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    United Nations International Maritime Environment Organization Programme

    State Oceanic National Marine Environmental Administration Monitoring Center People’s Republic of China People’s Republic of China





    29 MAY 2 JUNE 2006












    29 MAY 2 JUNE 2006



    The London Convention 1972 (LC) and its successor the 1996 Protocol (LP) provide for the establishment of a scientific and technical support programme to further the objectives of these instruments. The key objectives for technical co-operation have been to: (1) strengthen national marine pollution prevention and management capacities to achieve compliance with the Convention and Protocol; (2) co-operate with other organisations and agencies to ensure a coordinated approach to technical cooperation and assistance, avoiding duplication of effort; and (3) promote membership of the Protocol. Additional objectives are the promotion of marine pollution management generally, and, more specifically, of alternatives to dumping, including alternative disposal mechanisms, recycling and the use of cleaner production technologies.

    Technical cooperation and assistance aids countries in implementing the London Convention 1972 and its successor the 1996 Protocol, and other multilateral agreements for the protection of the environment. It is essential for aiding countries with their commitment to incorporating these agreements into their national policies and has functioned with agreements and programmes ranging from the adoption of Agenda 21 in 1992 to the adoption of the UNEP Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities in 1995 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development 2002.

    One activity through which these objectives are promoted is to hold meetings of the technical advisory body of the London Convention (the Scientific Group) outside of IMO Headquarters every other year. These meetings have been held in Brazil (1996), South Africa (1998), Australia (2000), Jamaica (2002) and Kenya (2004), which facilitated the participation of current Contracting Parties in each region and enabled the London Convention to reach out to other countries through technical workshops. One of the objectives of these workshops was to identify technical cooperation and assistance needs. From this identification, project proposals can be drawn up and the countries concerned can be matched with potential donors/partners. For example, during the workshop in Cape Town in 1998, one of the problem areas identified was the difficulty of communication between the stakeholders in the region. This resulted in the establishment of the SEA-WASTE Network for integrated waste-management in Southern and Eastern Africa, funded by the Netherlands Government.

    It is in this context that the IMO/UNEP/SOA Workshop on Marine Pollution Prevention and Environmental Management in East Asia was convened from 29 May to 2 June, 2006, in thDalian, China. The workshop was held in conjunction with the 29 Meeting of the Scientific

    Group (5 to 9 June 2006) in the same location. This workshop was held in English.



    This workshop was hosted by the State Oceanic Administration - National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center of the People‘s Republic of China and organized by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

    This workshop was only possible with the financial contributions from the following organizations:

    ; Environment Canada

    ; The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety

    in Germany

    ; The Government of Japan

    ; The Government of the Republic of Korea

    ; The Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, North Sea

    Directorate in the Netherlands

    ; The Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs in the United Kingdom

    ; The United States Environmental Protection Agency

    ; The International Maritime Organization

    ; The United Nations Environment Programme



Preface ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3

Acknowledgements ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4

Executive Summary ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 6

Workshop Proceedings ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 10

     Opening Ceremony ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 10

     Objectives and Structure of the Workshop ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 12

     Legal Framework for Marine Pollution Management ???????????????????????????????????????????????????? 13

     Sustainable Development: Environmental Management in Ports

     - Identification of Issues ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 17

     Case Studies for Sustainable Development: Environmental Management in Ports ???????? 21

     Introduction to Waste Assessment Guidelines ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 31

     Working Group Sessions on Dredged Material?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 43

     Presentation of National Reports (Priorities and Action Plans) ?????????????????????????????????????? 52

    Workshop Conclusions and Recommendations ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 56

     Closing Ceremony ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 59


    1 Workshop Programme ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 61 2 List of Participants ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 69

    3 List of Useful Websites for Information on Ocean Dumping and Dredging ??????????????????? 81 4 Feedback from Participants on How to Improve theWorkshop ?????????????????????????????????????? 83




    The IMO/UNEP/SOA Workshop on Marine Pollution Prevention and Environmental

    Management in East Asia was held from 29 May to 2 June 2006 in Dalian, China,and was hosted by the State Oceanic Administration (SOA), People‘s Republic of China. The workshop was

    attended by 41 delegates from the following 10 countries in East Asia: Cambodia, People‘s

    Republic of China, Democratic People‘s Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore and Thailand. Nine delegates from non-East Asian countries and seven representatives from international organizations also participated.

    The workshop was sponsored by Contracting Parties to the London Convention, IMO, UNEP and SOA, and organized under the London Convention Technical Co-operation and Assistance Programme.

    During the Opening Ceremony, Mr. René Coenen (IMO/Office for the London Convention), Dr. Alexander Tkalin (Coordinator NOWPAP, UNEP), Mr. Ma Deyi (Director General, Marine Environmental Monitoring Center in Dalian), Ms. Chen Yue (Deputy Director General, Department of International Co-operation), and Mr. Craig Vogt (Chairman of the London Convention Scientific Group) delivered the welcome and keynote addresses.


National and Regional Marine Pollution and Environmental Management Issues

General Issues

    The countries in East Asia have a number of common marine pollution issues, as well as country specific challenges for the prevention of marine pollution. They are in different stages of development, but development is rapid in most cases. Many share the same marine pollution and marine habitat loss problemse.g., enclosing tidal lands for cultivation, loss of mangroves, loss of seagrasses, declining fish stocks, and overall loss of biodiversity. In addition, pressure on the coastal zones will continue to increase due to population growth, industrial development aimed at exports, and tourism. Information sharing on these threats will assist in tackling the problems.

    Public education is regarded as critical to help change attitudes, both in the general public and in the government. It is also important to generate and maintain the political will to sustain an environmental agenda. The key message should be that the costs of prevention are much less than the costs of rehabilitation. For practical decision making, stakeholder engagement is increasingly important.

    Many laws and regulations have been established to protect the marine environment, but implementation, enforcement, and national co-ordination are insufficient. A watershed approach to managing land and sea-based pollution in coastal regions is key to addressing complex water


    resource issues. The focus should be on the overall geographical and ecological system, and should include a broad range of stakeholders. Monitoring is also important for marine protection and some countries have made advances in developing monitoring programs. There is, however, a general lack of capacity that should be addressed, as well as a need for increased mapping of sensitive areas.

Specific issues

    Specific national and regional issues and concerns identified in East Asia include:

    1 harmful aquatic blooms and red tides on the rise due to eutrophication;

    2 expansion of aquaculture and excessive feeding practices threaten the quality and

    marketability of the fish produced, and the quality of the surrounding waters and


    3 dredged material management;

    4 marine litter/debris;

    5 erosion and runoff from deforestation and agricultural practices; and

    6 industrial and municipal developments, which are not matched with treatment

    facilities for the waste waters generated.

    Marine litter/debris from land-based and sea-based sources, identified as a major global issue, poses increasing problems for coastal amenities, tourism, and fisheries in East Asia. A Global Environment Facility (GEF) project on marine litter, which is being launched under the lead of UNEP, could be of assistance to many countries in East Asia. Meanwhile, in a number of countries, local populations have taken the initiative for beach cleanups.

IMO related issues

    In this context, it was identified that there was a general lack of attention to maritime issues, legislation, infrastructure, enforcement, funding and training. Several countries identified a number of issues related to barriers to accession or ratification of IMO instruments, and to difficulties in implementation. The key instruments identified included the London Convention/Protocol (see below for more detail), International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, MARPOL 73/78 (key concerns are the lack of public awareness, sufficient oil reception facilities, and systems for monitoring and controlling wastes generated from vessels in ports), and the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (key concerns are the absence of contingency plans and advanced oil combating technologies).

London Convention/Protocol related issues

    In general terms it was identified that several countries lacked detailed information explaining the basic requirements to join the London Protocol and the key steps a country needed to take to ratify or accede. It was also noted that there were no costs to become a Party to the London Protocol and that there were no penalties within the framework. In relation to specific London Convention/Protocol issues, it was identified that:


    1 dredged material management is the primary ocean dumping issue in all countries,

    and further capacity building is needed particularly for assessment, site

    designation, and monitoring;

    2 ‗low-tech‘ solutions are possible for assessment and monitoring of marine

    pollution issues;

    3 technical and policy advice was needed on how to increase the beneficial use of

    dredged material; and

    4 several LC documents would be useful to workshop participants including,

    Minimum Requirements to Implement the 1996 Protocol, An Overview of the

    Potential Benefits, Costs and Consequences for a State, When it Considers

    Becoming a Contracting Party to the 1996 Protocol, and Guidance on the

    National Implementation of the 1996 Protocol to the LC72.‖

    It was also noted that any requests for technical assistance should be formulated as soon as possible in co-operation with the IMO Secretariat, the IMO-Regional Co-ordinator and UNEP, bearing in mind crucial funding cycles.


    The workshop, having noted the issues facing the region as a whole and those affecting specific countries, and having recognized the need to ensure that these issues are addressed by relevant bodies/agencies/organizations, has made the following recommendations:

     Promotion of the London Protocol in East Asia

    1 Building on the ―Guidance for National Implementation of the London Protocol,‖

    a clear description should be provided of the benefits, costs, and consequences a State

    should consider when becoming a Contracting Party to the Protocol.

    2 Participating countries mentioned that existing regional mechanisms and for a

    (e.g., ASEAN-OSRAP, COBSEA and NOWPAP) should be used to address marine

    pollution issues and to improve co-ordination of policies in this regard. These platforms

    should also be used, where appropriate, for promotion and implementation of the London

    Protocol in East Asia.

    3 National workshops/seminars to raise the awareness of and prepare for accession

    to or ratification of the London Protocol should be convened involving all stakeholders

    and representatives in the interested country concerned with the prevention of marine

    pollution caused by dumping. The initiative should come from the national

    administration expressing an interest in the London Protocol.

    4 Countries in East Asia interested in joining the London Protocol are urged to

    contact the IMO Regional Co-ordinator in East Asia, Manila, and/or the IMO Office for

    the London Convention at IMO Headquarters and the UNEP Regional Seas Co-ordinator.


    5 Continued assistance is required in the development of legislation, standards, and guidelines, including the institutional arrangements to support the implementation of international agreements including the London Protocol.

    6 A status report should be developed on dumping activities and dumping sites in East Asia to inform COBSEA, NOWPAP, and the Contracting Parties to the London Convention and Protocol.

Dredged material management

    7 Dredged materials should be promoted as a resource and used in a beneficial manner, such as in beach nourishment or in wetlands / habitat restoration, creation or enhancement. When dredging near sensitive ecosystems such as coral reefs, special

    measures should be used to control dispersion of turbidity.

     Other issues

    8 Accession by countries in East Asia to the IMO Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling-Systems on Ships, 2001, and Ballast Water Management Convention, 2004, is encouraged and should be promoted. In addition, the application of best management practices should be developed and promoted for the handling of TBT paint chip flakes, especially in docking facilities, shipyards, and marinas.

    9 Countries in the region should seek to enhance their co-operation to counter land-based sources of marine pollution. In this regard countries are invited to actively nd participate in the up-coming 2Intergovernmental Review of the Global Programme of

    Action (GPA), which will be held in Beijing in October 2006.

    10 Countries should aim to mobilize women and/or children (like the IMO initiatives ―Women in the maritime field‖ or IMO Children‘s Ambassador for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Children‘s Marine Environment Protection Associations) in advancing pollution prevention initiatives.




    The IMO/UNEP/SOA Workshop on Marine Pollution Prevention and Environmental Management in East Asia was held from 29 May to 2 June 2006 at the Kempinski Hotel in Dalian, China, in conjunction with the twenty-ninth meeting of the Scientific Group (5 to 9 June 2006). The workshop was sponsored by Contracting Parties to the London Convention, IMO, UNEP, and the State Oceanic Administration of the People‘s Republic of China, and organized under the London Convention Technical Co-operation and Assistance Programme.




Welcome and Introduction

Mr. René Coenen, Head of IMO‘s Office of the London Convention

    ; Mr. Coenen welcomed all workshop participants, the Chinese delegation, representatives

    from the National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center (NMEMC) of the State Oceanic

    Administration (People‘s Republic of China), workshop participants from other East Asian

    countries, and other participants.

    ; This workshop has a broad scope and mission of marine pollution prevention and waste

    management issues in ports around the world.

    ; The overall goal of this workshop is to provide a forum for information exchange, technical

    cooperation, and assistance among member nations of the London Convention and countries

    interested in protection of the marine environment.

    ; Many countries in East Asia have achieved rapid growth and economic development.

    Sustainable development and the challenge to protect the environment are more important

    today than ever before. This point was echoed at the Johannesburg Summit in 2002. ; International environmental agreements are binding obligations among states, methods of

    protecting the environment, and are a ticket to partnerships in the international community.

    They provide a forum for information exchange and funding mechanisms to resolve marine

    pollution issues.

    ; The 81 countries to the LC have agreed to provide support for countries in the developing

    world to assist them in preventing marine pollution and to protect the environment. ; This workshop is a continuation of past workshops in Brazil (1996), South Africa (1998),

    Australia (2000), Jamaica (2002), and Kenya (2004).

    ; Challenges:

    o To highlight the relationships among the different themes of the workshop


    o To identify the practical solutions and methods for implementation that will work

    in each country‘s situation.

    o To learn about cooperation opportunities.

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