Option 1: sport and physical activity in Australian
1) How have meanings about sport and physical activity changed over time?
th1.1.a the beginnings of modern sport in 19 century England
― Links with manliness, patriotism and character
Patriotism: a devotion to ones country and a willingness to defend it. In the British Empire, public servants and army personnel were spread throughout the world to maintain colonisation. ; A sense of patriotism was achieved through sport.
; Through the education system, public and private schools had virtues such as team loyalty, discipline and sacrifice.
Muscular Christianity: was a concept of a healthy body combined with fine morals of
sportsmanship, playing by the rules and leading an active Christian life. ; In the late 1850’s the concept of muscular Christianity was developed. It became an influence in schools, working men’s clubs and uni’s.
Manliness: a tendency to show particularly male characteristics
― The meaning of amateur and professional in Britain and colonial Australia Amateur: term for someone who participates in sport without being paid th; During the 19 century it was believed that a true sportsman should be an amateur ; Amateur helped keep the social boundaries in place
; Amateur sporting clubs controlled sports such as athletics. Due to the fact that lower class could not afford to join, they were not allowed to participate
; Sports such as cricket and rugby were considered to be pastimes of the upper class Professional: players receive payment for playing a sport, or make it their livelihood ; Working class therefore needed to develop their own entertainment and competitions ; 1895 rugby league split from rugby union and league became the widespread and developed into a professional sport and union remained amateur
; The purpose of classifying amateurs and professionals in this way is to effectively segregate the classes, keeping the working class away from the sporting and leisure activities of the upper and middle class
; The modern day concept of professionalism was introduced to preserve sport for athletes who competed for pleasure and benefits rather than monetary prizes
; The USSR introduced the concept of the state amateur whereby athletes were financially supported by the govt.
; Current Olympic attitude to professionalism doesn’t stop athletes from earning money or
sponsorship to support training
；Boxing is still classified as amateur
；Up until 1992, tennis and basketball were the same
th― Women’s participation in games and sport in the 19 century and early th20 century
; Women in the Victorian era were expected to be pale, fragile and feminine in their characters and always to be sedentary
; Their ultimate role was to be motherly and decorative
; Many said that sport was harmful to the female anatomy
In the past, lack of participation has been due to:
; Sex-role socialisation
An increase in participation can be due to:
; Greater Independence
; More leisure time
; Realisation of the benefits of sport and physical activity
; Concept of equity
1.2.a the emergence of sport as a commodity
― The development of professional sport
Sport was once a leisure pursuit; it has now become a commodity. A commodity is an item that can be sold for profit.
; The effect of professionalism has been to improve the standard of sport everywhere ; Old values associated with sport were amateur and professional. New values are pay for play ; WHY DID IT TURN PRO?
；Cover the costs of training, travel, time away from work and accommodation ；Insurance against injuries
；Improve the standard of sport and improve its marketability
― Sport as a big business
; Elite sports people are used to convince consumer in advertising to buy a certain sporting product
; New products and fashions move in and out on a regular basis eg tennis ; Teams now have coaches, trainers, doctors, physios and media managers ; Big stadiums offer high quality comfort, but also high costs. previously people could watch a
footy game and eat a hamper
― Sponsorship and sport
Sponsorship involves covering all or part of the costs of the competition or activity in return for
advertisement of their product and other rights.
Advantages of sponsorship
; Economic growth
; Improved administration- increased money allows skilled workers ; Athletes can compete internationally
Disadvantages of sponsorship
; Sports tend to be male therefore less female coverage and sponsorship ; Inappropriate sponsorship eg tooheys
; Can force rule changes eg stop play in NFL
― Athletes and advertising
To advertise is to endorse particular brands or products in order to increase the sales for the
sponsor company. They do this by:
; Wearing clothing with the company logo
; Using a particular brand of sunglasses or car etc
; Thanking sponsors at presentations
― The economics of the Olympics
; An organisation known as TOP (the Olympic partners) were established in 1977. ; The cost of staging a bid for the Olympics is estimated at $25.2 billion
th1.1.b compare the nature of sport of the 19 century with that of today. Students should consider questions such as:
― How have the meanings of amateur and professional changed over time?
― How did the meanings associated with sport differ for different social groups? thth― Is this the same today as it was in the 19 century and early 20 century?
1.2.b investigate case studies of various sports as they have adopted a business focus; identify the consequences associated with this change of direction
2) What is the relationship between sport and national identity?
2.3.a Australian sporting identity
In the early days, Australia measured itself against Britain, now we tend to measure ourselves against the USA
― National identity through sporting achievements
Australia’s first ashes victory was extremely successful in boosting national pride, as the English were beaten at their own game by a country full of their outcasts (convicts). Nationalism is a devotion to ones country. Other examples of national pride include:
; The success at the 1965 Melbourne Olympics
; Media attention given to Australian's victories at the 1992 Barcelona Olympics ；Introduced the boxing kangaroos- symbolising out fighting nature, competitive
― Regional identity through sporting achievements eg the values attached to sport by local communities
Communities can gain recognition with success of sporting heroes, and this can often have a social and economical impact on that community. It creates a sense of belonging and provides working class communities with a sense of hope. Eg Newcastle noticed for sporting achievement rather than just steel production
― The social value of sport in Australia
Sport is highly valued. This is indicated by media coverage, sponsorship investment, federal and state government funding, and the esteem with which Australians view their sporting heroes. ; Socialisation is the way we inherit the culture of our society- its norms, values, gender roles and expectations.
; The socialising effect of sport is evident when it aims to develop in its participants: ；determination
; Sport can also reinforce undesirable attitudes and behaviours:
― Government funding eg the AIS
Govt provided funding to sport through the aus sports commission. In 1998-99 approx $90 million was provided by the govt for programs run by the Australian Sports Commission (ASC). The ASC will distribute funds based on criteria set by the govt. the ASC provides funds to the AIS, which in turn uses funds to develop elite sport at a national level. The AIS administers the Olympic athlete program and the sports assistance scheme.
― Politics and sport
; Athletes can use sport for political purposes eg Cathy freeman carrying abo flag ; Politicians use sport to enhance their image eg presenting trophies
; Sport deflects attention from political problems eg Bradman’s success during depression
; Politics involved at all levels; club, national, international
2.4.a nationalism and sport
; Sport distracts from the realities of high unemployment, social inequity and political issues. ; Idolisation can have a negative impact and lead to violence.
; Athletes are highly paid- this ensures their safety.
; Large amounts of capital are invested in providing infrastructure to promote sports participation and sport is viewed as a business
― The meaning of sport in different countries
; American uni’s and high schools use a focus on sport as a means of attracting students. The
American social system is based on developing a sense of competition in its people, so sport is highly valued in achieving this.
; In south America, soccer distracts popn from high unemployment and social inequity ; In Russia, sportspeople were used by the government to rally national pride and present an image of superiority to the rest of the world.
― The impact of the Olympics on the national identity of both large and small nations
The Olympics provides large, developed nations with the opportunity to demonstrate their superiority over other nations. These countries are also able to attract athletes from poorer nations and offer the opportunity to compete. Developing countries favour events that are suited to their environment eg Africa long distance running.
2.3.b critically examine how sport has been used to promote an Australian national identity eg the America’s cup, Olympic coverage
2.4.b identify the instances when Australia has used sport for political purposes and evaluate the impact of this on the athletes and the Australian public eg Moscow Olympics, apartheid boycotts
; When Russia moved into areas of Afghanistan, nearly 50 countries led by the USA and including Australia, took action to boycott the 1980 Moscow Olympics. This political action was not supported by all Australian athletes, so a depleted Australian team defied the Australian government and still participated.
; South Africa emerged from a sporting boycott in 1992. It was excluded from international sporting competitions by other countries such as Australia, who were protesting at its apartheid (racial segregation) policy. Cricket and rugby were the two main sports affected.
2.5.b evaluate and contrast the importance given to sport by different countries eg china, USA, African countries; examine the contribution of the Olympics to each countries national identity
2.6.b analyse case studies to determine some of the negative consequences of the relationship between national identity and international competition, eg violence, cheating, drug use
3) How does the mass media contribute to peoples understanding, values and beliefs about sport?
3.5.a the relationship between sport and the mass media
the term mass media describes communication which is directed from one source to a large % of popn. Mass media include TV, movies and electronic (radio). The mass media is one of the most powerful influences on peoples opinions, beliefs and habits. The relationship between sport and mass media is interdependent.
― The representation of sport in the print media eg newspapers, magazines ; Increased coverage of sport in newspapers and magazines recently
; One sport magazines or sport only magazines have emerged to promote these sports to audiences
; Marketing strategies are aimed at increasing sales- camera angles and the size and content of the photographs- attract readers.
― Sport and television
; Sport is a highly attractive product for TV because ratings are often guaranteed, and because it provides an opportunity to entice sponsors for advertising
; TV offers publicity, attracts corporate sponsorship deals and increases popularity of the televised sports. With increased technology, especially satellites, TV has ‘internationalised’ sport. Eg live coverage of the FA cup final from the other side of the world
― Economic considerations of media coverage and sport
; Sport is a marketable product, sales increase with sporting finals, big race meetings, international competitions and the Olympics.
; Results and commentary are represented in the media and ‘sold’ to consumers. This has
emerged as a business, as well as entertainment.
; Sponsors are attracted to sports with media exposure.
; Sport relies on the media to popularise it and attract sponsorship. The media gains in terms of product exposure and advertising revenue. There are mutual benefits for both sport and the media.
― The production of media messages
; Athletes are used by the media as a commodity
; Athletes are presented in ways that are attractive to the reader. Athletes use poses for sex appeal
; The choice of who is represented creates messages that reflect which sports and groups are valued I our society.
3.6.a deconstructing media messages, images and amount of coverage
― Differences in coverage for different sports across various print and electronic media
; Sports that gain coverage and space allocated is associated with the ability of the sport to gain sponsorship an public recognition
; Social values of a society are represented by sports coverage in the media. Sports represented are commonly played by males, and are Anglo-Saxon sports eg horse-racing, football and cricket
; Sports associated with ethnic and indigenous groups and extreme sports are allocated a smaller space.
In a half hour TV show
Swimming- 1 min
Cricket- 4 mins
Australian soccer- 1.5 mins
World soccer- 1.5 mins
Cycling- 2 mins
Golf- 1 min
NFL- 30 secs
Rugby union- 2mins
― Differences in the language and visual images for male as compared to female athletes
Feminine, style, teamwork, aesthetically Masculine, manliness, tough, strength, pleasing determination, power
Showing emotion whether they won or Muscular, strong, aggressive, courageous, lost successful
3.7.b think critically about the impact of the mass media on sport by investigating
questions such as:
― Who benefits and in what ways?
― How does the media influence our understanding of an event and its outcome?
― How does the mass media determine what we will read and see?
3.8.b examine case studies of how sports have been changed to suit the needs of the
media, eg changed uniforms to increase spectator appeal, rules, changes to increase the
tempo, changing the time structure to accommodate advertising breaks
Cricket ; One day matches
; Day/night matches
; Yellow ball in night matches
; Limited overs
Rugby ; Friday night games
; Lead up before the game
; Video ref
; Interchange rule
Tennis ; No uniform restrictions
; Centre court for major matches
; Sensors on nets
; Quick-dry courts
Netball ; Uniforms
; Synthetic courts
; Non-slip balls
; ‘play’ rule gone
; intro of national league
Swimming ; innovative swimsuits
; underwater cameras
; touch pads
Beach ; decrease maximum size of female
3.9.b analyse the media’s role in giving meanings to sport by considering questions such
― How does the coverage given to particular sports reflect which sports are valued and which ones are not?
― What metaphors are common in the presentation of sport, eg football as ‘war’?
― How do the words and images used to describe male and female athletes relate to traditionally narrow notions of being male or female?
4) How does the meaning of physical activity and sport vary for different cultural groups?
4.7.a the meaning of physical activity and sport to indigenous Australians
― Traditional activities and games
; Before European colonisation, abos participated in games, dances and p.a that mirrored their daily activities of hunting, fishing and their affiliation with the land
; Sport competitions were organised by elders- eg tree climbing races and throwing spears for distance. These skills were paramount to their survival
; The focus of organised games was enjoyment rather than result, and abos developed pastimes which demonstrated clear links with their family, tribe and land.
― Links between community, identity and sport
; Each tribe or language group had its own unique identity and customs
; There was little division between work and play and games and activities were aimed at developing skills in hunting gathering, tracking, climbing, running, swimming and wrestling. ; Boys and Girls would have races to see who could climb up and down a tree fastest. ; All these activities promote strength, endurance and accuracy in throwing, and qualities necessary for success as a community.
; KINSHIP= is a blood relationship
; The rules of indigenous games tended to be very broad and play continued for as long as they enjoyment lasted
; Local successes assist in bonding local communities and establishing an identity for both abos and their region
; In 1962, the Yuendumu games were created as an alternative sporting event for abos. The games are a mixture of cultural events and sports, providing the opportunity to participate on contests such as boomerang throwing and football. These games reflect their cultural identity and assist in unifying their communities
4.8.a meanings given to physical activity and sport by different cultural groups
― The role of competition
Other cultures regarded participation necessary for social and health enhancement. In Asian countries, sport is not as important as enlightenment of the body, mind and spirit.
― Links to cultural identity
Sport in aus developed from Britain. In aus, many migrant groups have formed social clubs that work to reinforce their on cultural identity. Eg the Irish and pacific islanders consider rugby as their national sport. Sport in aus originally developed for a particular social or cultural group; middle class, Anglo-Saxon males.
― Relationships to ‘health’
Many western cultures view sport primarily as entertainment and social interaction rather than for the maintenance of good health.
― Ways of thinking about the body
Asian cultures view it holistically. In western cultures, the concept of a perfect body is promoted as a way of being successful, popular with friends and attractive.
4.10.b investigate the nature and role of physical activity and games in the lives of indigenous Australians prior to colonisation. Identify the role of sport in establishing the identity of aboriginal people
4.11.b research a range of physical activities or sports to determine why they have cultural significance for particular groups eg
― What are the central values and ways of thinking about the body that different groups have for tai chi, the martial arts, and various cultural dances?
― How do opportunities for physical activity differ for girls from different cultural backgrounds and why?
5) What are the relationships between sport and physical activity and gender and sexuality?
5.9.a sport as a traditionally male domain
; sport is traditionally viewed as a male pursuit and females were the viewers ; sports differentiated between those appropriate for men and women
; contributed to define the positions of women in society:
；members of golf clubs
；receive less prize money
；minimal media coverage
；less govt funding
；less access to sporting facilities
；contribution to the notions of masculinity and femininity
― Sport and the construction of masculinity
; Sport requires participants to be aggressive, courageous, determined, muscular and strong ；associated with males
; Family expectations determine which sports their sons will play
; ‘manly’ sports vs ‘girly sports
; boys encouraged to play acceptable male games
; foul language and rough play is expected
― Sport and the construction of femininity
; Traditionally, women were encouraged to participate I sport with minimal exertion ; Doctors promoted women only had enough energy for daily activities and childbirth not sport ; Doctors discouraged women’s participation at risk of damaging their reproductive organs
― Implications for participation
Implications can be past experiences, family background, genetic potential or geographical location. Most often, it is society’s attitude to gender:
; Girls and boys view their ability differently
; Girls less likely to participate without support of female role models ; Boys more encouraged to participate=more skills
; Girls who excel are harassed as being ‘butch’
― Sponsorship, policy and resourcing
; Securing sponsorship is new for women’s sport
; Media coverage affects a teams ability to gain sponsorship
; Successful teams are more likely to gain sponsorship
; Sponsors have supported women’s teams
― The role of the media in constructing meanings around femininity and masculinity in sport
; Media shapes our understandings of events and outcomes
; Language and images alter our perception
; Values and attitudes are shaped by the way media represents players
; Males expected to be heterosexual and highly masculine
; The media interpret sensitivity in males, or competitiveness in females, as homosexuality
5.10.a challenges to the male domain eg women in traditional male sports
5.12.b apply an understanding about the social construction of gender to exploring the ways in which sport reinforces or challenges traditional narrow understandings of femininity and masculinity
5.13.b critically analyse the participation rates of males and females in a range of sports and offer explanations for any differences. Consider how some forms of activity have come to be traditionally associated with men and some with women
5.14.b examine the debate that surrounds the entry of women into traditional male sports eg boxing, rugby compare with the introduction of men into traditional female sports eg netball.