? 1968, 2005 Richard Rastall
NB Page-numbers given in this Contents-list refer to the new page-numbers. As in Volume I, the original page-numbers of the thesis are noted in [ ] throughout the text.
CONTENTS OF VOLUME TWO
APPENDIX A: MINSTRELS AND MINSTRELSY IN THE ROYAL WARDROBE BOOKS, 25 Edward I – 15 Henry VII 3
Wardrobe and Chamber
HAND-LIST OF ACCOUNTS NOT CALENDARED
HAND-LIST OF ACCOUNTS CALENDARED
APPENDIX B: MINSTRELSY AT DURHAM PRIORY 121
APPENDIX C: MINSTRELSY IN THE HOWARD ACCOUNTS 1462–1485 128
APPENDIX D: MINSTRELSY AT THE SCOTTISH COURT 1473–1504 139
APPENDIX E: MINSTRELSY IN THE COVENTRY GILD-ACCOUNTS 1449–1502 162
APPENDIX F: INSTRUMENT-MAKERS 166
APPENDIX G: ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS CONSULTED 168
 APPENDIX A
MINSTRELS AND MINSTRELSY IN THE ROYAL WARDROBE BOOKS, 25
Edward I – 15 Henry VII
1The Wardrobe of the English royal household was developed during the late
thirteenth century as a financial and secretarial department through which the king could make transactions more easily and more quickly than through the offices of the Exchequer and Chancery. By making his Wardrobe responsible not only for the affairs of his household but for much of his military administration as well, Edward I gave his finances considerable freedom from the supervision of the barons – a
freedom without which he could not have pursued his military policies in Scotland and Wales.
The Wardrobe accounts of Edward I’s reign are thus particularly detailed in the information which they give about life and work at Court. Those of the following reign are slightly less detailed, for by the beginning of the reign of Edward II the barons had realised that the highly developed Wardrobe was largely responsible for the financial freedom which the king enjoyed. Gradually, the barons were able to gain control of the Wardrobe, severely curtailing the king’s financial resources.
Edward’s solution, towards the end of his reign, was to develop the Chamber to do
2the same work, with the freedom which the Wardrobe had previously enjoyed: he
was not successful, however, and the  Chamber never attained the status or size necessary for his purposes.
After Edward’s deposition the Chamber declined again, although it was to some extent revived under Edward III. In this reign, too, the Wardrobe was again used for military administration, during Edward’s early preparations for war with France. In
the second half of the reign, however, the king gave up his attempts at financial independence in favour of the support of the barons for his foreign policies. The gradual decline of the Wardrobe therefore continued, as indeed it did for the rest of the Middle Ages. Many payments and gifts which under the first two Edwards would have appeared in the Wardrobe accounts were recorded in the Issue Rolls and Patent Rolls in later reigns.
Wardrobe accounts were first entered in a Day-Book, or Journal. When the account was finally made – often several years later – these entries, together with
certain receipts and separate livery-rolls, etc., were arranged under various headings and made up as the book of the Keeper of the Wardrobe. A copy of the Keeper’s
book was made for the Controller (i.e. Contrarotulator, or keeper of the counter-roll),
some of the details being summarised.
1 The best summary of the history of the Wardrobe is in Myers/ELMA, pp. 25 ff. The standard
reference work is Tout/Chapters.
2 A number of Chamber accounts have therefore been searched for the present work: they appear in the calendar which follows.
The exact tituli, or headings, under which the accounts were entered vary slightly with the year and the reign. Generally, the Keeper’s and Controller’s books begin with the receipts of the Wardrobe, and continue with payments to household officers for the day-to-day expenses of their departments: from the last years of Edward III’s reign onwards, the latter payments are usually summarised. Other tituli
normally appearing are those of Alms and Oblations; Necessaries; Prests, or part-payments, to members of the household and to those “qui non sunt”; Shoes; Liveries of Cloth and Fur; Gifts; Buying of Horses; Replacement of Horses;  Messengers; Debts; and Jewels and Plate. The sections concerned with Fees and Wages are often subdivided into payments to milites, squires, archers, pedites, huntsmen, sailors,
carpenters, dykers, etc.
These sections are not all equally useful for our present purpose. In collecting material for this thesis I have not searched receipts, payments to household officers, or alms and oblations; occasional entries from these sections are included in my calendar only because they caught my eye or were pointed out to me. Similarly, I have not searched sections concerning milites, soldiers, sailors, jewels and plate, etc.
Sections concerning falconers and messengers were occasionally searched as time allowed: they proved unfruitful.
Undoubtedly the most immediately interesting items were found in the Dona
sections, where gifts were recorded both to the royal minstrels and to visiting entertainers; the Necessaria sections were also carefully searched, although they proved to be less fruitful. Shoes, wages, and liveries of cloth and fur were expenses which occurred annually, so that individual items do not have the unique importance of entries in the Dona and Necessaria sections. Nevertheless, they and the
payments for horses give information about the status of the minstrels and their periods of residence in court, and allow an inventory of the names of royal minstrels
3to be compiled. In this latter task, the lists of household creditors help greatly, as do the Prestita sections: prests, however, give little information other than names and the itinerary of the Court, and I have not given details of prests in my calendar.
HAND-LIST OF ACCOUNTS NOT CALENDARED
Accounts may appear in this hand-list for one of two reasons:
1 The document in question was not searched, usually because the catalogue indicated that it might not contain many relevant entries. These accounts are distinguished in the list by the letters (n.s.).
2 The document was searched, without relevant entries being found.
The documents listed here should not be dismissed as unfruitful, however. I did not normally search all sections of a Wardrobe account, and in addition I must
3 The result of this particular piece of work is Rastall/MERH.
have dismissed as irrelevant, in the early stages of the work, much material that I
4should later have noted. There was rarely time to return to a manuscript that had already been searched: all documents in this list should be seen again at some stage, although the need to search other records – especially the Issue Rolls – is more
This list does not claim to be exhaustive, and it no doubt excludes a number of fragmentary accounts. If it includes all the major accounts and most of the minor ones, however, it will have served its purpose.
The accounts of the various households are not distinguished: nor are any details given of the documents themselves.
24-29 E101.354.7 (n.s.)
25 C47.4.7 (n.s)
27 E101.6.3 (n.s.)
528 Soc. of Ants. (n.s.)
28 Ryl 231 (n.s.)
28-29 E101.358.20 (n.s.)
29 Add 7966 B (n.s.)
29 E101.9.20 (n.s.)
29 E101.359.8 (n.s.)
30 E101.361.13 (n.s.)
30 E101.361.16 (n.s.)
31 E101.363.13 (n.s.)
31-32 E101.365.6 (n.s.)
31-35 E101.365.10 (n.s.)
33-35 E101.368.7 (n.s.)
34 Add 37655 (n.s.)
34 E101.369.15 (n.s.)
35 E101.370.6 (n.s.)
35 E101.370.7 (n.s.)
4 For instance, it was some time before I began to look for waferers, as the connection between
waferers and minstrels did not immediately present itself.
5 The Society of Antiquaries manuscript is identical with Add 35291, except that it omits passages deleted in the latter.
1 Add 35093 (n.s.) 1 E101.369.17 (n.s.) 3 Harley 315m (n.s.) 3 E101.506.16 (n.s.) 4 E101.374.6 (n.s.) 4-7 E101.506.18 (n.s.) 5 E101.374.15 (n.s.) 7 E101.540.22 (n.s.) 7 E101.375.9 (n.s.) 8-9 E101.376.11 ) (n.s.)
716 E101.379.7 (n.s.) 17 E101.379.17 (n.s.) 17 Ryl 132
17 Add 35114 (n.s.) 17 Add 36763 (n.s.) 17 Aug II.109 (n.s.) 18 Egerton 2814
19 E101.381.15 (n.s.)
6 Galba E iii