The decisive role of context on meaning
【Papers Key words Context Changes Meaning
【Abstract】 The decisive role of context on meaning is the language of a universal phenomenon, context determines the meaning bits, that is a different context, meaning will follow to change.
Context of the concept, derived from the human linguist Malinowski. He believes that language is not a comprehensive system, the meaning of language can not be entirely its own but should be determined by the
context. Context can be divided into two types of narrow and broad, and narrow context refers to the time and before and after the discourse produced by a variety of events, can be called "situational context", including the context of written language or spoken language, after
preface to the context formed , also known as the small context; broader context include the discourse generated by the whole cultural background, can be called "Cultural Context", in addition to including the language outside of the narrow, but also with people relating to the conduct of speech to express time, place, person identity, atmosphere, social background and so on, which is also known as large context. London School's founder Yuehanlubo Firth absorbed Malinowski's context of
concepts and ideas in two contexts: a context from the language within which a structure and a system the combination of the relationship between the various components; another language from the external context, that language and context can not separate. Western linguists exposition of the theory of context for us today to understand the context and meaning of a word has an important role in the prompt.
Meaning apart from its meaning combinations shown by environmental supplement determined. Therefore, the use of meaning, understanding and communication environment, that listening to both sides of the vocational identity, emotions, life experiences, and so have a close relationship. What a sentence to say what it meant, often need to participate in social
person to add themselves. And communicative language environment, you can make a more precise meaning of words. Specifically, the context is the language of objective factors and subjective factors of people posed by
the use of language environment. Context features are two: One is to explain the function, and the second is the filtering. Context not only to help us deducing meaning, but also help us to prevent the irregularities of the language phenomenon. Therefore, in our study and work study the
impact of context on meaning is very necessary. To jointly explore the following:
(A) The social context determine meaning
(1) Historical social environment
At different times, in different social environments in which the language environment is certainly different. Their studies must be aware of this difference in order to better understand the meaning, understanding where the main thrust of the article. For example:
Novel "Sixty years of change" where Ji Shu-Q cross-party Wicha: "Do
you know this news?" Side: "What news?" Season: "Chiang Kai-shek cut me
any!" Side: "What Disease surgery?" Season : "Do you still go to bed! murder!" is obviously not linked to the party of social revolution in 1927, the situation changes, do not understand the "cut" exactly what is meant by the word to others for further explanation.
(2) The social environment of Pragmatics
The word "combination meaning" the study is pragmatic social environment, a number of variations under the influence of semantic
meaning, namely AC-bit variant is dependent on the overall socio-
linguistic result of the impact of internal factors, mainly a bit by the neighbors or far-defined neighborhood Yi-bit "Semantic spillover" effect
obtained a new meaning. For example:
A. This is a small thing, really cute!
B. This is what stuff!
The same "stuff", but because of the speaker's tone, a different tone, leaving both the basic meaning and additional meaning is different. "Things" "Modern Chinese Dictionary" have such meaning items: concrete or abstract things. However, in the first sentence of the "things", refers specifically to the speaker like a small animal or a child, so that the basic meaning narrow, and has an additional meaning the emotional
favorite. The second sentence of "things" refers to those who hate the
things so to speak, with a dislike of the emotional meaning attached.
(B) contextual meaning the decision
(1) The language-defined variant of the word - Speech-yi
Linguistic meaning is a word as a language of building materials unit, or language, the vocabulary of the system a member. That is, word meaning or concept-based meaning. "Verbal meaning" refers to a specific context or speech fragments to enter the word actually refers to what is
called a modern combination of semantic meaning, that is, justice is at the speech a variant of the portfolio. Some linguists call this justice-
bit variant of the word's "meaning" rather than "meaning." The dictionary meaning of the items listed are the language of word meaning, while the impossible and also unnecessary to the word in different contexts of speech-yi-yi-bit variants that are listed on the. For example:
A. Scene: outside the operating room, anxiously waiting for the
ongoing removal of uterine fibroids surgery the patient's family, the door opened, the doctor out.
The patient's family asked: "cut it?"
Dr A: "cut the."
According to the upper and lower scenarios suggest that this "cut"
into a question and answer refers to "myomectomy."
B. Scene: A year later, the doctor came to a group of old ladies in the exercise.
Everyone asked: "cut it?"
Doctor replied: "cut the. We are the same, who is also an exception to the retirement age?" According to the scene from top to bottom tips, where the "cut of" refers to the handling procedures can only be retired by age "across the board."
C. Scene: Exercise finished, the doctor to go home. See her daughter reading, remember to go out when she cut ribs well.
The doctor asked: "cut it?"
Her daughter replied: "Well-cut long ago."
According to the scene from top to bottom tips, where the "cut of" refers to the cut ribs.
See, "cut" "a" "do" The three words symbols have been abstracted from the communication out of the scene, in the dictionary have a common understanding of all the people to determine that the language-defined
meaning, its group of words into a sentence the way they are in line with
a high degree of the abstract syntax of Chinese laws. However, after the composition of "cut it?" "Cut of" two non-subject-predicate sentence into
a different communication scenarios, whether they are as interrogative or declarative sentences, the meaning of its words are not the same, and yet
be able to smoothly carry out the exchange of ideas. Dialogue in the hospital and at home, meaning and literal meaning of words the same, but "cut" into concrete objects, which is to abstract the semantics of communication scenario specific; and in the exercise when the dialogue is obviously contain meaning beyond the literal meaning of the blending of the . This is a communicative discourse implicature given scene. "Cut" is the word in the dictionaries did not and will not increase the future
"retirement" is of Meaning. This is the language-defined variants - verbal
(2) an extension of chapter Zhang context - the specific context
Many words have to contact the specific language environment in order
to understand its exact meaning, the same thing, two people of different circumstances, you may be diametrically opposed understanding. For example:
"智取威虎山" play: get the Yangzi Rong Zuo Shandiao presented the contact map of ecstasy, Yang Zirong Crimping anger, the destruction of the
congregation soon bandit, said: "liaison diagram one hand, is our of the Mudanjiang area." Here "we" in this context, with "inclusive" and "exclude" two opposite meaning items. Robbers heard these words that "we" word included them, but the Yangzi Rong said, "We" was used to exclude the culprit, the mystery of this language, the audience will understand 1. Humor, subtle language, make the audience feel comfortable relaxation, but if not this context, but Yang Zirong the face of his comrades say this,
"we" can only have a sense items.
(3) semantic changes in the scope - combined Yi
In the communication process, the contextual meaning at any time to the strong impact of increase or decrease to change the meaning expressed
by the range to meet the broad needs of communication, such as:
"Vegetarian", isolated together, "Vegetarian" and meaning is "vegetables, edible plants can do vice." Once contextual, meaning place, the meaning changes in the internal spaces is possible. "Shopping"
"Chicai" two-bit combination of justice so that the "food" refers to the meaning-bit expanded to include "egg, meat, vegetables," including food, can be seen, "vegetables" in Sememe As the combination of a broad-based
place. "Zhaicai" "kimchi" "marinated vegetables" Through a combination of meaning-bit so that the "food" in varying degrees of narrowing the justice-bit is limited to Chinese cabbage, radishes and so on. "Zhaicai" has two meanings: First, a good job in the plant could be cooking the
fruits or leaves. Second, get rid of rotten leaves yellow. This is actually from another point of limiting the "food" in scope, can be seen, the three combined to make "food" have taken place in the narrow sense of place. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
(C) the situational context determine meaning
(1) latent semantic
In real life, people's language activities are always conducted in a certain scenario. Similarly, the word combinations in different scenarios
may be very different from the meaning expressed, such as "I am waiting for you half a day of." Such a word combination, from the mouth of different people to express the meaning of different. Between the case of lovers say this word, are often contains a fanciful meaning, the case of the general relations between the two meet, said the words, there may be a general statement and complaining, and if public security officers, said criminals, then the band There is a deter criminal activities. Another
example is in the open window of the bus, sitting in a window on the side of B, said: "Today's really cold." This sentence alone is literally a natural phenomenon may be just a statement, but if a specific combination of scenarios to understand, a phrase implying that it may be to B with
windows closed. Again, the child of the parents over the weekend, said: "Tomorrow Sunday." When the child said this is not a statement of a fact, but may be to remind the parents do not forget to play him, or unless a
(2) Scenario semantics
Zhu Qing and Zhang Ji Tang Dynasty more than two exchanges along these lines of poetry is well illustrated this point. Zhu Qing rest of the poem "Gui-Xian Zhang Mizube meaning" is: "the bridal chamber last night to
stop The Candle, pending Xiaotang ago he became a Jiugu. Makeup strike a low voice asked her husband, thrushes depth Pops no?" Zhang Ji's A poem, "paid the remaining Zhu Qing "is:" The more women makeup appearance of new heart, knew that Ming-yan is more worth pondering. Qi Wan-less, when one
expensive, one-Ling Wan-jin Song enemy. "These two poems light from
literally, all about ladylike dress, pretty of the exchanges along these lines, but in fact is a side shall be held prior to the examiners by the
Xian Shi consult the other party give a satisfactory response to an interesting exchanges along these lines. These two poems exchanges along these lines was a perfect fit, euphemistically both verses implicit exchanges along these lines among the overtones are already in our hearts.
This shows that the situational context tends to produce word implication, readers often have to combine a certain context to understand the true meaning of discourse, the only way to achieve the exchange of thoughts and
feelings with each other to better results.
As the situational context is often make speech production implication, therefore, in people's daily verbal communication activities, communication sometimes results in pursuit of a particular expression is
often retain some language gaps, such as the mildly warned that implicit emotional expression, spicy irony of such a portion of their implication to add themselves to leave the listener to understand.
(3) Temporary semantics
Meaning under the action of a special situational context, often a variety of changes occur, the most common is to make words meaningful to the provisional semantic shift in the opposite direction, and this emotional Among them, the words into the most common. Such as Sun Li,
"Lotus Lake" in writing aquatic actively look for her husband's wife, who returned his feelings when Buzhao: "Several women a little disappointed, but also a bit disappointed, everyone in his heart his hard-hearted thief
Mazhao." In here "heartless thieves "has become a woman a few pairs of her husband's nickname. Another example is "enemy" is the word, this refers to people who have a hatred, but in many of our classical drama text is very often women's dear man's nickname. There are numerous examples such as
these. Language are the use of irony and other major changes in the formation of meaning of words.
Situational context to enable semantic shift is not always to the anti-sense direction of change, in some context, semantics also made other
changes, so different from the original words to generate new temporary significance. Such as "always other able men, Renshangyouren" This saying, where "Heaven" and "people" are no longer the original meaning, instead of somewhere in the sky and actually refers to a specific figure, but added a
new layer of meaning : "days" refers to a higher realm, "person" means a more capable person.
(D) personal context meaning the decision
We can not ignore the impact of personal context, that in a specific
article, the speaker's own situation as well as his personality temperament level of education is the habit of thinking of the meaning effects. Similarly, "I go to school," said the teacher is to lecture, the students said yes to the lectures. Similarly, the doctor said, "I went to
see the doctor," the patient said, "I went to see the doctor," meaning it is not the same. The same language used by the status of persons, the situation may be different to make the opposite understanding.
Happy gathering, someone exclaimed: "fire"! At this time, adult psychology is a sudden panic. Because they are directly or indirectly experienced a fire, resulting in the "fire" when many terrible psychological association, but at the same time, the same environment, one
not seen, heard or experienced the "fire" people, right "Fire" semantic understanding is completely different.
"Bull" word, referring to the meaning of the average person may be the same, but the associative meaning is different. Chinese people think
that the hard-working, Indians think that the sacred, Europe and the United States who think that meat and milk of the dedication. The Chinese language, "vinegar" often reminiscent of "jealousy," the connotation of English words with their corresponding "vinegar" but with "unpleasant,
stinging, and bad temper," linked. This is because of people's habits of mind caused by the different.
The above analysis we can see, word meaning and context are closely related, context of meaning has a multiplier effect, meaning in the
context among the different changes occur. Context, directly or indirectly, a variety show or hide the other way affect the activities of the language, which restricts the manifestation of meaning. Study of meaning in the context of the shifting in favor of lexical semantics in the subject of further study of language use and thus facilitate the choice of appropriate and accurate words, improve the communication level.
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Tianjin Normal University 2001.3
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