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Multicultural folktales - readers theatre for elementary students 2000

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Multicultural folktales - readers theatre for elementary students 2000

    ? title : Multicultural Folktales : Readers Theatre for Elementary Students author :

     Barchers, Suzanne I. publisher : Teacher Ideas Press isbn10 | asin : 156308760X print isbn13 : 9781563087608 ebook isbn13 : 9780585254876 language : English subject ? Folklore and children, Tales--Study and teaching(Elementary) , Multicultural education. publication date : 2000 lcc : GR43.C4B39 2000eb ddc : 808.5/4 subject : Folklore and children, Tales--Studyand teaching (Elementary) , Multicultural education.

    Page iii Multicultural Folktales Readers Theatre for Elementary Students Suzanne I. Barchers

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    Page iv

    Copyright ? 2000 Suzanne I. Barchers

     All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America No part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission ofthe publisher. An exception is made for individual librarians and educators, who may makecopies of scripts for classroom use in a single school. Other portions of the book (up to 15pages) may be copied for in-service programs or other educational programs in a single schoolor library. Standard citation information should appear on every page.

    Teacher Ideas Press

     A Division of

     Libraries Unlimited, Inc.

     P.O. Box 6633 Englewood, CO 80155-6633

     1-800-237-6124 " http://www.lu.com/tip "

    Library?of?Congress?Cataloging-in-Publication?Data

Barchers,?Suzanne?I.

     Multicultural?folktales?:?readers?theatre?for?elementary?students?/?Suzanne?I.?Barchers

     p.?cm.

     Includes?bibliographical?references.

     ISBN?1-56308-760-X

     1.?Folklore?and?children.?2.?TalesStudy?and?teaching?(Elementary)?3.?Multicultural

     education.?I.?Title.

     GR43.C4?B39?2000 808.5'4dc21?????????????????????????????????????????????????99-052879

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    Page v

    Dedicated?to?the?many?wonderful?Susans?in?my?life:

     Susan?Carlson,?Susan?Hill,?Susan?Ohanian, and?Susan?Zernial.

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    Page vii Contents Acknowledgments xiii Introduction xvii Chapter 1: First-Grade Reading Level 1

     The Farmer and the Animals (Finland) 3 Summary 3 Presentation Suggestions 3 Props 3 DeliverySuggestions 3 Characters 3 Gawain and the Green Knight (England) 6 Summary 6 PresentationSuggestions 6 Props 6 Delivery Suggestions 6 Characters 6 It Could Always Be Worse (Yiddish) 9 Summary 9 Presentation Suggestions 9 Props 9 Delivery Suggestions 9 Characters 9 Molly Whuppie(Scotland) 12 Summary 12 Presentation Suggestions 12 Props 12 Delivery Suggestions 12 Characters 12 The Peach Boy (Japan) 16 Summary 16 Presentation Suggestions 16 Props 16 Delivery Suggestions 16 Characters 16 Chapter 2: Second-Grade Reading Level 21 Baba Yaga(Russia) 23 Summary 23 Presentation Suggestions 23 Props 23 Delivery Suggestions 23 Characters 23

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    Page viii The Bee, the Harp, the Mouse, and the Bum-Clock (Ireland) 28 Summary 28 PresentationSuggestions 28 Props 28 Delivery Suggestions 28 Characters 28 The Giant in the Garden(Scotland) 34 Summary 34 Presentation Suggestions 34 Props 34 Delivery Suggestions 34 Characters 34 Gifts of Love (Korea) 38 Summary 38 Presentation Suggestions 38 Props 38 Delivery Suggestions 38 Characters 38 Los Tres Ratoncitos: A Chiste (Southwestern UnitedStates) 41 Summary 41 Presentation Suggestions 41 Props 41 Delivery Suggestions 41 Characters 41 The Magic Table (Germany) 44 Summary 44 Presentation Suggestions 44 Props 44 DeliverySuggestions 44 Characters 44 Sally Ann Thunder and Davey Crockett (United States) 48 Summary 48

     Presentation Suggestions 48 Props 48 Delivery Suggestions 48 Characters 48 The Shepherd andthe Troll (Iceland) 52 Summary 52 Presentation Suggestions 52 Props 52 Delivery Suggestions 52 Characters 52

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    Page ix Spider Flies to the Feast (Liberia) 56 Summary 56 Presentation Suggestions 56 Props 56 Delivery Suggestions 56 Characters 56 Chapter 3: Third-Grade Reading Level 63 The CleverDaughter (Italy) 65 Summary 65 Presentation Suggestions 65 Props 65 Delivery Suggestions 65 Characters 65 Dick Whittington and His Cat (England) 69 Summary 69 Presentation Suggestions 69 Props 69 Delivery Suggestions 69 Characters 69 Finding the Foolish (Scotland) 74 Summary 74 Presentation Suggestions 74 Props 74 Delivery Suggestions 74 Characters 74 The Master-Maid(Norway) 78 Summary 78 Presentation Suggestions 78 Props 78 Delivery Suggestions 78 Characters 78 The Tree That Bled Fish (Micronesia) 87 Summary 87 Presentation Suggestions 87 Props 87 Delivery Suggestions 87 Characters 87 Water, Water Will Be Mine (Kenya) 91 Summary 91 Presentation Suggestions 91 Props 91 Delivery Suggestions 91 Characters 91

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    Page x The White-Haired Old Woman (United States, Native American) 98 Summary 98 PresentationSuggestions 98 Props 98 Delivery Suggestions 98 Characters 98 Why Ants Carry Burdens(Africa/Hausa) 100 Summary 100 Presentation Suggestions 100 Props 100 Delivery Suggestions 100 Characters 100 Chapter 4: Fourth-Grade Reading Level 105 Arion and His Harp (Greece) 107 Summary 107 Presentation Suggestions 107 Props 107 Delivery Suggestions 107 Characters 107 Catherine and Her Destiny (Italy, Sicily) 110 Summary 110 Presentation Suggestions 110 Props 110 Delivery Suggestions 110 Characters 110 How Fisher Went to the Skyland (Great LakesRegion/Anishinabe) 115 Summary 115 Presentation Suggestions 115 Props 115 Delivery Suggestions 115 Characters 115 Polly Ann and John Henry (United States) 119 Summary 119 PresentationSuggestions 119 Props 119 Delivery Suggestions 119 Characters 119 Princess Sivatra (India) 124 Summary 124 Presentation Suggestions 124 Props 124 Delivery Suggestions 124 Characters 124

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    Page xi The Three Wishes (Hungary) 128 Summary 128 Presentation Suggestions 128 Props 128 Delivery Suggestions 128 Characters 128 To the Sun, Moon, and Wind (Spain) 131 Summary 131 Presentation Suggestions 131 Props 131 Delivery Suggestions 131 Characters 131 The Young ChiefWho Played the Flute (New Zealand) 135 Summary 135 Presentation Suggestions 135 Props 135 Delivery Suggestions 135 Characters 135 Chapter 5: Fifth-Grade Reading Level 139 The DoomedPrince (Egypt) 141 Summary 141 Presentation Suggestions 141 Props 141 Delivery Suggestions 141 Characters 141 Fortunée (France) 145 Summary 145 Presentation Suggestions 145 Props 145 Delivery Suggestions 145 Characters 145 The Forty Thieves (Arabia) 150 Summary 150 Presentation Suggestions 150 Props 150 Delivery Suggestions 150 Characters 150 Grateful Hans(Germany) 155 Summary 155 Presentation Suggestions 155 Props 155 Delivery Suggestions 155 Characters 155

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    Page xii The Learned Servant Girl (China) 160 Summary 160 Presentation Suggestions 160 Props 160 Delivery Suggestions 160 Characters 160 Legend of the Feathered Serpent (Mexico) 163 Summary 163 Presentation Suggestions 163 Props 163 Delivery Suggestions 163 Characters 163 TheMagic Fan (India) 167 Summary 167 Presentation Suggestions 167 Props 167 Delivery Suggestions 167 Characters 167 Princess Maya (India) 172 Summary 172 Presentation Suggestions 172 Props 172

     Delivery Suggestions 172 Characters 172 The Seven Pairs of Slippers (Portugal) 176 Summary 176

     Presentation Suggestions 176 Props 176 Delivery Suggestions 176 Characters 176 The Snow Queen(Denmark) 181 Summary 181 Presentation Suggestions 181 Props 181 Delivery Suggestions 181 Characters 181

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    Page xiii Acknowledgments ''Arion and His Harp" was adapted from "Arion and His Harp" in Troubadour ' s Storybag : Musical Folktales of the World , retold and edited by Norma J. Livo

    (Golden, CO: Fulcrum, 1996), 9597. Used with permission. "The Bee, the Harp, the Mouse, and theBum-Clock" was adapted from Irish Fairy Tales , edited by Philip Smith (New York: Dover

    Publications, 1993); taken from Donegal Fairy Stories , 1900. Reprinted by Dover Publications.

     "Catherine and Her Destiny" was adapted from "Catherine and Her Destiny" in Wise Women :

    Folk and Fairy Tales from Around the World , retold and edited by Suzanne I. Barchers

    (Englewood O: Libraries Unlimited, 1990), 12932. "The Clever Daughter" was adapted from "ThePeasant's Clever Daughter" in Wise Women : Folk and Fairy Tales from Around , the World ,

    retold and edited by Suzanne I. Barchers (Englewood, CO: Libraries limited, 1990), 35. "Finding the Foolish" was adapted from "The Foolish Husbands" in Wise Women : Folk and Fairy

     , retold and edited by Suzanne I. Barchers (Englewood, CO:Tales from Around the World

    Libraries Unlimited, 1990), 26567 Copyright Storycart Press, 1998. Used with permission. "Fortunée" was add from "Fortunée" in : Wise Women : Folk and Fairy Tales from Around the

     , retold and edited by Suzanne I. Barcher (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1990),World

    8184. "The Forty Thieves" was adapted form "The Forty Thieves" in Wise Women : Folk and Fairy

     , retold and edited by Suzanne I. Barchers (Englewood, CO:Tales from Around the World

    Libraries Unlimited, 1990), 18389. "The Giant in the Garden" was adapted from "The Princess andthe Giant" in Wise Women : Folk and Fairy Tales from Around the World , retold and edited by

    Suzanne I. Barchers (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1990), 4346. Copyright StorycartPress, 1998. Used with permission. "Gifts of Love" was adapted from "Gifts of Love" in Wise

     : Folk and Fairy Tales from Around the World , retold and edited by Suzanne I. BarchsWomen

    (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1990), 12526. "Grateful Hans" by Suzanne I. Barchers(Arvada, CO: Storycart Press, 1998). Used with permission. "How Fisher Went to the Skyland" wasadapted from "How Fisher Went to the Skyland: The Origin of the Big Dipper" in Keepers of the

     : Native American Stories and Environmental Activities for Children by Michael J.Earth

    Caduto and Joseph Bruchac (Golden, CO: Fulcrum, 1988, 1989, 1997), 11720. Used with permission.

     "The Learned Servant Girl" was adapted from "The Learned Servant Girl" in Wise Women : Folk

     , retold and edited by Suzanne I. Barchers (Englewood,and Fairy Tales from Around the World

    CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1990), 16970.

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    Page xiv "Legend of the Feathered Serpent" is adapted from "Legend of the Feathered Serpent: AnAztec Legend" in The Eagle and the Rainbow : Timeless Tales from México by Antonio Hernández

    Madrigal, illustrated by Tomie dePaola (Golden, CO: Fulcrum, 1997), 4353. Used with permision. "Los Tres Ratoncitos: A Chiste" is adapted from "Los Tres Ratoncitos: A Chiste" in Una Linda

     : Cultural and Artistic Traditions of the Hispanic Southwest (Golden, CO: Fulcrum,Raza

    1998), 104. Used with permission. "The Magic Fan" was adapted from "Patience" in Wise Women :

    Folk and Fairy Tales from Around the World , retold and edited by Suzanne I. Barchers

    (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1990), 3134. "The Magic Table" by Suzanne I. Barchers(Arvada, CO: Storycart Press, 1998). Used with permission. "The Master-Maid" was adapted from"The Master-Maid" in Wise Women : Folk and Fairy Tales from Around the World , retold and

    edited by Suzanne I. Barchers (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1990), 191201. "MollyWhuppie" was adapted from "Molly Whuppie" in Wise Women : Folk and Fairy Tales from Around

     , retold and edited by Suzanne I. Barchers (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited,the World

    1990), 8789. "Princess Maya" was adapted from "Princess Maya" in Wise Women : Folk and Fairy

     , retold and edited by Suzanne I. Barchers (Englewood, CO:Tales from Around the World

    Libraries Unlimited, 1990), 23133. "Princess Sivatra" was adapted from "Princess Sivatra" in Wise Women : Folk and Fairy Tales from Around the World , retold and edited by Suzanne I.

    Barchers (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1990), 21114. "Sally Ann Thunder and DaveyCrockett" by Suzanne I. Barchers (Arvada, CO: Storycart Press, 1998). Used with permission. "The Snow Queen" was adapted from "The Snow Queen" in Wise Women : Folk and Fairy Tales from

     , retold and edited by Suzanne I. Barchers (Englewood, CO: LibrariesAround the World

    Unlimited, 1990), 4962. "Spider Flies to the Feast" was adapted from "Spider Flies to theFeast" in Why Leopard Has Spots : Dan Stories from Liberia by Won-Ldy Paye and Margaret H.

    Lippert, illustrated by Ashley Bryan (Golden, CO: Fulcrum, 1998), 2330. Used with permission. "To the Sun, Moon, and Wind" was adapted from "The Sprig of Rosemary" in Wise Women : Folk

     , retold and edited by Suzanne I. Barchers (Englewood,and Fairy Tales from Around the World

    CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1990), 21719. Copyright Storycart Press, 1998. Used with permission. "The Tree That Bled Fish" was adapted from "The Tree That Bled Fish" in From the Mouth of the

     : Stories from Micronesia by Bo Flood, illustrated by Margo Vitarelli (Golden,Monster Eel

    CO: Fulcrum, 1996), 2531. Used with permission

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    Page xv "Water, Water Will Be Mine" was adapted from "Water, Water Will Be Mine" in Hyena and

     : Stories to Tellfrom Kenya by Heather McNeil (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited,the Moon

    1994), 8694. Used with permission. "The White-Haired Old Woman" was adapted from "The White-Haired Old Woman" in Wise Women : Folk and Fairy Tales from Around the World , retold and

    edited by Suzanne I. Barchers (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1990), 31920. "The YoungChief Who Played the Flute" was adapted from "The Young Chief Who Played the Flute" in Troubadour ' s Storybag : Musical Folktales of the World , edited and retold by Norma J. Livo

    (Golden, CO: Fulcrum, 1996), 5155. Used with permission.

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    Page xvii Introduction The scripts in this collection are drawn from folk and fairy tales fromaround the world. Although many tales have a universal style, they represent culturaldifferences that give them a flavor of the country of origin. Many stories will have familiarcharacters: Dick Whittington, Baba Yaga, the Snow Queen, Gawain, and Anansi. Others might benew: Princess Sivatra, Princess Maya, the Master-Maid, and Catherine. Readers are encouraged to

    look for parallels to familiar tales and to consider the cultural context of each individualtale while using the scripts. The Role of Readers Theatre "Readers theatre is a presentation bytwo or more participants who read from scripts and interpret a literary work in such a way thatthe audience imaginatively senses characterization, setting, and action. Voice and body tensionrather than movement are involved, thus eliminating the need for the many practice sessionsthat timing and action techniques require in the presentation of a play" (Laughlin and Latrobe1990, 3). Generally, there are minimal props and movement on the stage, although with primarystudents, adding such touches enlivens the production and invites more active participation.The ease of incorporating re into the language arts program offers teachers an exciting way toenhance the program, especially in classrooms that emphasize a variety of reading and listeningexperienes. Traditionally, the primary focus readers theatre is on an effective reading of thescript rather than on a dramatic, memorized presentation. Because many of the scripts arefamiliar, students will naturally paraphrase their reading, an acceptable practice. Each of thescripts in this collection was evaluated with the Flesch-Kincaid readability scale and groupedinto first-, second-, third-, fourth-, or fifth-grade readability levels. Before using, eachscript should be further evaluated by the teacher for content or vocabulary that might bechallenging for students. Because the first-grade scripts have short sentences, students shouldtake care to read them smoothly. Although some scripts have an upper-grade-level designation,they may seem easier than other scripts in the same group because of the story or content. Eachscript should be considered individually, and students should be encouraged to adapt thescripts to a more comfortable vocabulary whenever appropriate. The performance of readerstheatre scripts encourages strong oral skills for readers and promotes active listening forstudents in the audience (Sloyer 1982, 4). Students explore literature in a new form, and theclass can begin to analyze various treatments of the same or similar stories by comparing theseto versions they have heard or read. Students in a ten-week project using readers theatrebecame adept at going " 'inside' the story, experiencing the thoughts and feelings of thecharacters" (Martinez, Roser, and Strecker 1998, 332). Students have ample opportunity toreread text, working on fluency and delivery. An additional benefit is the pleasure ofperforming for parents or other classes and the ease of preparing for special days when aprogram is expected.

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    Page xviii Preparing the Scripts Once scripts are chosen for reading, make enough copies foreach character, plus an extra set or two for your use and a replacement copy. To help beginningor remedial readers keep their place on the page, use highlighter markers to designate acharacter's name within the copy. For example, someone reading the role of the narrator couldbe highlighted in blue, with other parts in different colors. This helps readers track theirparts and eases management of scripts in the event pages become mixed. Encourage students tofind their own techniques for management. Photocopied scripts will last longer if you use athree-hole punch (or copy them on prepunched paper) and place them in inexpensive folders. Thefolders can be color coordinated to the internal highlighting for each character's part. Thetitle of the play can be printed on the outside of the folder, and scripts can be stored easilyfor the next reading. Preparing the scripts and folders is a good task for a volunteer parentor an older student helper. The preparation takes a minimum of initial attention and needs tobe repeated only when a folder is lost. Getting Started For the first experience with a readerstheatre script, choose a script with many characters to involve more students. Gather thestudents informally, perhaps in a circle on the floor. If a story or picture-book version ofthe chosen script is available, read it aloud to the students. Next, introduce the scriptversion and explain that readers theatre does not mean memorizing a play and acting it out, butrather reading a script aloud with perhaps a few props and actions. Select volunteers to do theinitial reading, allowing them an opportunity to review their parts before reading aloud. Otherstudents could examine other versions, brainstorm prop ideas, or preview other scripts. Beforereading the first script, decide whether to choose parts after the reading or to introduceadditional scripts to involve more students. A readers theatre workshop could be held

    periodically, with each student belonging to a group that prepares a script for presentation. Areaders theatre festival could be planned for a special day when several short scripts arepresented consecutively, with brief intermissions between each reading. Groups of tales couldinclude princess tales, animal tales, tales from a specific continent or region, or tales ofconquest. Consider these groupings drawn from this collection: Princess tales: "PrincessSivatra," "Princess Maya," and "The Seven Pairs of Slippers'' Giant tales: "Molly Whuppie,""The Giant in the Garden," and "The Seven Pairs of Slippers" Animal tales: "The Farmer and theAnimals," "Los Tres Ratoncitos: A Chiste," "Water, Water Will Be Mine," and "How Fisher Went tothe Skyland" Insect tales: "Spider Flies to the Feast" and "Why Ants Carry Burdens" Tales ofenchantment: "Gawain and the Green Knight," "Catherine and Her Destiny," "To the Sun, Moon, andWind," "Fortunée," "The Magic Fan," and "The Snow Queen"

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    Page xix Once the students have read the scripts and become familiar with new vocabulary,determine which students will read the various parts. In assigning roles, strive for a balancebetween males and females. Some roles are animals or characters that could be read by eithersex. Some parts are considerably more demanding than others, and students should be encouragedto volunteer for roles that will be comfortable. Once they are familiar with readers theatre,students should be encouraged to stretch and try a reading that is challenging. Though one goalfor incorporating readers theatre is to develop and inspire competent readers, it is equallyimportant that the students succeed and enjoy the literature. Presentation Suggestions Forreaders theatre, readers traditionally standor sit on stools, chairs, or the floorin a formalpresentation style. The narrator may stand with the script placed on a music stand or lecternslightly off to one side. The readers may hold their scripts in black or colored folders. Theposition of the reader indicates the importance of the role. For example, Spider in "SpiderFlies to the Feast" would have a position in the front center of the stage, with the minorcharacters to the sides and slightly behind him. In scripts with many minor characters, themain characters could be on one side of the stage with the other characters entering andremaining on the other side of the stage for their lines. Because these scripts are appropriatefor developing young or remedial readers, it is important that the students are comfortablewith the physical arrangement. It is assumed that the students will present informally, perhapsadapting or enlivening the traditional readers theatre style. Therefore, a traditionalarrangement for presenters is not provided with the scripts. Instead, a few general suggestionsare supplied for each play. For example, readers of brief parts may enter or leave the stageprior to and following their parts. Alternatively, readers may stand up for a reading and sitdown for the remainder of the script. This practice is especially helpful for younger readerswho may have difficulty standing quietly for long periods. Determining the presentationarrangement is a good cooperative activity for the readers. The arrangement should fostersuccess; a student who cannot stand quietly for a long time should be allowed to sit on achair, pillow, or the floor. The restless student with a short reading could remain on stageonly for the duration of the reading. However, students may have fresh ideas for a differentpresentation, and their involvement should be fostered. Props Readers theatre traditionally hasno, or few, props. However, simple costuming effects, such as a hat, apron, or scarf, plus afew props on stage will lend interest to the presentation. Shirlee Sloyer (1982, 58) suggeststhat a script can become a property: "a book, a fan, a gun, or any other object mentioned inthe story." Suggestions for simple props or costuming are included; however, the studentsshould be encouraged to decide how much or little to add to their production. For some readers,the use of props or actions may be overwhelming, and the emphasis should remain on the readingrather than on an overly complicated presentation.

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    Page xx Delivery Suggestions In an effort to keep the scripts easy for readers, few deliverysuggestions are written within the scripts. Therefore, it is important to discuss with the

    students what will make the scripts come alive as they read. Primary students naturallyincorporate voices into their creative play and should be encouraged to explore how this samepractice will enhance their reading. Small groups that are working on individual plays shouldbe invited to brainstorm delivery styles. A variety of warm-ups can help students withexpression. For example, have the entire class respond to the following situations thatparallel themes in these scripts:

    discovering that your best friend has disappeared;

     being kidnapped by a giant;

     learning you have been tricked;

     having to work in a kitchen for a cruel cook;

     finding a treasure in a cave;

     seeing a bee play a harp;

     having someone steal your only source of water; and having a witch try to roast you. Duringfirst experiences with presenting a script, students are tempted to keep their heads buried inthe script, making sure they don't miss a line. Students should learn the material well enoughto look up from the script during a presentation; they can learn to use onstage focusto look ateach other during the presentation. This is most logical for characters who are interactingwith each other. The use of offstage focusthe presenters look directly into the eyes of theaudienceis more logical for the narrator or characters who are uninvolved with onstagecharacters. An alternative is to have students who do not interact with each other focus on aprearranged offstage location, such as the classroom clock, during delivery. Simple actions canalso be incorporated into readers theatre. Though primary students are generally less inhibitedthan older students, encourage all students to use action by practicing pantomime in groups. Ifpossible, have a mime come in for a presentation and some introductory instruction.Alternatively, introduce mime by having students try the following familiar actions: combinghair, brushing teeth, turning the pages of a book, eating an ice cream cone, making a phonecall, falling asleep. Then select and try general activities drawn from the scripts: rocking,waving, jumping, fiddling, and so forth. These actions need not be elaborate; characters canindicate falling asleep simply by closing their eyes. Although readers theatre uses minimalgestures and actions, they can brighten the presentations for both participants and audience.

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    Page xxi Generally the audience should be able to see the readers' facial expressions duringthe reading. Upon occasion, a script calls for a character to move across the stage, facing theother characters while reading. In this event, the characters should be turned enough that theaudience can see the reader's face. The use of music can enhance the delivery of the play. For"The Bee, the Harp, the Mouse, and the Bum-Clock," harp music may be used effectively duringparts of the play. Royal music may be effective during the king's role in "Dick Whittington andHis Cat." Signals could be added to foreshadow disaster, such as having a drum boom just beforethe narrator tells that a piece of ice has pierced Kay's heart in "The Snow Queen.'' As withprops and action, music should be added sparingly, so the emphasis remains on the reading. TheAudience When students are part of the audience, they should understand their role. CarolineFeller Bauer (1992, 30) recommends that students rehearse applauding and reacting appropriatelyto the script. Challenge the students to determine whether the audience might provide soundeffects during the script, such as joining in with the chant in "Water, Water Will Be Mine."Cue cards that prompt the audience to make noises can be incorporated into the production.Encourage students to find additional ways to involve the audience in the program. The NextStep Once students have enjoyed the reading process involved in preparing and presentingreaders theatre, the logical next step is to involve them in the writing process by creatingtheir own scripts. Two of these scripts, "Finding the Foolish" and "The Doomed Prince," do nothave endings. The audience can vote on how the story might end or the students can script a

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