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Since 2000, the United States and its reform of the death penalty applies to Review_3012

By Jessica Daniels,2014-10-31 18:59
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Since 2000, the United States and its reform of the death penalty applies to Review_3012

    Since 2000, the United States and its reform of the death penalty applies to Review

     The United States is the world today one of the few developed countries retain the death penalty, one of the death penalty since 1976, ? Since the death penalty was applied once a rising trend. ? After

    entering the year 2000, however, in the international community and organizations such as Amnesty International pressure and domestic public concerns about the fairness of capital punishment under the influence of

    the United States the annual number of death sentences and the implementation of a significant decline in public support for the death penalty is further reduced. Although there are 40 judicial districts in the legislation to retain the death penalty, but the number of different

    jurisdictions, the death penalty applies to great imbalances, Texas and other Southern States the death penalty applies to the number of long-term

    hold the nation's death penalty applies to about 85% of the total, the majority retain the death penalty jurisdiction, or, indeed, to stop the implementation of the death penalty, or occasionally the death penalty. With the increasingly strict procedures in capital cases, and new technology in the extensive use of evidence, there are a considerable

    number of death row have been acquitted, or reduced to life imprisonment without parole. Surrounding the retention or abolition of the death penalty, legislative, judicial officials, academics and the general public had heated debate, from different perspectives become increasingly in-

    depth study carried out by the death penalty. In order to ensure a fair and humane application of the death penalty, federal and related state of the legislative, judicial conduct a series of reforms and the lifting of

    the death penalty for minors and mentally retarded persons to apply to suspend the implementation of the death penalty in some states, in insisting on retaining the death penalty, context, to strengthen the death penalty cases, due process, and to strengthen the protection of the rights of the accused.

     1, the death penalty and the reasons for decline analysis

     Chart 1 shows, from the death sentence, execution, and the number of prisoners awaiting the death penalty (Death Row) ? other side, the U.S.

death penalty applies to the number since 2000, an overall downward trend.

     Chart 1: 1999 to 2005, the U.S. death penalty where applicable ?

     The death penalty applies to the number / Year 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999

     The number of execution 60596571668598

     Wait for number of executions in 3383 3471 3504 3,697,370,937,263,625

     The number of death sentences 96130144159155 214 282

     Replaced by the number of death penalty acquittal 55,104,568

     Death sentence was commuted to a term, or 341,743,325

     The number of life imprisonment

     The number of executions since 2000, an overall declining trend (during which 71 people were executed in 2002 than in 2001 increased slightly to 66 people, mainly due to September 11, 2001 took place that

    shocked the world as well as the 911 terrorist attacks October the following year there was a series shooting, ? made to reduce the American

    public a sense of security, requires the application of the voice of the death penalty has been increased). 2005In total, the death penalty60

     Months, although it compares2004Years59More than one, but with the1999For the implementation of the98Compared with a death-row inmates, a decrease

    of about39%.

     The number of people awaiting the death penalty depends on the number

    of death sentences each year the number of comparison and implementation, and were acquitted, and pardon, commutation of the number of people. The number of people sentenced to death from 1976 to 2000 have been steadily

    rising to reach its peak in 2000 (3726 people) after a gradual decline (after 2000 although the number of death penalty declining, but at the same number of death sentences fell even more sharply, and the annual number of death row have been acquitted or the sentence has also led to

    the decline in the number waiting for the death penalty). 2002 United States Supreme Court prohibited the death penalty for mentally retarded persons, in 2003 Illinois large-scale reduction of the death row without a period or term of imprisonment of the movement, and in 2005 the Supreme Court prohibited the death penalty for juvenile offenders are made to wait

for the death penalty for the year The number has dropped significantly.

     The number of death sentences since 2000, gradually declined (during

    which 159 of the 2002 decision, ruling in 2001 a slight increase in the number of 155, as mentioned earlier, this is due to the 911 terrorist attacks, as well as the impact of serial shootings). 2 can be seen from the chart, since the death penalty was reinstated in 1976 after the United States has experienced a number of death sentences rising process, but 90 years since the last century, reached its peak (an average of 300 each year), this figure is basically a downward trend on the . 2005 compared

    with only 96 cases of death sentences, which is the lowest since 1982, this volume in 1999 has been down by 60%.

     Chart 2: ? 1976 to 2005 annual number of death sentences

     Annual Number of Annual sentence sentence sentence a few years the number

    of years the number of judgments

     1976 7,198,415,219,922,602,000 214

     1977141985165 19932872001155

     1978311986187 19943152002159

     1979381987187 19953182003144

     1980641988214 19963202004130

     1981 79 1989 1,831,997,276,200,596

     1982 130 19901971998300

     1983 143 19912401999282

     The United States applies the death penalty in recent years, the number of reasons for the decline mainly in the following areas:

     First, there is a considerable number of death row have been

    acquitted. Since 2000, there are already 35 death-row inmates have been

    acquitted in 2003 alone 10 people, which is to restore the death penalty since 1976, the highest number since he was acquitted a year. So many death-row inmates from the jail awaiting the death penalty acquitted, not

    only directly reduces the executions and the number of people awaiting execution, but also a profound impact on the number of death sentences every year, because a large number of death row acquitted the existence of

    that A significant number of death row is innocent of the existing judicial system, the current death penalty system is seriously flawed. Judges and juries in imposing the death penalty have become more cautious to minimize the death sentence.

     Secondly, some states in view of the existence of racial bias in death penalty cases, and other unjust factors, decided to postpone the implementation of the death penalty or to sentence prisoners to be executed. The U.S. death penalty system, there is a serious racial

    disparities, such as victims are concerned, 2004 was executed most of the prisoners are guilty of the crimes of murder whites, only 12% of the prisoners because of the murder of black people have been executed, although the United States, Approximately 50% of murder victims were

    black. Respect of the accused between 2003 - 2004 two-year period is not a

    white man for the murder of black people have been executed, but there are 11 blacks because of the murder of whites have been executed. Texas - the

    state since the death penalty has been executed since the resumption of 336 cases - simply carried out the murder case of white black cases, but in this case there is a white victim. The injustice of the death penalty in a number of murders committed the defendant was not sentenced to death

    those who commit mentally ill defendant been sentenced to death is especially evident when. For example, in 2003 in Washington, Li Qiwei (Ridgway) killed only 48 women were sentenced to life in prison in New Jersey, killing 17 people Charles Gurung (Charles Cullen) has only been sentenced to life imprisonment, the two offenders are white. On the other hand, like David Hockney (David Hocker),

    凯尔西帕特森(Kelsey Patterson), James Hubbard (James Hubbard) been like a black criminals sentenced to death. Hauck murder in the state阿拉巴拉马

    only a one-day trial, but also about his suffering from severe mental illness and suicide, almost no evidence of a tendency to be submitted to the court. Patterson was executed in Texas in the nonsense Shi Hai, where

    he spent the greater part of the state mental hospital, suffering from paranoid schizophrenia of torture. Hubbard was executed in the state阿拉

    巴拉马already 74 years old, he was suffering from cancer, high blood pressure and dementia.

     It saw the U.S. death penalty system is plagued with a series of questions, some people of insight required to suspend the death penalty or to those facing the death sentence. January 31, 2000, Illinois Gov. George Ryan declared a moratorium on executions; January 11, 2003, he announced

    that in view of the state's death penalty system had serious shortcomings, has decided that the death sentence commuted to life imprisonment or imprisonment. In 2003, North Caro Carolina death-