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Lesson_2__Philosophers_Among_the_Carrots

By Doris Henderson,2014-07-05 00:01
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Lesson_2__Philosophers_Among_the_Carrots

    Lesson 2 Philosophers Among the Carrots

    Word list

    1. manifestation n. an indication of the existence, reality, or presence of something 表现某事

     物的存在、现状或出现的显示/the clear evidence (in the text)

    e.g. Fever is one manifestation of cold.发烧是感冒的一种表现形式。

     manifest v. show or demonstrate plainly; reveal清楚地显示或表示

    e.g. He doesn't manifest much interest in his studies.他表现出对学业没多大兴趣。 2. metaphysical a. based on speculative or abstract reasoning 哲学上的(philosophical) 3. stew v. & n. cook slowly in water or juice in a closed dish, pan , etc, 4. eruditely ad.

    erudite a. learned 博学的,有学问的/ n. 博学之士, 有学问的人

    eruditeness n.

    5. analogy n. similarity in some respects between things that are otherwise dissimilar 相似,

     不同事物的某些方面具有的相似性

    e.g. There is an analogy between the way water moves in waves and the way light travels.

    水波流动的方式与光的传播方式有相似之处。

    forced analogy牵强附会

    idms

    by analogy用类推法

    draw an analogy between(二者)加以相比; 指出...之间的相似处

    6. smugly ad.

    smug a. exhibiting or feeling great satisfaction with oneself or with one's situation 沾沾

     自喜的

    e.g. the smug calculation如意算盘

    7. deposit v. put or set down; place 放置 spit(in the text)

    e.g. Deposit the sand here. 把沙子放在这儿。

     put (money) in a bank or financial account 存钱

    e.g. She deposited her money in the bank. 她把钱存在银行里。

    8. pit n. hard seeds inside fruits like a peach, etc. stone(BrE) pit(AmE) 9. speculatively ad.

    speculative a. 思索的,推测的,玄思的

     e.g. speculative philosophy思辩哲学

    His conclusion is purely speculative.他的结论纯粹是推测而来的。

    speculation n.

    e.g. Your speculations were all quite close to the truth.你的揣测都很接近于事实。

    speculate v. form opinions without having definite or complete knowledge or evidence;

     reflect; guess思考,沉思;推测(~about/ on/ upon sth)

     e.g. speculate about the origin of the universe推测宇宙的起源

    I've been -ting on my future.我一直在思索我的未来。

    10. marinate v. soak (meat, for example) in a marinade 腌泡

    11. second v. formally support to show that he is not the only person in favor of it赞成,附

    

    e.g. Deeds must second words.言行必须一致。

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12. opt v. (for) make a choice or decision选择或决定

    e.g. opt for early retirement选择提早退休; opt not to go选择不去

     They opt for more holiday instead of more pay.他们选择了延长假期而不是增加工资。 13. train n. an orderly succession of related events or thoughts; a sequence 一连串有联

     系的事件或思想,一系列

    14. chug v. make dull, explosive sounds 发嘎嚓声,发出单调的、很响的声音 15. realm n. a field, sphere, or province某个领域、界或范围

    e.g. the realm of science科学界

    16. fluid n. a liquid or gas液体或气体 a. flowing, changing, smooth

    17. displace v. take the place of取代…的位置

    move from the usual place or position 移动…的位置

     e.g. millions of refugees who were displaced by the war

    数以百万计的难民由于战争而离开家园

    18. immerse v. cover completely in a liquid; submerge 浸没

    engage wholly or deeply; absorb 沉迷…中,专心于

     e.g. immerse one's head in the water 将头浸入水中

     The professor was so immersed in her work that she didn't notice me.

    教授在专心致志地工作,以致没注意到我。

    19. lumpy a. full of lumps块状物的

    lump n. hard or compact mass, usu. without a regular shape

    e.g. I like taking one lump of sugar in my tea.我喜欢在茶里放一块方糖。

     lump sugar sugar in the form of small lumps or cubes

     lump sum one payment for a number of separate items一次总付的钱 20. recipe n. a set of directions with a list of ingredients for making or preparing something,

     especially food菜谱!烹饪法,a medical prescription处方 21. hobgoblin n. an ugly, mischievous devil淘气精灵

    22. Buddha n. Buddhism n. Buddhist n. 23. illumination n. spiritual or intellectual enlightenment 启示

    illuminate v. enlighten intellectually or spiritually; enable to understand 启发

    e.g. stage illumination舞台照明

    illumination remark启发人的言论

    The streets were illuminated for the celebration.街道灯火通明以示庆祝。 24. bubble gum n. chewing gum that can be blown into bubbles 泡泡糖

    25. wrapper n. the material, such as paper, in which something is wrapped 包装材料 26. lotus n.

    27. pristine a. remaining in a pure state质朴的remaining free from dirt or decay; clean干净的 28. trunks n. shorts worn for swimming or other athletics 男用运动裤

    29. aggressive a. inclined to behave in a hostile fashion倾向于敌对行为的

    e.g. an aggressive foreign policy侵略性的外交政策

    30. fantasy n. the creative imagination; unrestrained fancy想象,幻想

    e.g. The young man lives in a world of fantasy.这个年青人生活在幻想的世界里。 31. drape v. cover, dress, or hang with or as if with cloth in loose folds 遮盖

    e.g. drape a cloak over one's shoulders把斗篷披在肩上

    32. cache v. & n. the store of goods or valuables concealed in a hiding place 隐藏

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33. virtuous a. having or showing virtue, especially moral excellence 有德行的

    virtue n. moral excellence and righteousness; goodness 正直,美德

    34. yeast n. 酵母

    35. dough n. a soft, thick mixture of dry ingredients, such as flour or meal, and liquid, such as

     water, that is kneaded, shaped, and baked, especially as bread or pastry 生面团

    36. willfulness n. determination 任性

    37. renegade n. one who rejects a religion, a cause, an allegiance, or a group for another 改变信

     仰者

    a. disloyal

    38. abbe n. 僧侣, 神父 (abbey, monastery, convent)

    39. quintessence n. the purest or most typical instance 典型最纯正或最典型的例子

    e.g. the quintessence of evil罪恶的化身

    40. enigmatically ad.

    enigmatic a. puzzling, mysterious谜一般的,难以捉摸的

    e.g. a professor's enigmatic grading system一个教授的让人费解的判分体系

    enigma n. one that is puzzling, ambiguous, or inexplicable

    41. unseemly a. not in accord with accepted standards of good taste 不适当的

     not suited to the circumstances; inappropriate 不相称的

    42. ruffle v. annoy 惹怒

    e.g. be easily ruffled动不动就生气

    43. cologne n. a scented liquid made of alcohol and various fragrant oils 古龙水

    44. tantalize v. excite (another) by exposing something desirable while keeping it out of reach

     挑逗

    tantalization n.

    45. aroma n. a pleasant characteristic odor, as of a plant, spice, or food 芳香

Theme

     The writer is a housewife with a college education. She is aware, as a female college graduate, the she owes Womens Lib some loyalty for giving her the right to equal educational opportunities, and that she should not betray the cause, which demands that woman be no servant to man. She therefore feels a bit guilty for remaining a housewife. On the other hand, she

    cannot escape the situation as a housewife. In point of fact, she feels at the bottom of her heart she loves her present life (This is best reflected in the last paragraph of the text). She is thus caught in the conflict between her uneasy conscience for not meeting the demands of the movement and her enjoyment of the housewife profession. She expresses her dilemma

    precisely in this sentence: I asked myself if it was still permissible to take pleasure in the profession of housewife and not be a traitor to the cause, where the words still permissible to

    take pleasure” show her strong sentiment for her present condition and her wish to take guilt-free pleasure in being a housewife.

     To relieve her guilty feelings, and also fulfil her education superficially, she decides to apply her philosophical training to the mundane concerns of a housewife, as if saying: So lets see if I

    can use my education in the kitchen.

     Every detail of her application following this decision eventually goes from the sublime to the ridiculous, creating a series of comic situations in which profound idealism is faced with the

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dull daily work of a family manager.

     The bitter irony comes at the end, when she finally decides to rebel against Womens Lib,

    still using the philosophy she has learned--- Whatever is, is good. This quotation shows that she is perfectly happy with her present life, and that she is saying go to hell to the Womens

    Liberation Movement.

Structural Analysis of the text

    The philosophical quotations or sayings A housewifes domestic activities

    Socrates saying, The unexamined life is not Meditation on the tricky relation between an worth living educated housewife and Womens Lib during

    her cleaning of the refrigerator

    A great, metaphysical truth The nature of eating food

    Archimedes and Emerson Making a carrot cake

    A quotation for Heraclitus The everyday weariness from doing laundry

    The pure lotus in Oriental philosophy Her low spirit

    A quotation from William James Her fit of anger

    A slogan from Rabelais novel Do as you will A strike

    Alexander Pope All chaos is but order Denial of accusation

    misunderstood,

    Words from Pascal the heart has its own Her confrontation with husbands angry shout

    reason the mind knows not of

    Philosophy of Boethius Whatever is, is good. Her decision to stay where she is (still to be a

    housewife)

    philosophers The carrots

    Application for the purpose of satisfying her conscience and consoling herself in household chores

Detailed Explanation of the text

(1) As I was cleaning the refrigerator the other

    day and thinking deep thoughts about Womens cognate object/Womens Liberation Movement, Lib, I asked myself if it was still permissible to Womens Movement, Womens Liberation/ if I

    take pleasure in the profession of housewife could continue to enjoy being a housewife without

    and not be a traitor to the cause. Am I really seeming disloyal to the movement/

    making use of my college education? What

    good did, Introduction to Philosophy, IA do first year, section A/

    me, for instance? Then I recalled Socrates

    saying that, The unexamined life is not worth One should look at his life carefully to see if any living, and decided that maybe it was time to lessons could be drawn from it or any changes examine mine. needed to be made in it, otherwise, his life is

    meaningless (worthless)./ look at my life very

    carefully to see if any lessons could be drawn

    from it or any changes needed to be made in it

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(2) As I stood eating apples, oranges and

    brown bananas and gazing into the depths of looking steadily, intently, and with fixed attention/

    my refrigerator while considering college the deep part /

    educations and housewives, I saw the

    manifestation of a great, metaphysical truth. the clear evidence/ philosophical/

    Like energy, matter simply descends in scale Energy can be classified into different types which --- from roast to stew to soup to cat food. constitute a graded system of various levels the

     top level, the bottom level, and many other levels

     in between. When one type of energy at a higher

     level is transformed into another at a lower level,

     energy may be said to have gone down in the

     hierarchy. Similarly, matter can be graded into

     different levels, from the highest to the lowest.

     For example, the roast food, the stew, the soup,

     and the cat food can be regarded as forming a

     system of four levels. If the roast food becomes

     the cat food, we can say in this case food has

     descended all the way from the top level to the

     bottom level (from human food to cat food).

    I muttered eruditely to the cat as I paused in my satirical use (demonstrate the helpfulness of her own eating long enough to pour a bit of soup education in an ironic way)/

    into his bowl. Where are the string beans of an example of how food descends in scale, from

    yesterday? But of course, they are the solid to liquid/

    vegetable soup of today. If I hadnt been to

    college, I wouldnt have seen that significant

    analogy.(sarcastic)I thought smugly, analogy between energy and food/

    depositing an orange pit in the sink as I finished spitting an orange pit into the kitchen sink after the salad she had finished eating the salad (an negligible act

     as an illustration of how her application of

     philosophy in the kitchen eventually went from the

     sublime to the ridiculous. Napoleons saying

     From the sublime to the ridiculous is just one

     step.)/

    (or did I learn that in high school?)(ironic If I did learn that in high school, which was part of humor) the compulsory education anyway, I should not

    feel so indebted to Womens Lib.

(3) Then, as I eyed a bowl of cooked carrots

    speculatively, sizing them up for carrot cake or balancing in my mind as to the best way to use the marinated vegetable salad and opting for the cooked carrots/ estimating whether they would be cake which I knew would be seconded by my better for making cake or for making salad, and husband and three sons, decided on the cake which I knew would be

     agreed upon by my family/

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I followed the train of my thoughts which was My thoughts, guided by Archimedes, wandered

    chugging off into philosophical realms led by away into the kingdom of philosophy like a Archimedes who said, chugging-off train./

    Any object placed in a fluid displaces its When an object floats on a liquid, we can know its weight; an immersed object displaces its weight, which is equal to the weight of the liquid volume, and with that principle to guide me I it has displaced; when an object is immersed in a immersed the lumpy carrots in the milk called liquid, we can know its volume, which is equal to

    for in the recipe and found they made almost the volume of the liquid it has displaced./ (By this

    exactly the one cup called for. law of Archimedes, the writer got the exact

     volume of carrots called for in the recipe.)/

     carrots cut up into heavy lumps/ required/

    Muttering, along with Emerson, that A foolish Quoting from Emerson / To observe a rule rigidly consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds. is false belief of those unintelligent people. /

    I dumped in a couple of spoonfuls of

    applesauce to make it come out right. come out right in taste, taste better (She did not

     want to observe Archimedes rule too rigidly at the

     expense of the taste.)

(4) With the cake in the oven I went into the

    bathroom-laundry room carrying my new found

    illuminations about housewives and philosophy knowledge, insight, understanding/

    with me (Buddha had his Bo tree, I have my Just as Buddha received heavenly inspiration to refrigerator) and there I faced the endless river found Buddhism under the Bo tree, so I got new

    of dirty tee shirts, sweat socks, pajamas and understanding about housewives and philosophy underwear, with a quote from Heraclitus. beside my refrigerator./

     Greek philosopher who maintained that strife and

     change are natural conditions of the universe

    You cant step twice in the same river I When you step into the river for the second time, assured myself as I picked up a pair of jeans its no longer the same water you stepped into for and emptied the pockets of bubble gum the first time for water keeps running by. What wrappers, pencils and pennies, you are washing today is different from what you

     washed yesterday. (The author uses this quotation

     to cheer herself up from the monotony of doing

     the laundry day in and day out.)/

    and I saw about me the variety in unity and (an aesthetic principle) to see uniformity in unity in variety spoken of by my aesthetics differences and see differences in uniformity (in professor. the authors case, unity all the clothes she had to

    wash were dirty clothes; variety every piece to

    be washed was different from every other piece)/

(5) Then, having started the wash, and

    reflecting on the symbol of the lotus in Oriental forming carefully considered thoughts about / The

    philosophy which rises, pure and pristine from lotus was regarded as a sacred plant by several

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    the mud and muck, Oriental religions, especially Hinduism. It was

     believed that the leaves of the lotus, being round,

     represented the motion of intellect, and its

     towering up through mud implied the superiority

     of intellect over matter. The lotus, therefore,

     symbolized the detachment or transcendence of

     the intellect from external matter and sensation./

    I walked proud and untouched among the gym The author was comparing herself to the lotus, and trunks and sweatshirts and out into the rest of the dirty clothes around her to mud. She was

    the house to tidy it up. proud that she had kept herself pure and clean

     while walking through the dirty clothes./

    There I indulged in aggressive fantasies against I allowed myself to develop a lot of hostile and my dear family as I picked up a necktie draped angry thoughts against my dear husband and three on a lamp, a pair of tennis shoes under the sons./ tie /

    couch, a cache of peanut shells beneath a a long sofa / a secret store of

    newspaper and, remembering William James

    comment that Even a pig has a philosophy, I

    wondered angrily what theirs was. Even a pig has a philosophy (=attitude to life), and

    since they were like pigs, they must have had one

    too.

(6) After several days of such virtuous,

    domestic behavior scrubbing, ironing, cooking,

    and making yeast dough that blossoms and come into flower, bloom

    rises under my fingers like the miracle of life

    itself, I got up one morning and, with a wave of with a sudden burst of determination to go my willfulness, remembered the philosophy of own way/

    Rabelais renegade abbe, Do as you will. In an abbe who abandoned his original religious

    my present state of mind I found this the beliefs for bourgeois doctrines/ mood/ the best

    quintessence of good sense and I walked out of representation of sound judgment (human the house and into the car, leaving the breakfast wisdom)/

    dishes on the table. When my husband came

    home he said, This place is a mess!

    (7) I smiled enigmatically as I continued to smiled in a way which showed there was sth secret stir the chicken soup and quoted Alexander about her/

    Pope, All chaos is but order misunderstood, All chaos is in fact not chaos, but is order which then added with composure that I had has been mistaken for chaos./

    purchases a new dress.

(8) A new dress! You just bought one last

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week! he shouted in an unseemly manner.

    But, without becoming the least bit ruffled, I

    replied, in the words of Pascal, Ah, but the You do sth out of emotion which is not based on

    heart(emotion) has its reasons the mind(reason) reason./

    knows not of, and I moved off into the kitchen

    to cut up some cheese and fruit and put the

    bread into the oven. Next I went into the

    bedroom, put on my new red dress, combed my

    hair and sprayed some My Desire, cologne

    on it.

(9) My husband looked at me --- eyes

    growing wide as an approving smile spread

    over his face. But the bread, with its

    tantalizing aroma was competing with me for

    his affections and the bread won for the time

    being. I sat there smiling content amid my

    four men who were happily and heartily eating eating with much appetite or enjoyment, in large

    and I reflected that the philosophy of Boethius amounts/

    for me, at this time, seemed right and that

    Whatever is, is good. Reality is good. Whatever exists is good.

Language Points

    1. cause n.

    ; the producer of an effect, result, or consequence 缘故!原因

    e.g. The main cause of these accidents is drivers going too fast.

    ; a basis for an action or a response; a reason 理由

    e.g. Jacks father had good cause to be proud of him.(=have a strong reason for有充分

    理由)

    ; A goal or principle served with dedication and zeal 目标!事业

    e.g. fight for the cause of world peace 为世界和平而战

    She has made up her mind to fight for the cause of peace all her life.

    她已下定决心为和平事业奋斗终身。

v. make sth happen造成!引起

    e.g. The fire was caused by an electrical fault(电力故障).

     The storm caused widespread damage. (cause damage, problems, trouble)

     cause sb to do sth

     cause sb sth (He apologizes for causing you any embarrassment.)

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     Saying that A causes B: be responsible for, be the cause of, bring about, cause, give rise to, produce, trigger Saying that A is one of the causes of B: be a factor in , contribute to, influence, play a part in, Saying that B is caused by A: arise from/ out of, be due to, be the result of, result from Saying that A stops B from happening or succeeding: check, prevent Prepositions and conjunctions used to indicate cause: as, because, because of, due to, on account of, as a result of, owing to, since

    2. manifestation n. the display, the show, the reflection e.g. A high fever is an early manifestation of the disease. (= indication, example)

    发高烧是这种疾病的表现症状之一

     Unlike acid rain or deforestation, global warming has no visible manifestation. (= evidence)

     His smile was a manifestation of joy. (=sign, revelation)

     The demonstrations were a manifestation of the peoples discontent. (= evidence)

     manifest

    v. show or demonstrate plainly; reveal 显示

     e.g. Musical talent usually manifests itself in childhood.音乐天赋通常在童年就显露

     出来。

    He doesn't manifest much interest in his studies.他表现出对学业没多大兴趣。

     a. clearly apparent to the sight or understanding; obvious 明显的

     e.g. be manifest at a glance一目了然

     He is a manifest liar.他显然是个说谎的人。

3. size up

    ; estimate or judge (about the nature, strength, etc. of sth)估计!估量

    e.g. We must size up the situation before we decide what to do. ; get to know the size of

    e.g. Sizing up the wall, we decided that we should need three cans of paint.

    4. opt for make a choice in favor of sth; select or choose sth

    e.g. There are several things on the menu I’d like to try, but I think I’ll opt for the salmon.

     My father left the choice of career to me, and I opted for medicine.

5. illuminate v.

    ; provide or brighten with light 照明

    e.g. The river was illuminated by the setting sun. 这条河被落日照亮。

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     The streets were illuminated for the celebration.街道灯火通明以示庆祝。

    ; make understandable; clarify 解释

    e.g. illuminate a difficult passage in a book 解释书中难懂的段落

     Footnotes illuminated the difficult passages of the book. (=helped to explain) ; enlighten intellectually or spiritually; enable to understand 启发

    e.g. She found the two-year experience difficult but illuminating. (=informative and full of

     insights)

     illumination n.

     e.g. stage illumination舞台照明

     illuminating a. (fml) providing new or useful information , so that sth becomes clearer and

     easier to understand 富有启发性的! e.g. an illuminating discussion/ lecture

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