Sommaire du num??ro
BibliographieRomanticism on the Net
Num??ro 46, May 2007
Sous la direction de John Halliwell et Ian Haywood
Directeur : Michael Eberle-Sinatra
??diteur : Universit?? de Montr??al
ISSN : 1467-1255 (num??rique)
< Pr??c??dent Suivant >
The Virtual Infernal: Philippe de Loutherbourg, William Beckford and the Spectacle of the Sublime
Australian National University
In the autumn of 1781, shortly after being elected to the British Academy of Art as a landscape painter, Alsatian-born artist Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg was hired by the wealthy young aesthete William Beckford to prepare a private birthday spectacle at his mansion in Wiltshire. De Loutherbourg, who was also chief scenographer at Drury Lane theatre and the inventor of a recent commercial ??moving picture?? entertainment called the Eidophusikon, promised to produce ??a mysterious something that the eye has not seen nor the heart conceived.?? Beckford wanted an Oriental spectacle that would completely ravish the senses of his guests, not least so that he could enjoy a sexual tryst with a thirteen year old boy, William Courtenay, and Louisa Beckford, his own cousin??s wife.
The resulting three day party and spectacle staged over Christmas 1781
became one of the scandals of the day, and ultimately forced William Beckford into decades of exile in Europe to escape accusations of sodomy. However, this Oriental spectacle also had a special significance for the history of Romantic aesthetics and modern-day cinema. Loutherbourg and Beckford??s collaboration provided the inspiration for William to write his scintillating Gothic novel, Vathek, and impelled Philippe himself into revising his moving-picture program in dramatically new ways. Ultimately this saturnalian party of Christmas 1781 constituted a pioneering experiment in applying the aesthetic of the sublime to virtual reality technology. It also led Loutherbourg to anticipate the famous nineteenth-century ??Phantasmagoria?? of French showman, Gaspard Robertson, by producing in 1782 a miniature Gothic movie scene based on the Pandemonium episode in Milton??s Paradise Lost.
1Early in December 1781 the young English aesthete William Beckford issued a private invitation to an unusual Christmas party at Fonthill Splendens, his grand Palladian country house in Wiltshire. Having recently inherited a West-Indian fortune, William was planning a special celebration of his coming of age. In typically arch style he urged his besotted thirty-four-year-old mistress, Louisa ?C wife of his cousin Peter Beckford ?C to:
Leave no scheme untried no art unpractised to gain permission for coming to Fonthill, where every preparation is going forwards that our much admired and admiring Loutherbourg (for he doats upon us both) in all the wildness of his fervid imagination can suggest or contrive ?C to give our favourite apartments the strangeness and novelty of a fairy world. This very morning he sets forth with his attendant genii, and swears??that in less than three weeks??[to] present a mysterious something that the eye has not seen or heart of man conceived (his own hallowed words) purposely for our own special delight and recreation.
qtd. in Chapman, Beckford 99
I want to explore the origins, character and consequences of the ??mysterious something?? that Philippe de Loutherbourg and William Beckford contrived for a three day Christmas party of 1781, arguing that it constituted a novel experiment in ??virtual reality?? two centuries before the computer-digitised technologies of Silicon Valley reified that term. Defined as a technologically-simulated event or
entity that is ??real in effect but not in fact,?? virtual reality is today produced mainly by building artificial environments using computer-digitised images and other sensory stimuli such as ??haptics?? (Heim, Metaphysics 108-9). At the heart of the medium lies the concept of ??immersion??: to plunge viewers into a visual and sensory space that integrates them in a perceptual and emotional relationship with the surrounding images. The idea is to create an illusion of being inside a total alternative world, unified in both time and space.
2Most modern theorists see ??virtual reality?? as the core element of a new digital culture predicted to revolutionize twenty-first century life and thought, and having especially profound implications for art, philosophy and popular culture. Enthusiasts argue that, like the highest forms of art, virtual reality harbours a capacity and aspiration to ??transform or redeem our awareness of reality?? (Heim, Metaphysics 124). It transports us to alternative worlds, not simply to escape, but to be changed by new utopian possibilities (Grau 3-17). More specifically, virtual reality offers a compelling modern version of the aesthetic of the sublime because it impels us to try to transcend the limitations of the senses. In line with the aesthetic theories of Edmund Burke and Immanuel Kant, we feel a chill of pleasurable terror and awe when confronted with its infinity of data, incomprehensible complexity, and limitless power (Heim, Virtual Realism 153-61). On immersion, some viewers experience a sudden involuntary overwhelming of the senses that obliterates any sense of distinction between image and reality, others may achieve the aesthete??s more ??playful and conscious submission to appearances,?? enabling them to explore new freedoms of time and space, new identities and interpersonal intimacies, new shapes and patterns (Grau, Virtual Art 16-17; Heim, Metaphysics 85-87). Some analysts have also noted how closely the manifestos of virtual reality enthusiasts echo the mystic visions of Gnostic and Hermetic philosophers (Coxe 7-16). Across the centuries crackles the same hunger to spiritualise matter, to build alternative worlds, expand the sensoria, transcend the body, and merge with the divine. The very term la r??alit??e naturelle turns out to have been coined, not by some Silicon Valley cyber-technologist, but by the mystical French playwright Antonin Artaud, who defined it in 1938 as a ??mysterious identity of essence between alchemy and theatre?? aimed at achieving ??passionate and decisive transmutations of matter by mind?? (qtd. in Davis 190). It is as if the adjective ??virtual?? still carries powerful traces of its originating noun virtue, denoting a moral property derived from God.
3Although virtual reality is said to have achieved peak expression in
modern VTML digital technologies, it has long historical antecedents. Closed-off spaces in which images and rituals were deployed to induce ecstatic spiritual states can be traced back to the Eastern and Western mystery cults of Isis, Bacchus and Eleusis. Pompeii??s famous Villa de Misteri is only one of a series of illusion-generating temples scattered throughout the Classical world. Similarly, trompe de l??oeil illusions later became a standard feature of Renaissance and Baroque garden grottoes, chapels and ceiling frescoes. The invention of camera obscura cabinets and magic lanterns in the seventeenth century introduced further and radical ways of enhancing naturalistic visual experience. By the eighteenth century optical experimenters were using the term ??virtual?? to describe refracted or reflected images that flitted before the eye (Woolley 60). However, most modern commentators see the advent of Joseph Barker??s circular-view panorama of 1789 and Gaspard Etienne Robertson??s magic-lantern spectral shows of 1794 as the key forerunners of today??s cinema and virtual reality technologies (Grau 5-6).
4This paper offers an alternative and earlier foundation myth, arguing that the London-based painter, scenographer and spectacle entertainer Philippe de Loutherbourg and his patron William Beckford undertook at least as original and important a series of experiments with virtual reality when creating in 1781-2 ??a mysterious something that the eye has not seen nor the heart of man conceived?? (qtd. in Chapman, Beckford 99).
I.5Long before he hired Philippe de Loutherbourg, William Beckford dreamt of staging an intimate private party using illusionary special effects. His pictorial imagination and passion for theatrical spectacle often led him to imagine or contrive fantastic virtual spaces. He speculated to his Russian-born art tutor, Alexander Cozens, in winter 1779 how they might metamorphose Fonthill??s large central hall ?C already decorated by William??s late father with Egyptian furnishings ?C into a mysterious ??Hall of the Pyramid??glowing with yellow light ?C mid Vases formed in another Hemisphere ?C and Cabalistic Mirrors wherein Futurity is unveiled?? (Beckford to Cozens, 24 December 1779, qtd. in Chapman, Beckford 60). Writing from Rome a year later, he imagined constructing a type of son et lumi??re environment at Fonthill similar to the legendary artificial world of the Emperor Ki of China: ??I should like of all things to immure myself??with those I love; forget the divisions of time, have a moon at command and a theatrical sun to rise and set?? (Beckford, Travel Diaries i: 188) Lamps could be clustered ??so as to diffuse a mild equal light?? and the room sealed so no other mortals could enter. Unearthly music would be issued
from subterranean chapels and lofty domes. ??The windows I would bathe in yellow silk, to admit the glow of perpetual summer (i: 188-89).
6During autumn 1781 William also began to prescribe a more secret agenda for the party. A letter of early December urged Louisa to ??stay a week, then we must lie in wait for souls together?? (William Beckford to Louisa Beckford, nd. qtd in Chapman, Beckford 101). Her reply expanded on the predatory hint: ??William ?C my lovely infernal! How gloriously you write of iniquities??like another Lucifer you would tempt Angels to forsake their coelestial abode, and sink with you in the black infernal gulph?? (Chapman, Beckford 101). Such overheated exchanges came naturally to a young fantasist and an older woman half-demented by tuberculosis, yet both correspondents did have a genuine fascination with the occult. A Joshua Reynolds portrait of Louisa commissioned by William around this time shows her dressed as the pagan Goddess Hebe surrounded by the accoutrements of sorcery (Mowl, William Beckford 87-8).
7William had been introduced to Eastern magical ??systems?? by Cozens (Chapman, Beckford 87), and he subsequently steeped himself in D??Herbelot??s Bibliotheque Orientale and de Gebelin??s Monde Primitif (Oppe 32-3; Beckford to Mrs Harcourt, 15 August 1781, qtd. in Melville 116). He??d probably also begun to collect some of the shelves of Western alchemy and popular magic that featured in his mature library. An obsession with fallen angels inspired him to draft stories of Oriental underworlds, play fantasy games imagining the rock grottoes of Fonthill to be the Islamic Hell of Eblis, and make pilgrimages to sites from Milton??s Paradise Lost (Mowl, William Beckford 95-97; Fothergill 56-58).
8His letters of the time also disclose a more practical interest in erotic enchantment. Not content with bewitching Louisa to the point where her frantic love-letters hinted at a willingness to poison her husband and pimp her children (Fothergill 105), he??d added a deeper layer of complication to his amours in 1799 by falling in love with Viscount William Courtenay, the eleven-year-old son of the Earl of Devon. This infatuation for ??Kitty?? ?C as he nicknamed Courtenay ?C though initially sentimental, took a definite sexual turn in early December 1781, only a few weeks before the Christmas party (Mowl, William Beckford 109). ??Kitty?? was then thirteen, Beckford twenty-one. Desperate to preserve her own relationship with Beckford, Louisa offered herself as a mask for this forbidden love. Hints of prospective ??iniquities?? in letters of Autumn of 1781 signalled their intention of turning the Christmas event into a m??nage a trois.
II.9Philippe de Loutherbourg was a logical choice for anyone wanting to create necromantic and erotic special effects. Still dashing at forty, this Alsatian-born artist had been driven by sexual scandal to flee Paris in 1771, but not before he??d been elected to the Paris Academy and feted by Denis Diderot as a ??genius?? with the uncanny ability to transport spectators deep inside his painted landscapes (Fried 118-20, 228). In London, he??d become chief set-designer for David Garrick??s Drury Lane Theatre and a prolific exhibitor of landscapes and marine paintings. A decade on, he??d been elected to the English Royal Academy and was widely reputed to be the greatest spectacle maestro of the age, having revolutionized Britain??s sterile staging practices by introducing a French-style repertoire of naturalistic scenery and special effects. He achieved subtle tonalities of colour through use of lantern-projected glass slides and illuminated side-slips, eerie spectral transformations through oscillating light between front and back-painted transparencies, realistic moving backgrounds through clockwork machinery, and a new illusion of perspective depth through an innovative arrangement of wings and flats.
10As an avid theatre-goer with acting and directing pretensions (Rosenfeld 55-57), Beckford had to have seen some of Loutherbourg??s celebrated 1770s Eastern scene designs for Drury Lane pantomimes like The Semiramis and The Fair Circassian. Spectators marvelled that Philippe??s exquisite Egyptian temples would materialize suddenly in the middle of lush Oriental gardens, only to burst into flames and dissolve into coils of sulphurous smoke. The Fair Circassion was actually performing in the months leading up to the Christmas party, and it might have been after this theatre performance on 8 December 1781 that William recorded his seduction of Kitty Courtenay.
11William and Philippe had several affinities. Both were freemasons initiated in the more occult Continental strains of the movement. Philippe??s library carried an even larger representation of alchemical, Hermetic, Cabbalistic and Gnostic works. Reared in Strasbourg, a hub of religious pietism and magical learning, he later also immersed himself in the mystical demi-mondes of both Paris and London. William Blake, a fellow traveller, was in 1784 to lampoon the faddish Swedenborgian bohemianism of Philippe and his painter friends, Maria and Richard Cosway (Erdman 84-104): they were said to practice angel magic, free love and a bizarre form of testicular meditation for prolonging intercourse. Perhaps it was in one of these outr?? theosophical circles that he first met William and Louisa (Goodwin 131-36). No wonder William nicknamed him ??the mystagogue?? and,
needless to say, such transgressive credentials only enhanced his suitability to orchestrate the Christmas party (Schuchard, ??The Secret Masonic History?? 40-50; ??Why Mrs. Blake Cried?? 45-93).
12Philippe??s launching early in 1781 of the Eidophusikon, a sensational commercial spectacle, was another magnet for William. Described by the Public Advertiser as ??various imitations of Natural Phenomena, represented by moving pictures,?? it was the fruit, Philippe claimed, of twenty years of experiment (Altick, Shows 119, 121). Inside his Leicester Square house he??d built an opulent miniature theatre-cum-art salon. Here, for a fee of five shillings, around 130 fashionable spectators sat in comfort to watch a series of moving scenes projected within a giant peephole aperture, eight feet by six feet. The darkened auditorium combined with skilful use of concealed and concentrated light sources, coloured silk filters, clockwork automata, winding backscreens and illuminated transparencies created a uniquely illusionist environment. Audiences watched five landscapes in action. Dawn crept over the Thames at Greenwich; the noonday sun scorched the port of Tangier; a crimson sunset flushed over the Bay of Naples; a tropical moon rose over the wine-dark waters of the Mediterranean; and a torrential storm wrecked a ship somewhere off the Atlantic coast. Between scenes, painted transparencies served as curtain drops, and Mr and Mrs Michael Arne entertained the audience with violin music and song.
13Rumours that Philippe had been able to achieve ??a sort of magical effect in art?? drew William excitedly to the performance (Redding, Memoirs ii: 42). Along with others, he was ??captivated,?? particularly, we may guess, by the scarlet sunset: for red was ??my beloved tint,?? sunset ??my favourite hour?? (Beckford, Dreams 186). Later, he visited Philippe??s workshop for a private viewing of the artist??s magical ??wonders,?? ??experiments?? and ??deceptions?? (Redding, Memoirs ii: 38). Deeply impressed, William asked Philippe to produce the special-effects for his intended party, stressing, however, that the spectacle must be superior to anything he??d yet attempted. Brilliant as the Eidophusikon was, there were important ways in which it ??did not answer?? (Redding, Memoirs ii: 42).
14From William??s preoccupations at the time we may guess what he??d found disappointing about the show. For a start, it didn??t use the human voice to ravish the senses. Beckford believed music to be the most potent agency of the sublime, especially because he was then in a state of exceptional musical arousal. Infatuated with the voice of Europe??s greatest counter-tenor, Gasparo Pacchierotti, he??d
befriended the tall, charismatic castrato in 1780 and followed him on his tour around Italy. William told Lady Catherine Hamilton that
[Pacchierotti??s] music raises before me a host of phantoms which I pursue with eagerness. My blood thrills in my veins, its whole current is changed and agitated. I can no longer command myself, and while the frenzy lasts would willingly be devoted to destruction.??
qtd. in Fothergill 89-90
He hired Pacchierotti and two other notable Italian castrati, Venanzio Rauzzini and Giusto Tenducci, to perform at the decorous official birthday celebrations organized by his mother in August 1781, and their voices had sent him into a ??delirium?? ?C his stock term for erotic ecstasy. Not surprisingly, he now insisted to Philippe that they be included in the Christmas party spectacle.
15As with music, so with the other senses. Long intoxicated by Eastern stories like the Arabian Nights, William chafed at the austerity of Philippe??s moving landscapes because they appealed only to the eye. By way of gesturing towards a richer aesthetic, he probably showed Philippe his Eastern story of 1777-8, The Vision, which was steeped in Oriental sensuality and underpinned by Edmund Burke??s theories of the picturesque, the beautiful and the sublime.
16The Vision??s autobiographical protagonist, having lost himself in an Alpine wilderness, experiences the usual feelings of ??awe?? and ??astonishment?? when faced with towering peaks, murderous woods, and ghastly spectres. Later, he undergoes a lengthy mystical initiation at the hands of a Brahmin seer and Indian princess, and thrills to intermingled sensations of pleasure and pain. The agony of hot flames and icy torrents is succeeded by ??a feeling of refreshment both Spiritual and Corporeal??so sublime, so superior to mortality in general?? that he is led to ??exult in the memory of??sufferings??. Feelings of erotic transport and voluptuous langour follow when he smells the ??rich spicy perfume?? of exotic flowers, tastes ripe fruits and sparkling beverages, hears the ??wildly warbling?? sounds of angelic voices, and sees the glitter of polished steel mirrors and luminous orbs. Such is his sensual intoxication throughout, ??that I could scarcely distinguish the shadow from the reality?? (Beckford, Vision 3-88).
17An instinctive Romantic, Beckford??s imagination veered automatically towards emotional excess and magical fancy. Long before
Wordsworth, he??d evolved a ??fairy way of writing?? and ??a visionary way of gazing.?? Years later he recalled himself as ??a strange exotic animal??abandoned to all the wildness of my imagination, and setting no bounds to my caprices??I seemed like the antique Mercury, perpetually on tiptoe as if on the point of darting into the air?? (Chapman, Beckford 109). He revelled in the apparitional, the unearthly, the ??necromantic?? and he yearned to be able to evoke ??the internal visionary light which illuminates dreams.?? He wanted a spectacle that could catch a moment of ??subtle magic?? as it rose ??like an exhalation?? and then fix it ??before it dissolved?? ?C that would somehow transport viewers beyond the stolid reality of the material world into ??a portal of some other region and experience?? (Beckford, Travel Diaries i: 66-67; Fothergill 61).
III.18The guest list for the Christmas party was small: designed to provide a surface respectability while allowing scope for sexual licence. ??Our society,?? Beckford recalled, ??was extremely lovely to look upon ?C for not only Louisa in her gracefulness, but her f(riend)??Sophia [Musters]??perhaps the most beautiful woman in England ?C threw over it a fascinating charm?? (qtd. in Chapman, Beckford 105-6). Louisa, having managed to shake off her jealous husband, was escorted by her libertine brother George Pitt, himself entangled in a torrid affair with married Sophia Musters. It was rumoured that the latter two hoped pregnancy would follow the weekend. Cover for the presence of young ??Kitty?? Courtenay came from Beckford??s two male cousins of a similar age, Alex and Archibald Hamilton. Lord Dunmore??s two young daughters probably served the same function. The two Hamilton boys were themselves chaperoned by their oily and hard-up Harrow tutor, Reverend Samuel Henley, an Oriental scholar keen to ingratiate himself with William. ??Kitty??s?? own chaperone, Cozens, was of course already privy to William??s pederastic affair.
19Philippe??s cinematic spell had apparently been felt even before William and his young lover left London for Wiltshire. Though it was a mid-winter evening, as William, Kitty and Cozens crossed the Thames bound for Salisbury an unseasonable sunset lit up the river and sky. To William, it was a portent: those ??soft tints that coloured the Thames?? seemed a cosmic blessing of the forthcoming party (Fothergill, Beckford 112). Given that a red ??Aurora?? sunrise playing on the waters of the Thames at Greenwich was the opening scene of Philippe??s Eidophusikon, William was probably also experiencing the first recorded instance of nature imitating the movies. He was to harp on this enchanted prelude in at least three later letters (Mowl, William Beckford 110; Chapman, Beckford 118).
20The mystagogue??s uncanny ability to mimic the forces of nature was again in evidence when the three reached Fonthill in what had now blown into a winter storm. Six months later Beckford reminded Cozens: ??That night in particular haunts my imagination, when we arrived from Salisbury and seemed transported to a warm, illuminated palace raised by spells in some lonely wilderness?? (Beckford to Cozens, 2 June 1782, qtd. in Chapman, Beckford 101). Philippe had provided the guests with the first requisite of any virtual reality illusion, a
hermetically-sealed world that excluded all outside influences
Immured we were au pied de la lettre for three days following ?C doors and windows so strictly closed that neither common daylight nor commonplace visitors could get in or even peep in ?C care worn visages were ordered to keep aloof ?C no fallen mouths or furroughed foreheads were permitted to meet our eye.
qtd. in Chapman, Beckford 104
There are no detailed descriptions of Philippe??s Christmas spectacle, but we know that the impresario had two superb pre-existing Eastern-style sets to work with ?C rooms which, in William??s words, made ??the great mansion at Fonthill admirably calculated for mysteries?? (Chapman, Beckford 105). On passing through the front door, visitors found themselves in the Egyptian Hall, a vast, dimly-lit central space covered by vaulted ceilings that soared for two storeys, supported by heavy stone buttresses (Mowl, William Beckford 50-51). Lit only by ??expiring lamps,?? the Hall had always made William, ??fancy myself in the Catacombs of Egypt and expect to stumble on a mummy?? (Watkin 37-38). It was a perfect mise en scene for Philippe??s talents: half a dozen years earlier he??d prepared a famed ??Temple of Isis and view of the Egyptian Catacombs?? for Alexander Day??s Drury Lane tragedy Sethona, which included accurate re-creations of shrines, statues, mummies and hieroglyphic tablets (Joppien 77-83) Once Egyptian props were added to the Hall??s pre-existing vases and ??cabalistic mirrors,?? Philippe??s back-lit transparencies and painted glass magic-lantern slides transmuted the space into the eerie subterranean palace of Eblis (Hewat-Jabor 56; Chapman, Beckford 60).
Throughout the arched halls and vast apart(ment)s??prevailed a soft and pure radiance ?C distilled with much skill under the direction of Loutherbourg??. The solid Egyptian Hall looked as if hewn out of a living rock. The line of apartments being infinite were all vaulted ?C a gloomy staircase, which appeared, and which was in fact of enormous height,