STUDY GUIDE FOR MODERN HISTORY OF EUROPE
(PSCI 2520 & HIST 3150)
Instructor: Hafiz Zakariya, Ph.D.
Table of Contents
Part One: Topics’ Objectives 2-5
Part Two: Key Terms 5-8
Part Three: Study Questions 9-15
PART ONE: LECTURES/TOPICS OBJECTIVES
Introductory Lecture : Conceptual Discussion: What is Modern Europe? &
Social Life in 18th Century Europe Learning Objectives
1) To come up with a working definition of Europe
2) To be aware of the basic geography of Europe (map test)
3) To understand the contested views and major arguments of the
beginning of modern Europe
French Revolution 1) To understand the meanings of revolution
2) To comprehend the roles of some of the key players of the revolution:
Robespierre, Abbe Sieyes, Danton, Marat.
3) To understand the background of France before the revolution as the
preconditions for the revolution
4) To understand the key arguments concerning the nature and causes of
5) To be able to discern the basic chronologies of the revolutions
6) To understand the legacies of the FR: liberal & radical periods
7) To be able to understand the significance, reform and impact of FR in
Napoleonic Europe 1) Understanding Napoleon’s career, his rise to power & the impact of
his rule on Europe
2) To examine whether Napoleon represented continuation or betrayal of
the legacies of the French revolution
The Congress of Vienna(CV)
1) basic understanding of the objectives, key participants of the CV.
2) To examine the positive and negative aspects of CV
The Industrial “Revolution”
1) to critically examine whether the term “revolution” can really be
applied to the Industrial “revolution” 2) to understand the factors that led to IR
3) to acquire a basic understanding of the effects of IR on people’s life;
in particular living standards and work environments in Britain.
4) To analyze the positive and negative outcomes of the IR
Ideologies in the Early 19th Century 1) Understanding the basic concepts and evolution of the early/utopian
socialism as formulated by Owen, Fourier and Saint de Simon
2) Basic understanding of Romanticism –a cultural/arts trend in modern
Europe in terms of its key characteristics & orientations and in what
way it differs or resembles classicism(Enlightenment)
3) Basic understanding of Marxist version of Socialism
Changing Life & Social Realities in 19th Century Europe th1) to acquire basic understanding of how 19 century industrialized
European cities coped with the changing conditions of the urban
2) To enable us to explain the significance of advances in public health
and improvement in public transportation systems in the European
3) To understand the basic social problems confronting Europe and the
factors responsible for them
1) To be able to summarize Darwin’s theory of natural selection and its
impact on social sciences
2) To acquire basic understanding of Comte’s positivism and the
meanings of realism in 19th century European literature and arts. 3) To acquire understanding of the key principles of major ideologies:
Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Conservatism and so on.
The Age of Nationalism
1. To have a basic understanding of the meanings of nationalism.
2. To be able to explain how nationalism became a powerful force in
many European states
3. To be able to explain the unification of Italy and Germany & the
destruction of the Hapsburg Empire.
4. To examine both the positive and negative effects of nationalism.
World War One
1) to be able to explain the major factors responsible for WW1
2) To have a basic understanding of the impacts of WW1
3) To analyze the terms of the Treaty of Versailles –whether it was a just
or unjust peace settlements.
The Russian Revolution
1) Basic understanding of the factors responsible for the collapse of the
Romanov dynasty in Russia
2) To have a general understanding of the Bolshevik success in taking
over the power from the liberal-dominated Provisional Government
3) To examine the reasons for Bolsheviks victory in the civil war.
The Rise of Dictatorship: Nazi Germany
1) to understand how unsolved problems after WW1 facilitated the
emergence of some of the dictators (Mussolini in Italy and Hitler).
2) To be able to trace Hitler’s rise to power, the importance of the Great
Depression in raising support for the Nazis, and some of the factors
for Hitler’s popularity among his own people.
3) To examine Hitler’s attitudes and treatments of the Jews
4) To be able to compare and contrast the various dictators.
World War 2
1) To understand the causes/origins of WW2 and its impact.
2) To examine how unsolved problems that lingered after WW1 helped
ignited another international war.
3) to analyze how the Allies were able to defeat the Axis powers.
The Cold War & Social Transformations, 1945-1970s
1) To acquire a basic meaning of the Cold War, its forms of
“war”/conflict, and major scholarly debates on the origins of the Cold
2) To explain why the US emerged as the major power in the West?
3) To be able to explain what led the USSR and US into the Cold War.
4) To be able to summarize the social consequences of post-war
prosperity in the West including greater social mobility, expansion of
welfare state, emergence of mass consumer society and mass leisure.
PART TWO: KEY TERMS/NAMES/EVENTS KEY TERMS
What is Europe? Renaissance & Luther’s Reformation
What is Europe? Europe is similar to Western countries. Definition varies according to
contexts. In our course, those countries located on the European “continent”. Etymology
of Europe- Greek mythology- Europa- Greek mythological princess/queen. Later Europa
stood for mainland Greece and by 500 BC the term extended to the land in the north.
When is the beginning of modern Europe? (three major views)
i)Age of Discovery 1490s thii)Renaissance (ca.,15 century) transition to a modern period
iii)Muslim- 1453 Turks finally defeated & crushed the Byzantine. thTo reconcile these views, it is safe to accept that the second half of the 15 century
represents the beginning of Modern Europe.
The French Revolution Review Sheet
Louis XV ruled 1715-74 Louis XVI ruled 1774-1792 (executed 1793)
i)Liberal Revolution 1789-1792 (4 major stages/revolutions during the first phase)
-Estates General (EG)- Nat. Assem. - Nat. Const. Assem - -Legislative Assembly
ii)Radical Revolution 1792-1794
- The Convention - + Comm. Pub. Safety
iii)Thermidorean Reaction 1794-1799
Lead Up to Revolution
The Fiscal Crisis
Aristocrat rebellion against the King as a prelude to FR
The Calling of the EG = how to meet & vote?
Start of the Revolution - 1788-1789
Abbé Sieyes: What is the Third Estate? rd3 estate boycott of the Estates General & declared itself National Assembly - June 17th
Tennis Court Oath - June 20th 1789
July 1789 - The Great Fear in the countryside
Fall of the Bastille - July 14th 1789
August 4th Laws - abolish "feudalism"
Declaration of the Rights of Man - August 27th 1789
The Legislative Assembly (1791-1792)
Parties: The Jacobins, Girondists/ The Sans Culottes [those who do not wear "culottes" - ie
fashionable leggings. Ordinary citizens "]
WAR against foreign states on many fronts- Austria, Prussia, G .Britain
Counter revolution in France
September 1792 [September Massacres] rumors of royalist conspiracy to regain power
The Convention - 1792-95 meets September 21 1792 - France declared a republic.
Sep 1792, Monarchy was abolished King was imprisoned
Girondin (moderate) vs. Mountain/Jacobin(radicals)
July1793, supported by the Sans Culottes The Jacobin took over the power of the Convention.
The emergency government of CPS was set up. Liberty, constitution etc were suspended.
Why? The revolution was in danger from various threats. To ensure the continuity of FR
Institutions of Terror: Revolutionary Tribunals Watch Committees set up in every area, Guillotine
was most active more than 1200 heads were guillotined.
The Reign of Terror, 1793-1794
King executed 21 Jan 1793
Committee of Public Safety/Reign of Terror July 1793-July 1794
Reaction to Revolution Abroad
Most Intellectuals and philosophes praised it: Adam Smith, Thomas Paine, Beethoven --
Conservatives opposed it
Impacts & Legacies
Darwinism, Positivism & Realism
1. Charles Darwin 2.Christian cosmology 3.Origins of Species 4.Descent of Man
5.Theory of Evolution 6.“Principle of Natural Selection” 7.“Struggle for Existence”
8.Survival of the Fittest 9. Social Darwinism 10.Positivism 11. Whitemen’s Burden
12.Civilizing mission 13.Auguste Comte 14. Positivism(Scientism) 15. The Law of the
Three stages 16.Hegel’s dialectic theory (everything evolves & changes in history due to
the clash of opposing forces) 17. Realism
PARTIAL LIST OF KEY TERMS/NAMES Unification of Italy
Division of Italy before Unification ca. 1815
1.South-Bourbon king ruled the Two Sicilies
2.Popes-papal states in central Italy
3.Hapsburg Empire-Lombardy & Venetia in the North
4.Hapsburg princes ruled Tuscany, Parma & Modena
5.Piedmont & Sardinia by Italian dynasty- House of Savoy
a)Carbonari b)Mazzini c)The Young Italy d)Risorgimento (lit. revival) e)Cavour
f)The Pact of Plombieres, 1858 with France g)Garibaldi The Red-Shirts
Unification of Germany
Confederation of German states
War with Denmark, 1864. Schleswig & Holstein dispute 1866 Prussia-Austria war northern German Confederation Prussia-Franco war 1870
Kaiser Wilhelm or William
TERMS/NAMES WW1 & Russian Revolution
Why WW1 happened?
Immediate cause Root Cause (what is the difference b/w the two?) Immediate cause –assassination of the Austrian Crown Prince
But Euro had survived many assassinations (no major continental war-why the assassination in 1914 by a Black Hand member triggered a chain reaction leading to
Origins of WW1- Fisher’s thesis-Germany fault, its aim to be the world power-waiting
for a chance to provoke a world war.-This view has been heavily condemned & is very biased.
A Balanced assessment of WW1: James Joll’s WW1 occurred as a result of a series of inter-related factors e.g. arm race, the alliance system, imperial rivalry, the destructive impact of nationalism, social imperialism(war to divert public’s view), and importantly,
the mood of 1914 that welcome the war-war as celebration.
Versailles Peace Conference & Impact of WW1
3. Tsar Nicholas
4. February Revolution of 1917
6. Russian Marxist formed Social Democratic Labor Party divided into i)Bolshevik and ii) Mensheviks
8. October/Bolshevik Revolution
12. Red Army
13. Civil War (the Whites versus the Reds)
14. War Communism
15. New Economic Policy
16. Is Authoritarian the logical outcome of the Russian Marxism? 17. Why Russia became an authoritarian state?
17. Scholarly debates: Was the Bolshevik revolution a popular uprising or military coup. Robert Pipes vs. others
1.How the underdog came to power?-abilities, work ethics, complex power politics 2. Power Struggle 1. Trotsky (Jew) vs. Stalin & allies Zivoniev & Kamenev (both Jewish) cutting ties with both after defeating Trotsky
3. Power Play 2. Stalin + Bukharin vs. Trotsky+ Zivoniev & Kamenev Results: Stalin won
cutting ties with Bukharin after defeating Trotsky & the gang
4. How Stalin managed to hold on to power?
5. Trotsky 6. Five years Plan- objective industrialization 7. Industrialization
8.Collectivization of Agriculture 9.The Great Purge 10.Kirov’s murder
11. Zivoniez 12. Kemenez 13.Bukharin
14. Gulag Kulak- dekulakization
15.Did Stalin represent continuation of Lenin or betrayal?-Richard Pipes vs. Stephen Cohen
HITLER & The Third Reich Karl Lueger
1923 Failed armed uprising (Beer Hall Putsch)
SA or the Brown-shirts
The Third Reich (The Third Reich=Empire) The German word 'reich' means 'empire', although it
can also be translated as government. In 1930's Germany the Nazi party identified their rule as a
third Reich, and in doing so gave English speakers around the world a new, and wholly negative,
connotation to the word.
The First Reich: The Holy Roman Empire (800/962 - 1806)
The Second Reich: The German Empire (1871 - 1918) From Unification to WW1
The Third Reich: Nazi Germany (1930s - 1945)
Gestapo: the name of the official secret police force of Nazi Germany
the Enabling Act
The Night of the Long Knives SS Nazi Elite guard
World War 2
Appeasement Axis Powers Grand Alliance Lebensraum German Rearmament
remilitarization of the Rhineland Annexation of Austria, Conquest of Czech/Slovakia Invasion
The Cold War
Iron Curtain Soviet Satellite States Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan
Containtment Cuban Missiles Crisis NATO Warsaw Pact Stalin Nikita Krushev
Camberlain Eisenhower Roosevelt J.F. Kennedy détente Collapse of the Berlin Wall
PART THREE: REVIEW/STUDY QUESTIONS
The Age of Enlightenment
1. What is meant by the Enlightenment? Where did the Enlightenment begin, and
what contributed to its spread?
2. Why did Christianity come under attack by deists, skeptics, and freethinkers?
What criticism did they advance?
3. What were the essential characteristics of the political thought of Hobbes, Locke,
Montesquieu, and Rousseau? What are the similarities and differences between
4. What was Locke's theory of learning, and what was its significance for the
5. What made the High Enlightenment different than what preceded it? How did the
Encyclopedia exemplify the High Enlightenment?
6. What were the major military conflicts of the eighteenth century? What was the
significance of each?
7. In what ways was the American Revolution based on Enlightenment principles?
8. In what ways was the Enlightenment the pivotal period in the shaping of the
The French Revolution
1. What privileges did clergy and nobility enjoy in the Old Regime?
2. What were the grievances of the bourgeoisie, the peasantry, and the urban laborers?
3. Why was France in financial difficulty?
4. Why do some historians regard the French Revolution as a bourgeois revolution? How
do revisionists dispute this view?
5. Identify and explain the significance of the following: the formation of the National
Assembly; the storming of the Bastille, the Great Fear, and the October Days.
6. What was the nature and significance of the reforms passed by the National Assembly?
7. What were the grievances of the sans-culottes?
8. Identify and explain the significance of the following: the flight of Louis XVI, the
Brunswick manifesto, and the September Massacres.
9.What were the principal differences between the Jacobins and Girondins?
10.What were the accomplishments of the Jacobins?
11. How did Robespierre justify the Terror? What meaning can you ascribe to the Terror?
12. Why was the French Revolution a decisive period in the shaping of the West?
1.How did Napoleon gain power in France?
2.What principles underlay Napoleon's domestic reforms?
3.How did Napoleon both preserve and destroy the ideals of the French Revolution? 4.What were Napoleon's greatest achievements and greatest failures?
5.Do you consider Napoleon as the preserver or the destroyer of the legacies of the French Revolutions? Elaborate any four major issues to support your view.
The Industrial Revolution
1. Why did England industrialize before the rest of Europe? How did political and social factors influence English industrialization?
2. How did political and social factors promote or delay industrialization in France, the German states, and the Netherlands?
3. How did changes in European agriculture in the early 1800s reflect the impact of capitalism and industrialization?
4. What factors promoted the growth of cities between 1800 and 1860?
5. To what extent was industrialization a slow process? To what extent did industrialization between 1750 and 1850 revolutionize European industry, commerce and society?
6. In nineteenth century Europe, what groups comprised the middle class, and of what groups was the working class composed? Why did contemporaries and some historians make the terms plural?
7. How did the role of organized religion change in lives of working-class people between 1800 and 1850?
8.What aspects of working-class life and culture did the middle class try to change in the nineteenth century?
9. How did the law discriminate against and punish the working class during the early stages of industrialization? How did it try to protect this class?
Thought and Culture in the Early Nineteenth Century
1. In what ways was the Romantic movement a reaction against the dominant ideas of the Enlightenment?
2. What was the significance of the Romantic movement?
3. What were the attitudes of the conservatives toward the philosophes and the French Revolution?
4. What did conservatives reject the philosophy of natural rights?
5. What were the sources of liberalism?
6. Contrast the views of early nineteenth-century liberals and conservatives regarding the individual's relationship to society.
7. What was that fundamental difference between French radicals and liberals? 8. What basic liberal-capitalist doctrines were attacked by early socialists? 9. Why are Saint-Simon, Fourier, and Owen regarded as early socialists? 10. How did the French Revolution and romanticism contribute to the rise of modern nationalism?
11. What was the relationship between liberalism and nationalism?
12. What is the great appeal of nationalism?
C of Vienna