What Is Linux

By Micheal Wagner,2014-08-11 02:23
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What Is Linux

Chapter1. Introduction to Linux

    1. Development of Linux

    ; On October 5, l99l, Linus Benedict Torvalds, a graduate student from the University

    of Helsinki in Finland, announced in a Usenet newsgroup that he had created a small

    UNIX-like operating system called Linux.

    ; Today Linux has stepped into the spotlight as a complete UNIX-like operating system. ; Its cost is low and its source code is open.

    ; Linux has been ported to many hardware platforms, many softwares (some are free or

    well-known) have been developed for execution on Linux.

    Dr. Y.W. Leung and Dr. Ricky Hou

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Chapter1. Introduction to Linux

    2. Common Linux Features

    a) Multiuser

    ; Linux maintains multiple user accounts, and allows multiple users to log in and use

    the system simultaneously.

    ; Different users can set different working environments (e.g., different desktop


b) Multitasking

    ; Linux can manage to run multiple programs at the same time.

    ; It can run background processes called daemons.

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    Chapter1. Introduction to Linux

    c) Graphical User Interface (X Window System)

    ; Linux supports a powerful framework for graphical applications interface. This

    framework is called X Window System (or simply X).

    ; There are several desktop environments and many desktop managers. (Red Hat

    provides several desktop managers, but focuses on GNOME and KDE desktop


d) Hardware support

    ; Linux supports nearly all types of hardware (e.g., floppy disk drives, CD-ROMs,

    removable disks).

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    e) Networking connectivity

    ; Linux supports a variety of communication devices (e.g., LAN cards, modems, and

    serial devices).

    ; Linux supports a variety of communication protocols in all the layers (e.g., TCP/IP

    for the Internet, IPX for Novell networks).

f) Network servers

    ; Linux is stable, so it can run servers to provide services to clients.

g) Application support

    ; Linux is compatible with POSIX and several application programming interfaces

    (APIs), so there are many freewares and sharewares for execution on Linux.

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    Chapter1. Introduction to Linux

    3. Major differences between Windows 2000 and Linux

    a) Single User vs. Multiuser vs. Network Users

    ; Windows 2000 was designed according to the "one computer, one desk, one user"

    principle, so only one user can run programs on a computer at any time.

    ; Linux allows multiple users to run programs on the same computer simultaneously.

b) Separation of the GUI and the Kernel

    ; Windows 2000 developers integrated the graphical user interface (GUI) with the

    OS kernel.

    ; Linux separates the user interface from the OS kernel.

    ; The most significant feature of X Windows is its abi1ity to display windows across

    a network and onto another workstation's screen.

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    Chapter1. Introduction to Linux

    c) The Network Neighborhood

    ; Windows allows users to share disks on servers or with other users through the

    Network Neighborhood. Windows 2000 also provides a Unix feature called


    ; Linux uses the Network File System (NFS), and supports mounting.

d) The Registry vs. Text Files

    ; Windows 2000 uses Registry as the configuration database. The Registry many,

    many entries, only some entries are completely documented, some are located on

    servers and some are located on clients.

    ; When the Registry is corrupted, you probably need to reinstall it.

    ; Linux does not have a registry. The configuration files are normally kept as a series

    of text files.

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    e) Domains

    ; A group of Windows NT systems can co-exist in a domain, and this requires a

    dedicated NT Server system configured as a Primary Domain Controller (PDC).

    Domains are the basis of the Windows NT security model.

    ; Network Information Service (NIS) is the base of Linux security model. NIS

    maintains a simple database (based on text files), which is shared with client


    ; NIS server does not perform authentication but a PDC does.

f) Active Directory

    ; Active Directory (AD): enable different departments of a large site to share

    administrative control.

    ; There are several implementations of LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access

    Protocol) for Linux.

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Chapter1. Introduction to Linux

4. Why Choose Red Hat Linux?

    a) Software packaging

    ; Red Hat Software, Inc. created the Red Hat Package Management (RPM) method

    to ease installation and usage of Linux.

    ; RPM allows less technically savvy users to easily install Linux software, to track

    which packages are installed, and to look at the content of a package.

    ; Since RPM is available to the Linux community, it has become a de facto standard

    for packaging Linux software.

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    b) Easy installation

    ; The Red Hat Linux installation process provides step-by-step guide.

    ; You can choose which packages to install and how to partition your hard disk.

    ; You can setup your desktop GUI by configuring your video card and monitor

c) UNIX System V-style run-level scripts

    ; Red Hat Linux uses the UNIX System V mechanism to start and terminate system

    services (daemons) in an organized way.

    ; Shell scripts (that are easy to read and change) are contained in subdirectories of

    /etc. When there is any change in run level (e.g., when the system boots up or you

    change to single user mode), Linux forwards messages to tell you whether it starts

    each service correctly.

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    d) Desktop environments (GNOME and KDE)

    ; Red Hat Linux provides the GNOME or KDE desktop environments, so it is easy

    to use Linux.

    ; GNOME is installed by default and it offers some nice features (e.g., drag-and-drop

    protocols, windows that operate like window shades).

    ; KDE is another popular desktop manager that provides useful tools (e.g., the KDE

    Control Center for configuring the desktop, the KOrganizer for managing


e) Administration tools

    ; GUI tools such as linuxconf and netcfg provide a graphical, form-driven interface

    for configuring networking, users, file systems, and initialization services.

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