DOC

Lesson_3_The_power_of_Habit

By Tim Foster,2014-07-05 00:01
7 views 0
Lesson_3_The_power_of_Habit

    228586485.doc

    Lesson 3 The power of Habit Word List

    1. duke n. a nobleman with the highest hereditary rank, especially a man of the highest

     grade of the peerage in Great Britain 公爵

    duke() marquis/ marquess(侯爵) earl () viscount (子爵) baron (男爵)

    2. fashion v. give shape or form to; make形成

    train or influence into a particular state or character 塑造

    e.g. fashion the clay into bricks把泥土制成砖头

    fashion sb. into a fine sportsman把某人培养成优秀运动员

    3. discharge v. release, as from confinement, care, or duty 释放;使退伍

    e.g. discharge a patient允许病人出院; discharge a soldier让士兵退伍

    4. whereupon conj. in close consequence of which 随之/于是

    e.g. The instructor entered the room, whereupon we got to our feet.

    教员走进了房间!随之我们全站了起来.

    He saw me coming, whereupon he offered me his seat.

    他看到我来!于是把座位让给了我。

    5. gutter n. a channel at the edge of a street or road for carrying off surface water 排水沟!

     阴沟

    6. cavalry n. troops trained to fight on horseback 骑兵

    7. evolution n. a series of planned movements按照计划的行动; 操练

    8. bugle n. 军号!喇叭

    9. alternative n. choice between two mutually exclusive possibilities 两者择一

    a. available in place of sth; other 另一可选择的

    10. menagerie n. a collection of live wild animals on exhibition 动物展览; ?马戏团豢养

     的,兽群

    11. presently ad. in a short time; soon不久!一会儿

    e.g. She will arrive presently.她一会儿就到.

    12. bewilder v. confuse, especially with numerous conflicting situations, objects, or statements

     使为难!使迷惑

    e.g. I was bewildered by the maze of streets in the city.我被市里错综复杂的街道弄糊涂了。

     (labyrinth/ maze)

     The twists and turns in the cave soon bewildered us.

    蜿蜒弯曲的洞穴使我们很快便失去了方向.

    I was bewildered by too much choice.

     bewildering a. bewildered a. bewilderment n. (in bewilderment)

    13. fly-wheel n. a heavy-rimmed wheel on a revolving shaft() to regulate machinery or

     accumulate power整速轮/飞轮/调速轮 (in the text) a regulating

    force

    14. agent n. one that acts or has the power or authority to act 行动者

     a force that causes a change引起变化的力量

    15. ordinance n. a custom or practice established by long usage 风俗

    an authoritative command or order 命令

    a regulation, especially one enacted by a city government 法规

     1 14

    228586485.doc

    16. repulsive a. disgusting 可憎的 (~ness n.)

    17. therein adv. in that place, time, or thing 在那儿在那里!那时或在那件事中

    in that circumstance or respect 在其中在那环境中或在那个方面 18. deckhand n. 甲板水手

    19. nail v. keep fixed, motionless, or intent 使固定

    e.g. Fear nailed me to my seat.恐惧使我坐在凳子上动弹不得.

    20. countryman n. a man who lives in the country or has country ways 乡下人 21. nurture n. & v. bringing up培养 (educate, train, cultivate, nourish, rear)

    e.g. nurture a student's talent培养学生的才能develop

     Nurture your mind. 发展你的心智cultivate, develope

     We teachers should nurture the childrens mind.

     She nurtured the child as if he had been her own.她把那孩子当作自己的来养育。rear

     nature and nurture本性和教养, 遗传和环境

    The two sisters had received very different nurture.这俩个姊妹接受过极不同的教育。 22. stratum n. (singl.) a level of society composed of people with similar social, cultural, or

     economic status 阶层 (class) strata pl. 23. counselor-at-law n. an attorney, especially a trial lawyer 律师

    24. cleavage n. splitting, division 裂缝或分裂

    25. by-and-by ad. some future time or occasion 将来

    26. critical a. forming or having the nature of a turning point; crucial or decisive 重要的!关键

    

    e.g. a critical point in the campaign活动中最重要的一点

     a critical decision重大的决定

    27. vocalization n. 发声法

    vocalize v. produce with the voice 用嗓音发

    vocal a. relating to the voice 声音的

    28. transfer v. & n. move oneself from one location or job to another 调动

    e.g. He has transferred from the army to the navy.他从陆军转到海军。(vi.)

     He has been transferred from Beijing to Shanghai.他已从北京被调到上海。(vt.)

    This worker wants a transfer to another post.这个工人要求调换工种。(n.) 29. better n. a superior, as in standing, competence, or intelligence 较优者 30. unlearn v. get rid of 去除/ forget遗忘

    e.g. try to unlearn smoking竭力改掉抽烟的习惯

    31. nasality n. nasal accent鼻音

    nasal n. & a. relating to the nose 鼻的

    32. vice n. an undesirable habit不良好的习惯

    33. ware n. an article of commerce 商品

    34. swell n. one who is fashionably dressed or socially prominent衣着时髦或社交卓越的

    

    e.g. society swells社会头面人物

    35. invisible a. impossible to see; not visible 看不见的

    visible a.

    36. gravitation n. the natural phenomenon of attraction between massive bodies 万有引力

     the process of moving under the influence of this attraction 引力作用

     2 14

    228586485.doc

    37. array v. dress in finery打扮

    38. clad a. dressed穿着的;被覆盖的 (p.p. of clothe)

    e.g. warmly clad 穿得暖和的

    a motorcyclist clad in leather穿着皮外套的摩托车手

    The woods on the mountain sides were clad in mist.

    高山坡上的小树林都笼罩在一片薄雾中

    39. contrive v. manage 设法做到

    e.g. He contrived to get past the guards unnoticed.想办法不被守卫发现

     Can you contrive to be at the station by noon?你能设法在中午前赶到车站吗? 40. ally n. one in helpful association with another助手!支持者

    v. place in a friendly association, as by treaty 联盟

     e.g. England allied with France. 英国和法国结成同盟。

     France and England were allies in the war. 法国和英国在这次战争中是同盟国。 41. fund v. furnish a fund for 资助,为…提供资金

    e.g. fund the space program资助太空计划

    42. capitalize v. supply with capital or investment funds提供资金

    e.g. capitalize a new business为一个新的企业注入资金

    43. acquisition n.

    acquire v. get by one's own efforts 取得

    e.g. acquire proficiency in math在数学上达到熟练水平

     She acquired a knowledge of the English by careful study.

    她认真学习而精通英语。

    Some people go back for their education to acquire another degree or diploma to

     impress the society.有些人回到学校去接受教育,是想再取得一个学位或一张文凭,

     增强自己在社会上的地位。

    Some smoking and alcoholic drinks are an acquired taste and are not in born.

    抽烟喝酒往往是一种后来习得的嗜好,并不是生来就有的。

    This motor-scooter is my latest acquisition. 这辆摩托车是我最新购置的。

    second language acquisition 44. disadvantageous a. detrimental; unfavorable不利的

    e.g. in a disadvantageous position处于不利的地位

    be disadvantageous to sb.对某人不利

    45. plague n. a cause of annoyance; a nuisance 纷扰

     a sudden destructive influx or injurious outbreak 突然的灾害

    e.g. a plague of locusts蝗虫灾害; a plague of accidents不测之灾

    a plague of rats 泛滥成灾的老鼠

    46. custody n. care, supervision, and control exerted by one in charge 照管

    e.g. The father was given custody of the children. 父亲获得对孩子的监护权。

     The stolen car is now in police custody. 被盗汽车目前由警方保管。

     A father has the custody of his children when they are young.

    孩子年幼时, 做父亲的有监护的责任。

    His car was held in the custody of the police.他的汽车被警察扣压。 47. automatism n. automatic action 自动行为

     3 14

    228586485.doc

    48. indecision n. reluctance or an inability to make up one's mind; irresolution 犹豫不决!举

     棋不定,优柔寡断

    e.g. His indecision caused him to lose the chance of a new challenging job.

    他的犹豫不决使他失去了一次得到新具有挑战性的工作的机会。

    49. express a. particular; specific明白的;确切的

    e.g. an express plan一份特殊计划

    50. volitional a. 意志的

    volition n. the power or faculty of choosing; the will 意志力

Structural Analysis of the text

    Theme: Although developed after birth, habit becomes actually no less an inborn quality of a

     human creature than his character, and can powerfully control his behavior. (尽管

    是后 天形成的!习惯如同人的性格!实际上是一种天性的东西!可以控制人的行为。)

    Para 1 thesis argument (Dukes famous remark)

    Para 2 a humorous story to support argument (cited from another well-known figure in this

     case Prof. Huxley, whose humorous story may well serve as a footnote to the dukes proposition.)

    Para 3 examples of his own to strengthen argument

    (Having thus stated his case for the power of habit, the author is now ready to explore other aspects of the topic.)

    Para 4 the relation of habit to society (Thanks to the power of habit, society is able to keep

     different people in different occupations or positions, and is thus saved from collapse

     into disorder.)

    Para 5 a distinction in age between the formation of intellectual and professional habits and the

     formation of personal habits (He claims that personal habits, such as your accent, your

     manner of standing or moving and your habit of wearing clothes, are formed even

     earlier in ones life, and their firm fixedness is clearly evident in those who later move to a higher social class.)

    Para 6 a piece of advice (We should take advantage of, rather than struggle against, the power

     of habit. The author urges us to form, as early as possible, as many good habits as we can, so that our behavior may be decisive and our conscious mind may be freed from the burden of daily routine and applied to more useful work.)

Detailed Analysis of the text

(1) Habit a second nature! Habit is ten your ways of behavior which are acquired after

    times nature, the Duke of Wellington is said to birth but which are so deeply fixed that you

    have exclaimed; follow them almost without thinking, and it

     seems as if you had been born with them.

     Although developed after birth, habit becomes

     actually no less an inborn quality of a human

     creature than his character, and can powerfully

     control his behavior.

    and the degree to which this is true no one Only the veteran soldier can best recognize the

     4 14

    228586485.doc

    probably can appreciate as well as one who is a truth of the dukes statement. (Only the veteran veteran soldier himself. soldier can best appreciate the degree to which

     the dukes statement is true.)/ a comparison

    The daily drill and the years of discipline end finish with the result of creating a thoroughly

    by fashioning a man completely over again, new man

    as to most of the possibilities of his conduct. so far as his possible patterns of behaviors are

    concerned

(2) There is a story, says Prof. Huxley,

    which is credible enough, though it may

    not be true, of a practical joker who A practical joke is a usually irritating joke

    seeing a discharged veteran carrying which involves an action done to someone to

    home his dinner, suddenly called out, make him seem stupid or look ridiculous/

    Attention! whereupon the man instantly retired/ as a consequence of which

    brought his hands down, and lost his

    mutton and potatoes in the gutter. The

    drill had been thorough, and its effects had become part of the mans nervous system

    had become embodied in the mans (included)

    nervous structure.

(3) Riderless cavalry-horses, at many a battle,

    have been seen to come together and go perform a series of habitual planned through their customary evolutions at the sound movements/ when hearing the sound

    of the bugle-call. Most domestic beasts seem are mere machines

    machines almost pure and simple,

    undoubtingly, unhesitatingly doing from minute

    to minute the duties they have been taught, and

    giving no sign that the possibility of an

    alternative ever suggests itself to their mind. comes into their mind (occurs to them)

    Men grown old in prison have asked to be

    readmitted after being once set free. In a

    railroad accident a menagerie-tiger, whose cage

    had broken open, is said to have emerged but

    presently crept back again, as if too much

    bewildered by his new responsibilities, so that things he had to face or manage in the new he was without difficulty secured. environment/ confined

(4) Habit is thus the enormous fly-wheel of (metaphor)Habit is a regulating force of society.

    society, its most precious conservative agent. A force which maintains the established order

     of society and prevents any sudden change in it.

    It alone is what keeps us all within the bounds keeps us all within the limits stipulated by law

     5 14

    228586485.doc

    of ordinance. or authority (keeps us all in the different

    It alone prevents the hardest and most repulsive professional, geographical, or social positions walks of life from being deserted by those designated to us by law or fate.)

    brought up to tread therein. the most difficult and unpleasant professions or

     occupations/ those who have been trained since

     their childhood to do such hard and repulsive

     jobs

    It keeps the fisherman and the deckhand at sea

    through the winter; it holds the miner in his

    darkness, and nails the countryman to his confines

    log-cabin and his lonely farm through all the

    months of snow; it protects us from invasion by attack (violation)

    the natives of the desert and the frozen zone.

    It dooms us all to fight out the battle of life It makes it our inexorable fate to stay and upon the lines of our nurture or our early struggle all our life in a disagreeable occupation choice, and to make the best of a pursuit that which we were brought up to follow or chose disagrees, early in our life, and try to accept and manage it because there is no other for which we fitted, as well as we can.

    and it is too late to begin again. It keeps

    different social strata from mixing. Already at

    the age of twenty-five you see the professional peculiar habits in work becoming fixed on

    mannerism settling down on the young

    commercial traveler, on the young doctor, on

    the young minister, on the young

    counselor-at-law. You see the little lines of the traits of ones character(the professional and cleavage running through the character, the intellectual habits which have been ingrained in tricks of thought, the prejudices, the mans character)

    the ways of the shop, in a word, the way one conducts his business or does his

     work

    from which the man can by-and-by no more Just as his coatsleeve cannot easily change the escape than his coatsleeve can suddenly fall set of creases which have been ironed into it, so into a new set of folds. very soon the man can no longer change the

     professional habits he has acquired.

    On the whole, it is best he should not escape. desirable

    It is well for the world that in most of us by the lucky (fortunate)

    age of thirty, the character has set like plaster, become solid and hard like cement on walls and will never soften again. when it dries

(5) If the period between twenty and thirty is

    the critical one in the formation of intellectual

    and professional habits, the period below

    twenty is more important still for the fixing of

    personal habits, properly so called, such as which is the right name for those habits

     6 14

    228586485.doc

    vocalization and pronunciation, gesture, vocalizationthe individual quality of voice motion, and address. one produces when he speaks

     pronunciation ones particular way of

     pronouncing sounds in his language which

     shows he is from a certain region or social class

     gesture --- the movement of ones head or

     hands in tended to convey a certain attitude or

     intention

     motion the way of moving ones body or part

     of the body

     address conversational manner

    Hardly ever is a language learned after twenty If one learns a language after the age of twenty, spoken without a foreign accent; he will almost never sound like a native hardly ever can a youth transferred to the speaker, but only like a foreigner./

    society of his betters unlearn the nasality and people of higher social status than he/ get rid of other vices of speech bred in him by the the nasal accent (which is connected with a low associations of his growing year. breeding, poor origin, or ill manners)/ formed

     (developed)/ people of his own social class/

    Hardly ever, indeed, no matter how much

    money there be in his pocket, can he even learn

    to dress like a gentlemen-born. The a person who is a gentleman by birth

    merchants offer their wares as eagerly to him as

    to the veriest swell, but he simply cannot buy the most truly fashionable dressed person

    the right things. An invisible law, as strong as

    gravitation, keeps his within his orbit, arrayed dressed this year as he was dressed the last year

    this year as he was the last; and how his

    better-clad acquaintances contrive to get the

    things they wear will be for him a mystery till

    his dying day.

(6) The great thing, then, in all education, is (metaphor)

    to make our nervous system our ally instead of to enable our mind to embody good and useful our enemy. habits so that it will be a help rather than a

     handicap to our life

    It is to fund and capitalize our acquisitions, and (metaphor: the cultivation of good habits is live at ease upon the interest of the fund. likened to the investment of money in a

     project.) The investment is the great effort you

     put into acquiring good habits as early as

     possible and guarding against bad habits. The

     interest you will reap for this investment is the

     comfort of your life when most of the details of

     your life become automatic and can be taken

     off your conscious mind, which therefore can

     be used for more important work.

     7 14

    228586485.doc

    For this we must make automatic and habitual,

    as early as possible, as many useful actions as

    we can, and guard against the growing into gradually getting into habits ways that are likely to be disadvantageous to

    us, as we should guard against the plague.

    The more of the details of our daily life we can the more of the particular items in our daily life

    hand over to the effortless custody of we can conduct without conscious control of

    automatism, the more our higher powers of the mind (put sth under the care of ) mind will be set free for their own proper work.

    There is no more miserable human being than

    one in whom nothing is habitual but indecision, irresolution

    and for whom the lighting of every cigar, the

    drinking of every cup, the time of rising and

    going to bed every day, and the beginning of

    every bit of work, are subjects of express topics for clearly purposeful consideration

    volitional deliberation. Full half the time of (things to be decided through obvious use of

    such a man goes to the deciding, or regretting, ones brain)

    of matters which ought to be so ingrained in

    him as practically not to exist for his

    consciousness at all. If there be such daily

    duties not yet ingrained in any one of my

    readers, let him begin this very hour to see the set the matter right

    matter right.

Language Points

    1nature n.

     The world of living things and the outdoors自然界

    e.g. the beauties of nature.自然美

     a struggle against nature 与自然界的斗争

     a primitive state of existence, untouched and uninfluenced by civilization or artificiality

    然态

    e.g. He couldn't tolerate city life anymore and went back to nature.

    他不能再忍受城市生活!返回自然。

    be in a state of nature处于原始状态

     The fundamental character or disposition of a person; temperament 脾气性格

    e.g. Jim was warned that the landlady had an unforgiving nature and that he shouldnt

     offend her.

     Its her nature to be kind to people.她为人厚道。

     There is no cruelty in her nature.她心地善良。

     Cats and dogs have quite different natures --- dogs like company, cats are independent.

     good nature好心肠, 温和的性格, 好脾气

    ill nature粗暴的性情, 坏脾气

    (be)true to nature逼真; 栩栩如生, 惟妙惟肖

     8 14

    228586485.doc

    by nature本性, 天生, 就其本性而言

    second nature --- ways of behavior which are acquired after birth but which are so deeply fixed

     that you follow them almost without thinking, and it seems as if you had

    been born with them第二天性;根深蒂固的习惯

     e.g. It has become second nature with him to look twice after locking the door at night.

     Shes the kind of person who isnt very good at doing nothing, someone to whom work

     is a second nature.

2. appreciate v. (word study)

3. fashion v.

    ; to give shape or form to; make形成或构成;制造

    e.g. He fashioned the clay into a jar.他用粘土做成一个陶土罐子。

     fashion A from B/ fashion B into A

     e.g. fashion a lump of clay into a bowl/ fashion a bowl from a lump of clay

     fashion a doll from a piece of wood/ fashion a piece of wood into a doll

    ; to train or influence into a particular state or character 塑造

    e.g. fashion sb. into a fine sportsman把某人培养成优秀运动员

    n. the prevailing style or custom, as in dress or behavior 风格!时尚

    something, such as a garment, that is in the current mode 时髦

    manner or mode; way方式;方法

    e.g. Her dress is the latest fashion.她的晚礼服是最新式样.

     Set the table in this fashion.将桌子这样放.

     He behaves in a very strange fashion. 他的举止很奇怪。

    after the fashion of模仿; 照着...的样子

    be in (the) fashion合乎时尚, 流行的

    be out of (the) fashion(人、物)不合时尚; 不流行

    bring into fashion使流行

    come [grow] into fashion流行起来, 开始风行

    follow the fashion赶时髦

    go out of fashion过时

    in the old fashion照旧, 照老样子

    in this fashion照这样

    fashionable a.

4. as to sth, as regards sth

    ; with(in) regard to sth, regarding sth关于

    e.g. As to correcting our homework, the teacher always makes us do it ourselves.

     谈到批改我们的作业!老师总是让我们自己做。

     We are puzzled as to how it happened.关于它是如何发生的!我们很迷惑

     I don't know anything as to the others. 至于其他!我一无所知。

    ; according to按照

     9 14

    228586485.doc

    e.g. candidates who were chosen as to ability候选者是根据能力选出的

5. pure adj. complete; utter完全的;彻底的

     e.g. He got into the university by pure luck.

     Your explanation of what happens is pure speculation. pure and simple (synonymic pair) to emphasize that a particular thing is the only thing involved

    and nothing else is involved. It is used after the noun it modifies.

     e.g. He is motivated by greed, pure and simple. (=only greed, nothing else)

     It was an accident pure and simple. (=only an accident, not anything else)

     They decided to close the museum purely and simply (=only) because it cost too much

     to run.

5. go through

    ; to examine carefully仔细检查

    e.g. go through the students' papers仔细检查学生的论文

     I always start the day by going through my mail.我总是每天一早仔细查阅我的邮件。

     I‘ve gone through all my pockets but I cant find my keys.

    ; to experience, endure, suffer sth经历(

    e.g. We went through hell while working on this project.执行这一计划时我们经历了许多

     困难

     She has gone through all difficulties recently.

    ; to perform表演!演奏/履行

    e.g. I went through the sonata in 30 minutes.我们用三十分钟演完了这个奏鸣曲.

     Certain formalities have to be gone through before one can emigrate.

    必须办妥某些手续方可移居他国。

6. bounds (pl.) limits

    e.g. the bounds of space and time时空范围

    Keep your noise within bound.不要太吵。

    keep within / go beyond the bounds of reason /没有理性

    It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that .。。。不是没有可能。

    Are there no bounds to his ambition?他的野心难道没有止境吗,

    Public spending must be kept within reasonable bounds?公共事务的开销必须保持在

    合理的范围以内。

     out of bounds (to sb) (US off limits) 禁止某人入内

     e.g. The pubs and bars are out of bounds to teenages.

     know no bounds (fml) be very great or too great无限

     e.g. When she heard the news her fury knew no bounds.她听到这一消息!顿时怒不可遏。

    set [put] bounds to限制

    within (the) bounds在规定范围内, 不越轨; 不过分

    within the bounds of possibility有此可能性

7 make the best of/ make the most of

     10 14

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com