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Dissertation

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They must be robust to compression and noise in the transmission channel.

    Machine Annotation of

    Traditional Irish Dance Music

    PhD Thesis

    Bryan Duggan MSc, BSc.

    School of Computing

    Dublin Institute of Technology

    Kevin St. Dublin 8, Ireland.

    Supervisors:

    Prof. Brendan O’ Shea

    Dr. Mikel Gainza

    Prof. Pádraig Cunningham

    Dublin Institute of Technology, School of Computing

    March 2009

    Declaration

    I certify that this thesis which I now submit for examination for the award of Doctor of Philosophy, is entirely my own work and has not been taken from the work of others save and to the extent that such work has been cited and acknowledged within the text of my work.

    This thesis was prepared according to the regulations for postgraduate study by research of the Dublin Institute of Technology and has not been submitted in whole or in part for an award in any other Institute or University.

    The Institute has permission to keep, to lend or to copy this thesis in whole or in part, on condition that any such use of the material of the thesis be duly acknowledged.

Signed

______________________

    Bryan Duggan

Date

______________________

    i

    Abstract

    Estimates put the canon of traditional Irish dance tunes at at least seven thousand compositions. The literature attributes this to the geographic isolation of rural communities which developed their own repertoire of tunes. Musicians playing traditional music have a personal repertoire of up to one thousand tunes. Given this diversity, a common problem faced by musicians and ethnomusicologists is identifying tunes from recordings. This is evident even in the number of commercial recordings whose title is gan ainm (without name).

     The work presented in this PhD thesis attempts to solve this problem by developing a Content Based Music Information Retrieval (CBMIR) system adapted to the characteristics of traditional Irish music. The thesis includes a comprehensive review of the domain of traditional Irish music and presents three chapters of related work in the fields of feature extraction, melodic similarity and music information retrieval. A system is presented called MATT2 (Machine Annotation of Traditional Tunes) whose primary goal is to annotate recordings of traditional Irish dance music with useful metadata including tune names. MATT2 incorporates a number of novel algorithms for transcription of traditional music and for adapting melodic similarity measures to expressiveness in the playing of traditional music. It makes use of an onset detection function developed for the playing of traditional music on woodwind instruments such as the concert flute and tin-whistle. It uses a novel transcription algorithm based on Brendan Breathneach’s observations about the transcription of

    traditional Irish music which provides transposition invariance for the keys and modes used to play traditional music. It incorporates a new algorithm for dealing with ornamentation notes and accommodating "the long note" in traditional music called Ornamentation Filtering. It makes use of publicly available collections of traditional music available in the ABC notation. It uses a matching algorithm tolerant to errors which aligns short queries with longer strings from a corpus of known tunes, meaning that the algorithm can match entire tunes, incipits and phrases from any part of tune with equal success. The matching algorithm has also been adapted to take account of phrasing and reversing effects. A new algorithm is presented called TANSEY (Turn

    ANnotation from SEts using SimilaritY profiles) which annotates sets of tunes played segue as is the custom in traditional Irish dance music.

    ii

     The work presented in this thesis is validated in experiments using 130 real-world field recordings of traditional music from sessions, classes, concerts and commercial recordings. Test audio includes solo and ensemble playing on a variety of instruments recorded in real-world settings such as noisy public sessions. Results are reported using standard measures from the field of information retrieval (IR) including accuracy, error, precision and recall and the system is compared to alternative approaches for CBMIR common in the literature.

    iii

    Buíochas

    Buíochas le mo feitheoirí, an tOllamh Brendan O'Shea, an Dochtúir Mikel Gainza ón DIT agus an tOllamh Pádraig Cunningham ó UCD as ucht an tacaíocht, treoir agus spreagadh a thug siad le ceithre bliana anuas. Ba mhaith liom buíochas speisialta a ghabháil le mo chara agus feitheoir, an tOllamh O' Shea, a raibh an radharc agus an fís aige an clár PhD a chur le chéile roinnt blianta ó shin. Buíochas freisin le hInstitiúid Teicneolaíochta Átha Cliath a thug an t-airgead le go bhféadfainn freastal ar chomhdhálacha agus a chuir an t-am ar fáil chun an obair seo a chríochnú. Buíochas le mo chomhpháirtithe i Scoil na Ríomhaireachta, an grúpa intleachta saorga, an grúpa cluichí ríomhairí agus an grúpa clostrealamh dhigiteach, go speisialta le Dr John Kelleher, Dr Brian McNamee, Dr Sarah Jane Delaney, Hugh McAtamney, Damian Gordon, Ronan Fitzpatrick and Dan Barry as ucht an t-aiseolas dearfach a chur ar fáil. Buíochas le Michael Porter agus Dave Carroll a léith an leabhar seo dom.

    Buíochas leis na ceoltóirí agus na múinteoirí Maria Murphy, Rob O'Connor, Aideen Downs, Emily Sakier Donoho, Colm Ó Laoghóg, Markus Asunta, Frank Slocket, Donal Regan, Eamon Cotter, Harry Bradley, Catherine McEvoy, Dave Sheridan Treasa Harkin agus le Mick Mulvey a thug dom téip den cheoltóir Packie Duignan.

    Buíochas le mo thuismitheoirí agus mo mhuintir don cheol thar na mblianta. Ar deireadh buíochas le mo pháirtí ghrámhar Derek.

    iv

    Acknowledgements

    I would like to thank my supervisors Professor Brendan O' Shea and Dr Mikel Gainza of the DIT and Professor Pádraig Cunningham of UCD for their unwavering support, guidance and encouragement over the past four years. I would also like to pay tribute to my friend and supervisor, Professor O' Shea, who had the vision to initiate and develop the PhD program in the School of Computing several years ago. Thanks also to the Dublin Institute of Technology which kindly funded my attendance at various conferences and provided me with teaching relief to complete this work. Thank you to my colleagues at the DIT School of Computing, the AI Group, the Experimental Gaming Group and the Audio Research Group particularly Dr John Kelleher, Dr Brian McNamee, Dr Sarah Jane Delaney, Hugh McAtamney, Damian Gordon, Ronan Fitzpatrick and Dan Barry for their positive feedback at various stages of this work. Thank you to Michael Porter and Dave Carroll for proof reading.

    Thanks to the many musicians and teachers who consented to being recorded as part of this research: Maria Murphy, Rob O'Connor, Aideen Downs, Emily Sakier Donoho, Colm Logue, Markus Asunta, Frank Slocket, Donal Regan, Eamon Cotter, Harry Bradley, Catherine McEvoy, Treasa Harkin, Dave Sheridan and to Mick Mulvey for providing archive recordings of the flute player Packie Duignan.

     Thanks to my parents and family for all the music over the years. Finally thanks to my loving partner Derek.

    v

    Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 RESEARCH AIMS .................................................................................................................... 3 1.2 USE CASES ............................................................................................................................ 4 1.3 ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION ...................................................................................................... 6 1.4 ORGANISATION ..................................................................................................................... 7 2 TRADITIONAL IRISH MUSIC ........................................................................................... 10 2.1 TUNE TYPES ........................................................................................................................ 12 2.1.1 Reel ........................................................................................................................... 12 2.1.2 Jig ............................................................................................................................. 13 2.1.3 Hornpipe ................................................................................................................... 14 2.1.4 Polka ......................................................................................................................... 14 2.1.5 Mazurka .................................................................................................................... 14 2.1.6 Slow Air ..................................................................................................................... 15 2.2 MODES & TEMPO ................................................................................................................. 16 2.3 TUNE TITLES........................................................................................................................ 17 2.4 INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................................... 19 2.4.1 Tin-whistle ................................................................................................................. 19 2.4.2 Flute .......................................................................................................................... 20 2.4.3 Fiddle (Violin) ........................................................................................................... 23 2.4.4 Uilleannn Pipes ......................................................................................................... 24 2.4.5 Harp .......................................................................................................................... 26 2.4.6 Free-reed instruments ................................................................................................ 26 2.4.7 Percussion ................................................................................................................. 27 2.4.8 Lilting ........................................................................................................................ 28 2.5 SOLO VERSUS ENSEMBLE PLAYING ....................................................................................... 28 2.6 COLLECTIONS ...................................................................................................................... 30 2.7 COLLECTIONS IN ELECTRONIC FORMAT ................................................................................. 32 2.8 MUSICAL CREATIVITY .......................................................................................................... 33 2.9 STYLE