Option 1: sport and physical activity in Australian
1) How have meanings about sport and physical activity changed over time?
th1.1.a the beginnings of modern sport in 19 century England
― Links with manliness, patriotism and character
Patriotism: a devotion to ones country and a willingness to defend it. In the British Empire, public servants and army personnel were spread throughout the world to maintain colonisation. ; A sense of patriotism was achieved through sport.
; Through the education system, public and private schools had virtues such as team loyalty, discipline and sacrifice.
Muscular Christianity: was a concept of a healthy body combined with fine morals of
sportsmanship, playing by the rules and leading an active Christian life. ; In the late 1850’s the concept of muscular Christianity was developed. It became an influence in schools, working men’s clubs and uni’s.
Manliness: a tendency to show particularly male characteristics
― The meaning of amateur and professional in Britain and colonial Australia Amateur: term for someone who participates in sport without being paid th; During the 19 century it was believed that a true sportsman should be an amateur ; Amateur helped keep the social boundaries in place
; Amateur sporting clubs controlled sports such as athletics. Due to the fact that lower class could not afford to join, they were not allowed to participate
; Sports such as cricket and rugby were considered to be pastimes of the upper class Professional: players receive payment for playing a sport, or make it their livelihood ; Working class therefore needed to develop their own entertainment and competitions ; 1895 rugby league split from rugby union and league became the widespread and developed into a professional sport and union remained amateur
; The purpose of classifying amateurs and professionals in this way is to effectively segregate the classes, keeping the working class away from the sporting and leisure activities of the upper and middle class
; The modern day concept of professionalism was introduced to preserve sport for athletes who competed for pleasure and benefits rather than monetary prizes
; The USSR introduced the concept of the state amateur whereby athletes were financially supported by the govt.
; Current Olympic attitude to professionalism doesn’t stop athletes from earning money or
sponsorship to support training
；Boxing is still classified as amateur
；Up until 1992, tennis and basketball were the same
th― Women’s participation in games and sport in the 19 century and early th20 century
; Women in the Victorian era were expected to be pale, fragile and feminine in their characters and always to be sedentary
; Their ultimate role was to be motherly and decorative
; Many said that sport was harmful to the female anatomy
In the past, lack of participation has been due to:
; Sex-role socialisation
An increase in participation can be due to:
; Greater Independence
; More leisure time
; Realisation of the benefits of sport and physical activity
; Concept of equity
1.2.a the emergence of sport as a commodity
― The development of professional sport
Sport was once a leisure pursuit; it has now become a commodity. A commodity is an item that can be sold for profit.
; The effect of professionalism has been to improve the standard of sport everywhere ; Old values associated with sport were amateur and professional. New values are pay for play ; WHY DID IT TURN PRO?
；Cover the costs of training, travel, time away from work and accommodation ；Insurance against injuries
；Improve the standard of sport and improve its marketability
― Sport as a big business
; Elite sports people are used to convince consumer in advertising to buy a certain sporting product
; New products and fashions move in and out on a regular basis eg tennis ; Teams now have coaches, trainers, doctors, physios and media managers ; Big stadiums offer high quality comfort, but also high costs. previously people could watch a
footy game and eat a hamper
― Sponsorship and sport
Sponsorship involves covering all or part of the costs of the competition or activity in return for
advertisement of their product and other rights.
Advantages of sponsorship
; Economic growth
; Improved administration- increased money allows skilled workers ; Athletes can compete internationally
Disadvantages of sponsorship
; Sports tend to be male therefore less female coverage and sponsorship ; Inappropriate sponsorship eg tooheys
; Can force rule changes eg stop play in NFL
― Athletes and advertising
To advertise is to endorse particular brands or products in order to increase the sales for the
sponsor company. They do this by:
; Wearing clothing with the company logo
; Using a particular brand of sunglasses or car etc
; Thanking sponsors at presentations
― The economics of the Olympics
; An organisation known as TOP (the Olympic partners) were established in 1977. ; The cost of staging a bid for the Olympics is estimated at $25.2 billion
th1.1.b compare the nature of sport of the 19 century with that of today. Students should consider questions such as:
― How have the meanings of amateur and professional changed over time?
― How did the meanings associated with sport differ for different social groups? thth― Is this the same today as it was in the 19 century and early 20 century?
1.2.b investigate case studies of various sports as they have adopted a business focus; identify the consequences associated with this change of direction
2) What is the relationship between sport and national identity?
2.3.a Australian sporting identity
In the early days, Australia measured itself against Britain, now we tend to measure ourselves against the USA
― National identity through sporting achievements
Australia’s first ashes victory was extremely successful in boosting national pride, as the English were beaten at their own game by a country full of their outcasts (convicts). Nationalism is a devotion to ones country. Other examples of national pride include:
; The success at the 1965 Melbourne Olympics
; Media attention given to Australian's victories at the 1992 Barcelona Olympics ；Introduced the boxing kangaroos- symbolising out fighting nature, competitive
― Regional identity through sporting achievements eg the values attached to sport by local communities
Communities can gain recognition with success of sporting heroes, and this can often have a social and economical impact on that community. It creates a sense of belonging and provides working class communities with a sense of hope. Eg Newcastle noticed for sporting achievement rather than just steel production
― The social value of sport in Australia
Sport is highly valued. This is indicated by media coverage, sponsorship investment, federal and state government funding, and the esteem with which Australians view their sporting heroes. ; Socialisation is the way we inherit the culture of our society- its norms, values, gender roles and expectations.
; The socialising effect of sport is evident when it aims to develop in its participants: ；determination
; Sport can also reinforce undesirable attitudes and behaviours:
― Government funding eg the AIS
Govt provided funding to sport through the aus sports commission. In 1998-99 approx $90 million was provided by the govt for programs run by the Australian Sports Commission (ASC). The ASC will distribute funds based on criteria set by the govt. the ASC provides funds to the AIS, which in turn uses funds to develop elite sport at a national level. The AIS administers the Olympic athlete program and the sports assistance scheme.
― Politics and sport
; Athletes can use sport for political purposes eg Cathy freeman carrying abo flag ; Politicians use sport to enhance their image eg presenting trophies
; Sport deflects attention from political problems eg Bradman’s success during depression
; Politics involved at all levels; club, national, international
2.4.a nationalism and sport
; Sport distracts from the realities of high unemployment, social inequity and political issues. ; Idolisation can have a negative impact and lead to violence.
; Athletes are highly paid- this ensures their safety.
; Large amounts of capital are invested in providing infrastructure to promote sports participation and sport is viewed as a business
― The meaning of sport in different countries
; American uni’s and high schools use a focus on sport as a means of attracting students. The
American social system is based on developing a sense of competition in its people, so sport is highly valued in achieving this.
; In south America, soccer distracts popn from high unemployment and social inequity ; In Russia, sportspeople were used by the government to rally national pride and present an image of superiority to the rest of the world.
― The impact of the Olympics on the national identity of both large and small nations
The Olympics provides large, developed nations with the opportunity to demonstrate their superiority over other nations. These countries are also able to attract athletes from poorer nations and offer the opportunity to compete. Developing countries favour events that are suited to their environment eg Africa long distance running.
2.3.b critically examine how sport has been used to promote an Australian national identity eg the America’s cup, Olympic coverage
2.4.b identify the instances when Australia has used sport for political purposes and evaluate the impact of this on the athletes and the Australian public eg Moscow Olympics, apartheid boycotts
; When Russia moved into areas of Afghanistan, nearly 50 countries led by the USA and including Australia, took action to boycott the 1980 Moscow Olympics. This political action was not supported by all Australian athletes, so a depleted Australian team defied the Australian government and still participated.
; South Africa emerged from a sporting boycott in 1992. It was excluded from international sporting competitions by other countries such as Australia, who were protesting at its apartheid (racial segregation) policy. Cricket and rugby were the two main sports affected.