Unit 7: Inventions
KLA: SOSE, Technology
Level/Stage: Level 3, Stages B2 and B3
This unit of work was prepared for a Year 4 class. Most of the students were from language backgrounds other than English, and quite a few of them needed support when using English for formal purposes, and were operating at the B3 Stage.
Many of the spoken and written texts associated with the learning activities are explanations. Explanation texts can be difficult to access. They often contain specific and technical language, including labels and verbs. They often contain references to many different items and actions that are quite specific. The use of passive voice can also make them difficult to access and difficult to write.
The language focus of this unit is:
? through hands-on activities, to develop a vocabulary to talk about how things are put together and how they work
? to become familiar with the purpose and structure of explanation texts.
The planning overview that follows, outlines the language goals and objectives as well as topic objectives. Teachers working on the electronic version of this unit can view the planning overview in the A2 B2 B3 Resource file. ***<Link to A2 B2 B3 Resource file>*** Blank planning formats can be
accessed in the A2 B2 B3 Templates file. ***<Link to A2 B2 B3 Templates>***
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Time allocation: Years: 3 & 4 Unit name: Inventions 4 weeks. Level 3
ESL Stages B2 & B3
KLA/topic objectives/cultural understandings Main text focus
Text-type Listened Spoken Read Written Viewed Produced 1. Inventions around the world have been SOSE, Level 3: Time, continuity and change. and mode to developed in response to a need. Resources,. Narrative 2. Inventions have made our lives easier. Technology, Level 3: Systems, Materials 3. Inventions have had positive and negative Recount effects. Procedure Topic focus
Report Topic specific vocabulary Linguistic structure focus Explanation Names of household items – grouped according to Explanation of how something works their purpose Likely structure of this text is: Discussion ? a general statement and description of the Names of sources of energy – electricity, batteries, phenomenon Argument/ gas, petrol exposition ? a description of the parts Other: ? a sequence explaining how it works Action verbs – work, clean, mix ? when it is used Parts of machines implements – wheels, cogs, ? an evaluation. handles, levers, springs.
ESL focus Linguistic features focus Functions
Classroom learning Getting things done Maintaining Technical language Explanation of how something works. communication ? arguing ? comparing – parts of machines ? nouns are usually general rather than specific Expressing: ? classifying ? clarifying – verbs describing what machines do. and refer to a class of things, e.g. inventions, ? apology ? establishing limits ? describing The structure of an explanation text. torches ? appreciation ? evaluating ? explaining ? verbs are mainly action verbs in the present ? approval ? hypothesising ? instructing tense, e.g. cut, cook, make ? certainty ? identifying ? inquiring ? concern ? events are ordered in a time sequence ? judging ? justifying ? frustration ? offering ? questioning ? temporal conjunction link the sequence, e.g. Resources ? indifference ? persuading ? reporting first, then, while, after that ? intention ? planning ? suggesting ? causal conjunctions may also be used, e.g. Factual texts about inventions ? needs/wants ? predicting because, caused by. ? preferences ? requesting Household items and tools ? probability ? sequencing ? regret ? warning
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Level 3/Stages B2 and B3: English language teaching goals and objectives These objectives are linked to the English CSF outcomes at Level 3 and to the ESL Companion outcomes at Stages B2 and B3. The shaded activities are included in this unit.
Listening and speaking Reading Writing Text/Communication Text/Communication Text/Communication To participate in different learning contexts and explore a range of To read and view a wide range of texts for a range of purposes: To introduce students to writing various texts for a range of oral text-types: purposes: ? read and research texts for information ? take part in conversations and discussions about personal ? write a range of factual texts to fulfil particular purposes ? read and reflect on novels, poems, short stories, viewed texts experiences and interests ? write a range of fictional texts to fulfil particular purposes ? follow written instructions and directions ? discuss topics related to the KLAs ? give information in graphic form, e.g. maps, diagrams, graphs ? obtain information from advertisements, posters, signs, captions, ? take part in listening to, preparing and delivering a formal talk to etc. ? give information through signs, captions, tables, etc. others, e.g. debates, explanations ? obtain information from diagrams, tables, maps, plans, graphs, etc. ? share and talk about their own writing. ? take part in listening to, preparing and presenting performances, e.g. stories, plays, poems, wordplay.
Contextual understanding Contextual understanding Contextual understanding To develop awareness and skills in using the oral text-types To interpret the information in factual and fictional texts according to To recognise that particular text-types have particular features that appropriate to particular purposes and audiences: purpose and context: will be affected by the writer’s purpose and audience: ? compare the effectiveness of spoken texts in serving particular ? discuss how texts change according to purpose and audience ? talk about the purposes and audiences they are writing for purposes, e.g. reports, explanations ? talk about the best way to present information and why formats ? discuss the importance of vocabulary choice and writing style ? identify the characteristics of a variety of text-types vary, e.g. table, graph, written text when writing for different audiences ? use non-verbal language in drama and role-play ? talk about the reasons for different opinions about the meaning of a ? talk about the most purposeful and useful ways of presenting text. information, e.g. a table, a graph, written text. ? compare how spoken texts change, depending on the formality of the situation.
Linguistic structures and features Linguistic structures and features Linguistic structures and features To use the structures and features of a variety of common spoken To focus on text structures and features to assist in reading a wide To use knowledge of the characteristic structures and features of texts: range of texts: common texts to write appropriately for a range of purposes: ? discuss the impact of, and develop a vocabulary to discuss ? recognise the characteristic features of particular texts, e.g. choice ? compare texts written for a range of purposes and identify aspects of, spoken texts, e.g. pace, intonation of vocabulary, cohesion, topic sentences patterns in texts ? talk about the cohesive devices used in spoken texts, e.g. ? use book organisation features to access information, e.g. contents ? identify the features that make one text more effective than sequencing, pronoun referencing, use of topic sentences page, index, headings another
? learn the specialised language of particular topic areas. ? discuss how additional features of texts assist or affect ? learn and use appropriate vocabulary interpretation, e.g. layout, illustrations, diagrams. ? talk about and use punctuation in their writing
? use layout to assist in the presentation of their writing. Strategies Strategies Strategies
To reflect on and use effective oral communication strategies with To practise strategies that assist in reading for enjoyment, To develop a range of strategies and resources for planning, teachers and other students: interpretation and information: reviewing and ensuring the appropriateness of their writing: ? identify and practise effective small-group communicative ? talk about and use strategies for effective reading, e.g. skimming ? observe and practise strategies for writing, e.g. planning, topic strategies and scanning text selection, gathering information, note taking ? listen for information and respond appropriately ? select texts for own purposes ? use models to write texts for particular purposes ? plan for, rehearse and modify own spoken texts. ? read silently and aloud ? review writing to identify aspects that may be improved, e.g. handwriting, presentation, spelling, sentence linking ? use a range of strategies when reading and finding out the meaning of new words ? use different resources to check and confirm spelling.
? research a topic and find appropriate information.
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Teaching and learning activities Linguistic focus Assessment activities Focus question: How do labour-saving devices at home affect our Functions Observation lifestyle? Classifying and making generalisations, e.g. Note the language used and the understandings that 1. Word web A torch is an invention. An invention is have been expressed. Discuss what the class knows about inventions. In pairs, students complete a something that ... ESWRB202 (Writing: Contextual understanding) word web with inventions in the middle. ESSLB302 (Speaking/Listening: Contextual
See Chapter 5, Teaching ESL for further understanding)
information about the linguistic structure and features of explanation texts. ***<Link to Contents page, A2, B2, B3 Teaching ESL >***
Relating verbs, e.g. is, are, has, have.
Generalised participants, e.g. a tool or tools
rather than the tool.
Example of a word web
Jointly construct a definition of an invention, e.g. An invention is a labour-saving
device. An invention is a tool to do something. An invention is a machine.
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Teaching and learning activities Linguistic focus Assessment activities 2. Describing and labelling a familiar tool Functions Planned observation of oral English: The students bring an invention or tool such as a simple kitchen gadget from Identifying, describing and explaining. Note how the students identify and describe their home to show to the rest of the class. They identify the item, explain what it is item and explain its uses. Note also their command Features used for and who usually uses it in their home. of conjunctions and pronouns to link ideas.
Use of timeless present tense, e.g. uses, cuts. Note how students use English when talking about
Using conjunctions such as because, e.g: their items to the class. Are they aware of the need
I brought a ... for details about context and the use of specific
My mum uses this to ... vocabulary?
It’s useful because ... ESSLB301 (Speaking/Listening:
ENSL0301 (Speaking/Listening: Texts)
ESSLB302 (Speaking/Listening: Contextual Classifying understanding) Students sort the items brought from home into different groupings according to ENSL0302 (Speaking/Listening: Contextual different criteria. Possible criteria could be the function of the tool, where it is understanding) used or the people who use these items. ESSLB303 (Speaking/Listening: LS&F) ESSLB304 (Speaking/Listening: Strategies) Classifying Labelling the parts of the tool Students complete a classification task using a set Labelling the parts of the tool Students sketch different views of their items, looking carefully at detail. Label of given criteria. See Appendix 1for a sample the views, e.g. a torch from the top, from the side. Discuss the labels that can be Vocabulary: at the front/back, on the side/top. activity. given to some of the parts. Make a list of words such as handle, lever, screw, ***<Link to A2 B2 B3 Resource file>*** spring. Add to this list throughout the unit. Identifying the parts. ESREB301 (Reading: Communication) Also build up lists of words for types of actions, e.g. cut, scrape, slice, split, peel; crush, mash, mince, squash. Action verbs. Labelling the parts of the tool
Links with the SOSE outcome Level 3.
Identify the impact of technological changes in
different types of work – compare types of work at
home and ‘work’
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Teaching and learning activities Linguistic focus Assessment activities
3. What do inventions do for us? Features Note students’ understandings about the Students draw a house plan and note the labour-saving devices in each room. Using pronouns as a cohesive device, e.g. differences between needs and wants, and They classify them, e.g. need/don’t need power, essential/luxury, That’s a toaster. It uses electricity. making choices. cheap/expensive, simple/complex. Vocabulary This links with: Adjectives such as, essential/luxury, Set up a work space where students can pull apart unwanted household items, SOSE Level 3: Resources cheap/expensive, simple/complex. e.g. torch, hand beater, clock, telephone. Encourage drawing or making diagrams
Naming parts, e.g. handle, blade. Technology Level 3: Materials of the inside contents.
Action verbs, e.g. scrapes, mashes.
Functions Cloze exercise Recycle the topic vocabulary using games such as ‘Bingo’ and ‘Memory’ if Expressing needs and wants Students complete a written cloze exercise necessary. Encourage students to label their drawings for future reference. Justifying. where pronouns are deleted to check Identifying and describing the parts of things understanding of the language use.
and how they move or work. ESWRB203 (Writing: LS&F)
Assessment activity 4. Brainstorming: How do things work? Vocabulary development The following activity focuses on vocabulary Show the students a picture of a toaster and brainstorm all the words they can This is a pre-reading activity to focus and development. think of associated with how a toaster works. Then in groups of four, ask them to prepare students for the reading of an Ask the right question write their ideas about how a toaster works. Tell them that this writing does not explanation text. Vocabulary, that appears in
need to be shared with anyone else. the text that students will be reading, can be Put topic specific vocabulary onto individual
small cards. Distribute these to students who elicited or modeled.
only see their own card. They formulate a This activity needs to be done as a group activity because the sharing of question that will elicit the word on their ideas helps students to think about what they already know about the topic card. and also to clarify their understandings. It prepares them for the next
ESSLB203 (Speaking/Listening: LS&F) activity, reading a text that explains how toasters work.
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Teaching and learning activities Linguistic focus Assessment activities 5. Deconstructing an explanation text The structure of an explanation text Observation Choose or write a text that explains how toasters work. Cut it up so the content of Introduce the purpose and structure of an Focus on a group of students. Note their ability to each section reflects the following questions: explanation text. extract specific information and relate this
information to others. ? What is a toaster?
See Chapter 5, Teaching ESL for further ESSLB301 (Speaking/Listening: ? What are the parts of a toaster?
information about the linguistic structure and Communication) ? How does a toaster work?
features of explanation texts ENSL0303 (Speaking/Listening: LS&F) ? When is a toaster used?
***<Link to Contents page, A2, B2, B3 ? Why are toasters useful?
Teaching ESL >*** ? How can we use toasters safely?
Divide the class into six groups. Each group is given one part of the above sections of the explanation text. They read and discuss their section so they can retell it to the other groups. Students regroup so that each group has one person from each of the previous groups. Each person tells the rest of the group about their section. Give out a copy of the whole text to each student to read. Finally, as a class, discuss what sort of text it is, where you might find a text such as this, who might read it and why. Identify situations in which they have used an explanation text. Verb cloze Verb cloze Verb cloze Simple present tense verbs are usually used in Students complete a cloze exercise using the previous explanation text with the explanation texts. Most of these are action Collect work samples for student folios. Note use verbs deleted. Identify the kinds of verbs used, i.e. simple present tense, action verbs. of appropriate verbs. verbs (push, spring), relating verbs (is, has). ESWRB203 (Writing: LS&F) ENWR0303 (Writing: LS&F)
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Teaching and learning activities Linguistic focus Assessment activities
6. The structure of an explanation text Analysis Identifying the main idea. Make sentence strips from the explanation text. Duplicate them so that there are Use the student work samples to assess their
enough for the students to work in pairs. Give each pair a set of sentences to understanding of the different parts of an Organising information for an explanation
categorise, using the following headings: explanation text. text.
Definition ESREB303 (Reading: LS&F)
Description of the parts Knowing about text organisation and How it works headings also helps students find When we use it information. Evaluation Sequencing the explanation
Sequencing the explanation Sequence sentences under the ‘How it Works’ heading, in order. Underline the
conjunctions in the text that helped identify the order. As a class, make a list of Give students an explanation sequence that Sequencing the explanation these and alternative conjunctions that could have been used. is ordered by numerals. Students select from Using temporal conjunctions to order an a given list of conjunctions to replace the explanation text, e.g. first, then, after that, numerals in a text. finally. ESREB203 (Reading: LS&F) ENRE0303 (Reading: LS&F) ESWRB203 (Writing: LS&F) ESREB303 (Reading: LS&F) Joint construction of an explanation text ESWRB303 (Writing: LS&F) As a class, use the headings to construct a text about how an electric juicer works. Joint construction of an explanation
Students draw and label how a juicer works The linguistic structure and features of an to demonstrate understanding. explanation text. ESWRB201 (Writing: Communication) ENWR0301 (Writing: Texts) See Chapter 5, Teaching ESL for further ESWRB202 (Writing: Contextual information about the linguistic structure and understanding) features of explanation texts ***<Link to Contents page, A2, B2, B3 Teaching ESL >***
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Teaching and learning activities Linguistic focus Assessment activities
7. Comparing and describing Comparing and describing Observation Collect a set of pictures of modern-day items and what they used to look like, e.g. Describing, using adjectives and comparative Comparing and describing: washing machine, vacuum cleaner. Give each student a picture. They match a language, e.g. This one is smaller. Student pairs join up with another pair and picture of the modern-day item with its earlier counterpart to find their partner. take turns in describing the differences they With this partner they list the changes that have occurred in the development of have identified in their items. Listen to the the item, considering the size, shape, materials used to make it and any language students use. Note use of additional uses the item may have. adjectives and comparative language.
This activity could be taped for later
analysis. Gathering information Gathering information Still in the same pairs, students use the framework for explanation texts to collect Gathering information information and write how their item works. They research the origin of their Reading for information.
item, placing items on a map of the world. Students construct or complete a data chart.
ESREB301 (Reading: Provide a range of reading materials to
Communication) cater for the needs of all the students.
ENRE0301 (Reading: Texts) During writing conferences note whether Classifying information. the students have collected the required information and used the appropriate linguistic features. Plan further modelling or
practice activities according to the students’
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Teaching and learning activities Linguistic focus Assessment activities Focus question: How has our society and the environment been Functions Assessment task affected by inventions? Expressing an opinion and justifying. In original groups students prioritise
benefits and drawbacks or negative effects 8. Positive, negative and interesting from most to least. Divide the class into three groups. The first group lists all the benefits of ESSLB201 (Speaking and listening: inventions. The second group lists the negative effects and the third group lists Communication) the interesting effects. As a class, read the lists and discuss the issues that ESSLB301 (Speaking and listening: emerge, e.g. power consumption, increased leisure time, changing roles, waste Communication) reduction—plastics.
Learning logs Learning logs Students write a personal response to the issues raised in the previous activity in Note whether students have shown an their diaries or learning logs. understanding of the positive and negative effects of inventions.
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