxic gases when in contact with water Toxic solids: materials that are acutely toxic to humans if inhaled or brought into contact with skin
Corrosive solids :materials that are corrosive to skin, eyes ,metals or respiratory sensitisers. Carrying solid bulk cargoes safely ? Lloyds‟ Register/UK P&I Club/Intercargo, 2013 Page 10