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    Appendices to the Coleske Resettlement Action Plan Nov 2008

Phase 1 Team

Prof. Charlie Shackleton

    Dr Sheona Shackleton

    Dr Michelle Cocks

    Rosalie Kingwill

Maura Andrew and Lungisa Bosman were also part of the Phase 1 team but their

    details are provided below as part of the Phase 2 team. Maura and Lungisa worked on the Census of the households and Maura managed the overall project.

Phase 2 Team

    Maura Andrew is a Senior Environmental Consultant and Socio-Economic Specialist who has been working for Coastal and Environmental Services in Grahamstown for three years. She is a skilled and experienced public facilitator and socio-economic scientist with over ten years of experience in the Eastern Cape and other African Countries. She has BA Honours degrees in Human Geography and in Economics, and a Masters Degree in Geography with distinction. She is a former lecturer in Environmental Science at Rhodes University and has conducted numerous social, economic, rural livelihood and resource utilisation studies in South Africa and other countries such as Malawi, Mozambique and Madagascar. She has been employed as a CES staff member for three years and has had a long association with the firm through numerous sub-consultant assignments prior to joining the staff. While in CES‟s employ she has worked on a number of projects, including Strategic

    Environmental Assessments (SEAs) for the Wavecrest Mining Option (on the Transkei Wild Coast), the Greater Addo Elephant National Park, Water Management Area 12 in the Eastern Cape (investigating Afforestation potential), and the Ngqushwa and Amahlati Local Municipalities. She has also headed up the CES Stakeholder Engagement Team for the Knysna N2 Toll Highway EIA which has registered over 1000 Interested and Affected Parties in the Scoping Process. Her duties have also included qualitative and quantitative socio-economic surveys and monitoring, Social Impact Assessments for a variety of development projects, and the development of Resettlement Action Plans (as per IFC guidelines) for projects in South Africa and Mozambique. She has also recently gained skills and experience in conducting Economic Impact Assessments and has undertaken studies of large sand mining projects in Madagascar, Mozambique, and Egypt.

    Role: Main facilitator and Project Manager

Lungisa Bosman

    Appendices to the Coleske Resettlement Action Plan Nov 2008

    Mr. Bosman holds a Bachelor of Social Science (1993) from U.C.T, with majors in Public Administration & Sociology, and a Post Graduate Diploma in Organisation and Management. Over the past few years Lungisa has gained considerable experience in social facilitation and community education. He is currently working part-time as a Junior Research Officer for the Working for the Wetlands inventory group and part-time as a consultant for Coastal & Environmental Services. Lungisa has been involved in a number of projects where he has brought his facilitation skills to bear. These include the ADM and Chris Hani State of Environment studies, the Coffee Bay tourism development viability studies, and numerous scoping studies. His mother tongue is isiXhosa.

    Role: Census of Coleske Households

Eleanor McGregor

Greg Huggins

    Mr Greg Huggins is an associate of CES and heads up Water for Africa and RADS. He specialises in social impact assessment, resettlement and development planning, socio-economic analysis and applied research, with over fifteen years of experience in these fields. He has been involved in a range of projects covering dams; railways, mines and water transfer schemes, and has managed resettlement processes to World Bank Standards for a number of large projects, including the Corridor Sands and Moma Heavy Mineral Sands Mining projects. Greg has worked in Malawi, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and South Africa and can provide intellectual input into the process, assist in providing solutions to any problems that may arise, and advise on resettlement best practice insights.

    Role: Project Reviewer

    Appendices to the Coleske Resettlement Action Plan Nov 2008




    This document indicates that the preferred option for the Eastern Cape Parks for the Coleske Community as the option of the community moving to Bosdorp. This is to be couple with an MOA that clearly states the position of the Eastern Cape Parks and places certain conditions on the Coleske community with regard to housing options.

Ecological and Conservation Aspects

    No fewer than seven of the country‟s eight biomes the highest level of ecosystem

    recognized by ecologists are represented in the broader Baviaanskloof area. This exceptional diversity is testament to the great physical and climatic diversity in this area of transition. The Cluster includes two internationally recognised “Biodiversity

    Hotspots” the Fynbos (Cape Floristic Region) and the subtropical thicket (MaputalandPondoland Region). The Baviaanskloof Nature Reserve alone houses over 1100 species of plant, 20 of which are known to be endemic. 52 species are categorized as Red Data Book species. Expanding the list to Groendal and Formosa Nature Reserves could add as many as 100 species. The Baviaanskloof Nature Reserve was declared a World Heritage Site as part of the Cape Floristic Region Serial Nomination in June 2005. The basis of the WHS status is the outstanding floristic diversity and endemism of the CFR. The WHS status places the Baviaanskloof Nature Reserve in special category in terms of the Protected Area.

    The Baviaanskloof is a rugged landscape that lies between the arid karoo interior and the mesic southern Cape coast. The bulk of the region falls within the eastern part of the Cape Floristic Region (Fynbos biome). The northern areas of the Baviaanskloof MegaReserve (BMR) fall within the namakaroo and succulent karoo biomes, while the eastern areas mostly fall within the subtropical thicket biome. The forest biome is represented in the narrow river valleys and the grassland biome is represented on the plateaus of the old African land surface in the Kouga and Baviaanskloof ranges. This richness at a biome level is unique, and is the product of the variable topography, geology and steep climatic gradients in the region. The region is arguably one of the most biodiverse areas within southern Africa with representation of all seven of South Africa‟s biomes in the planning domain of the megareserve. It is

    at the convergence of three of the world‟s top 36 biodiversity hotspots (Cape Floristic Region and the Succulent Karoo and MaputoPondoAlbany).

    Appendices to the Coleske Resettlement Action Plan Nov 2008

    In 2007 a systematic conservation planning project was completed where target areas for protection was identified. The areas targeted in the BMR would not only conserve patterns of biodiversity for which the area is famous, but also allow for the largescale ecological processes which are essential for conservation at a landscape level. These ecological processes include altitudinal gradients, coastal interior transitions, river corridors, climatic gradients, mega herbivore habitats, top predator prey relationships and biome interfaces. The aim was to adequately capture the processes and through this to develop a new biodiversity economy in the region. This will require the consolidation of the current Baviaanskloof protected area estate and the expansion of conservation as a land use and management philosophy in the region.

    The Coleske area was classified as Thicket / River Corridor linking the Coast to the interior Basin important for processes and gradients. The Baviaanskloof River and Groot River are effective surrogates of large mammal related processes, as permanent sources of water in an arid environment with relatively palatable vegetation in the form of Subtropical thicket (Cowling, et al.,2003). These largely riverine corridors are also crucial for maintaining connectivity of the aquatic ecosystems (Nel, et al., 2006)

Conservation of Vegetation Types

    Two vegetation types feature in the Coleske area. The Baviaanskloof Savannah Thicket (? 65%) and the Baviaanskloof Spekboom Thicket (? 35%)(Fig. 2). The vegetation in the Coleske area is degraded mainly because of historic and current farming practice. Both these vegetation types are underrepresented in the Baviaanskloof Nature reserve. For example, the Baviaanskloof Savannah Thicket covers only 0.73% of the total surface area of the Baviaanskloof Nature Reserve. This vegetation type is also one of the vegetation types identified as underrepresented in formal protected areas in the BMR conservation plan (Skowno, 2007).

    Figure 2: Map showing the degree to which the vegetation types of the BMR are currently represented in the PA network. High score indicate low target achievement within PA network. Scores below 0 indicate that targets are currently achieved in the PA network (Skowno, 2007).

Importance for Large Mammal Dynamics

    The Baviaanskloof River and Groot Rivier are effective surrogates of large mammal related processes, as permanent sources of water in an arid environment with relatively palatable vegetation in the form of Subtropical thicket (Cowling, et al., 2003). The valleybottom serves as an important habitat for large herbivores like buffalo, kudu and black rhino. These species use the valleybottom as water source, forage

    areas and migration routes between important forage areas. Some areas of the valley bottom is narrow (<30m). These narrow areas, in most cases, form important links to wider areas of the valleybottom. Buffalo and black rhino are considered to be dangerous animals which could injure or kill human beings. These species populations are expanding rapidly which means the threat will increase over time.


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