June 12 2008
v. to afford (to) adj. affordable
If you can afford something, you have enough money to buy a particular thing without having
any money problems.
eg. I have $1000 in the bank so I can afford to spend $500 on my holiday.
If I could………I would………
If I can………I will……… this sentence is looking for the future
Can +宾语 can 发重音？花音？
Can 后面无宾语 can 发清音？反e音？
Q. How much can you afford to spend on your next holiday? I can afford to spend 2000rmb on my next holiday.
Q. If you can’t afford to go out, what do you like to do instead? I can stay at home and watch TV instead if I can’t afford to go out.
Q. If you could afford to go on holiday anywhere in the world, where would you go?
I would go to the moon (satellite卫星) if I could afford to go on holiday. I can buy an atlas(地图集) there to see the whole world.
北极 North Pore -----
北极圈 arctic (circle ) --------------66.5?N
北回归线 the tropic of Cancer -------------------------23.5?N 热带的tropical
赤道 the equator -------------------------------------- 赤道的equatorial
南回归线 the tropic of Capricorn -------------------------23.5?S
南极圈 Antarctic (circle ) --------------66.5?S
南极 South Pore ------
Q. Do you think it is a good idea to spend a lot of money on clothes if you can’t really afford to?
Q. What kind of accommodation(n.住宿)would you stay in if you couldn’t afford a hotel?
We would find a youth hostel or stay in the railway station if we couldn’t afford a hotel.
v. to pack / unpack n. luggage (uncountable) n. hand luggage
n. label n. backpack n. suitcase
Q. Give me some examples of luggage.
Hand luggage,suitcases,backpacks and boxes are some examples of luggage.
Q. What kind of things do you always pack when you go on holiday? We always pack clothes, Beauty articles and flip-flops(人字拖鞋) when we go on holiday Q. Do you feel sad when you pack your bags at the end of a holiday? Yes , I feel a bit sad when I pack my bags at the end of a holiday. Q. Has your luggage ever been lost at the airport?
My luggage has ever been misplaced at the airport. It took 3 day to reach me.
Q. Do you carry your luggage onto the plane yourself?
Q. Why is it important to fill in the label on your luggage? 这里的your 是泛指，故回答可以用you
It’s important to fill in the label on your luggage so that you can find them easy .
You can also find labels on clothes.
Q. What kind of things do labels tell us about our clothes? (brand name / size / material / washing method)
v. to check
n. customs n. immigration
Q. Where is your passport checked at the airport?
Your passport is checked at the check-in ？counter？.
Q. Have you ever seen anyone arrested at customs?
Q. Has your luggage ever been checked at the airport?
Q. Do you have to fill in a form at immigration?
Yes, we have to fill in a form at immigration. You can give them the information like your name, address and
arrived hotel and how long you might be stay and so on. Q. What kind of information do you have to give?
Q. Who checks your homework?
Teachers usually check your homework.
n. flight = a journey by air v. to check in
To check in means to show your ticket before the flight.
Q. How long is the flight from your country to the USA / England? It might be about 13hours to the USA
Q. What do you have to show when you check in for a flight? You have to show your ticket when you check in for a flight. Q. What was the last flight you took?
It was in June 2007. I flied from Nanjing to Beijing.
n. queue v. to queue – queuing
adj. patient / impatient
Q. In what kind of places do you have to queue?
Q. If you had to wait more than an hour in a queue, would you feel impatient?
Q. Do you think a good teacher needs to be patient?
Q. In what other jobs is it important to be patient?
n. steward / stewardess
adj. tax-free n. perfume n. spirits = strong alcoholic drink
Q. Do you ever buy tax-free perfume, spirits or cigarettes on the plane?
Q. Who looks after you when you fly?
Q. What is your favorite perfume?
Q. And your favorite spirit?
expr. to be likely to + inf expr. to be unlikely to + inf
If something is likely, it will probably happen.
If something is unlikely, it probably won’t happen.
eg. She is likely to leave her job soon because she hates it.
I am unlikely to pass this exam because I haven’t studied very hard.
Answer these questions using likely or unlikely.
Q. Do you think it’s likely to rain tonight?
Q. Are you likely to win the lottery?
Q. What is likely to happen if you keep breaking the law?
v. to allow
If you are allowed to do something, you can do it without breaking the rules or the law.
Q. Are you allowed to travel to America without a visa?
Q. How many kilos of luggage are we allowed to take on a normal flight?
Q. Are children allowed to buy cigarettes in your country?
Q. Were you ever allowed to stay up late when you were younger? Q. How late?
Q. Would you allow a stranger to stay in your house?
n. bin n. rubbish (uncountable singular)
Q. Where do you put your rubbish?
Q. Will you throw this book away when you finish it or will you keep it?
Q. Do you throw away your old:
a. CDs? b. clothes?
Q. What can we do with our old clothes instead of throwing them away?
v. expr. to get rid of
If you get rid of something, you throw it away, or give it away because you don’t like it or need it any
Q. Do you get rid of things you don’t need any more?
Q. How do you get rid of clothes you don’t wear any more?
Q. What do you take to get rid of a cold?
Q. How would you get rid of an annoying person at a party?
Q. What is the best way to get rid of rats?
v. to waste expr. a waste of time / money
To waste means to use something badly.
eg. He wasted all his money on drink and cigarettes.
I didn’t enjoy myself. That holiday was a waste of time and money.
Q. Do you think queuing is a waste of time?
Q. What kind of things do you think are a waste of time?
Q. What kind of things did you use to waste your money on when you were a child?
Q. Do you ever waste food by making too much and throwing some away?
Q. Do you think cigarettes are a waste of money?
Q. Do you agree that rich countries waste too much food?
v. to recycle n. wastepaper
Q. What can we do with wastepaper instead of throwing it away?
Q. Do you ever buy recycled paper?
Q. Do you try to recycle some of your rubbish?
Q. What else can we recycle apart from wastepaper?
n. nature (uncountable) adj. natural
NB. We never use the definite article (the) with the word nature.
Q. Are cities, factories and cars part of nature?
Q. Is plastic a natural material?
Q. Give me some examples of natural materials.
Q. Have you ever taken natural medicine?
Q. Where can we go to enjoy nature?
Q. Do you like watching nature programs?
n. the environment
The environment is the natural world we live in.
eg. The land, rivers, seas and air are all part of the environment.
Q. What is the environment?
Q. Do you think governments care enough about the environment?
Q. Is there anything we can do to help the environment?
n. pollution (uncountable) v. to pollute
The things we throw away often pollute the environment.
Smoke from factories, plastic bottles and oil on beaches are all examples of pollution.
Q. What kind of things pollute the environment?
Q. Are there any rivers in your country that are every polluted?
Q. Do you think pollution will get worse in the future?
v. to damage n. damage (uncountable)
Q. Do cars usually get damaged in an accident?
Q. What kind of things can damage our health?
Q. Can computers damage your eyes if you use them for too long?
Q. What kind of things are easily damaged if you are not careful?
Q. Do you ever spend money on things you can’t really afford?
Q. Why do people at customs always ask: ‘Did you pack your luggage yourself?’?
Q. When do you think we are likely to finish the book?
Q. Do you think that there should be a law to make people recycle?
Q. Is a zoo a natural environment for animals?
Q. Do you think pollution from cars damages the environment?
v. to regret + gerund n. regret
We regret doing something when we feel bad after we have done it.
eg. She regrets marrying him. He is lazy and selfish.
I regret not eating breakfast. I’m so hungry now!
Do you regret buying that car?
Q. What do you most regret about your childhood?
Q. Do you regret coming to this school?
Q. Is there anything you did in the past that now you regret doing?
Q. Is there anything you regret not doing?
Q. Have you bought anything recently that you really regret buying?
ph. v. to go out v. to enjoy something
Q. What do you like doing when you go out?
Q. Do you like going out with a big group of friends?
Q. Do you enjoy:
a. spending time alone? b. these lessons?
Q. Which nights of the week do people usually go out?
Q. Do you think it’s important to enjoy your job / studying?
v. to enjoy yourself
Q. How do people enjoy themselves?
Q. Do you think people always enjoy themselves when they go out?
Q. Are holidays a waste of money if you don’t enjoy yourself?
Q. What about lessons?
n. night life = pubs, clubs, concerts, restaurants, bars cinemas, theatres…
Q. What do you think of the night life in this city?
Q. Do you ever go to night clubs?
Q. Do you usually dance, or do you prefer to sit and watch?
Q. Are night clubs good places to meet people?
Q. Would you be embarrassed to go to a night club with your parents?
v. to invite = to ask someone to go somewhere or do something with you.
n. guest n. host / hostess
Q. If you have a party at home, do you think it is a good idea to invite your neighbours?
Q. When was the last time you were invited to a party?
Q. Do you prefer being a guest or a host at a party? Q. Why?
Q. If you came to my house for a party, who would be your host?
NB. In English the verb invite does not mean to pay.
In English you should say ‘Can I buy you…’
ph. v. to get on with (someone) = to have a good relationship with someone, or to enjoy
spending time with them.
Q. Do you get on with everyone?
Q. How well do you get on with your neighbours?
Q. Do brothers and sisters always get on well with each other?
Q. Do you get on well with your teachers?
adj. young adj. middle-aged adj. old
Q. Who is the oldest person you know?
Q. Is a 30-year old middle-aged?
Q. What kind of music is popular with middle-aged people?
Q. Are you worried about getting old?
Q. Do teenagers generally get on with middle-aged people?
n. generation = the people who were born and grew up at about the same time
Q. Is life easier for you than for your parents’ generation?
Q. What kind of music do you think your grandparents’ generation listened to?
Q. Do you think your generation is more relaxed than your parents’ generation?
n. tradition adj. traditional
Eating turkey at Christmas is an English tradition.
thIt is traditional to have fireworks on 5 November in England, or at Spring Festival in China.
Q. What kind of food is traditional at Christmas / Spring Festival in your country?
Q. Does your generation listen to traditional music?
Q. Do you think the younger generation is forgetting your country’s traditions?
adj. modern adj. old-fashioned
Q. Do you like modern art?
Q. If you bought a house, would you like it to be modern or old-fashioned?
Q. Would you describe yourself as modern or old-fashioned?
Q. Are there any modern buildings in this city? Q. Where?
v. to be able to (+ inf) n. ability
If you can do something, you are able to do it.
Your ability to do something is how well you can do it.
Can has no future, so we use will be able to.
Q. Are you able to touch your toes when standing up?
Q. Will you be able to speak English well if you study hard?
Q. What kind of animals have the ability to:
a. carry heavy things? b. run very fast?
modal verbs (2)
Here are some examples of modal verbs.
To express possibility.
To express ability.
can / could
To express obligation.
must have to should
We use a modal verb before another verb to change the meaning of a sentence.
1. I go shopping twice a week. – habit
2. I must go shopping, there is no food in the house. – an obligation.
Remember: the modal verbs are followed by the infinitive without to.
Q. How often do you have to ring your parents?
Q. Do you think you might become famous one day?
Q. Can you keep a promise?
Q. Do you think children should smoke cigarettes?
mod. v. ought to = should ought not to = should not
The modal verb ought to means the same as should.
Q. Do you think people ought to smoke in front of children?
Q. Does the government help old people in your country? Q. Do you think it ought to do more?
Q. Do you think all children ought to learn a foreign language? Q. Why/Why not?
NB. We don’t use ought to with questions and negatives very often.
Should is much more common.
The Olympic Games has many different events, for example, the 100 metres, the marathon, and sports
like football, boxing and weightlifting.
Q. In your opinion, what is the most exciting Olympic event?
Q. What is the most dangerous event in the Olympics?
Q. Which athletics events do you know?