"Mao Zedong era of Art" conversation by writing
【Abstract】 art history questions
Memory image and reflection image
"Mao Zedong era literature Art Exhibition" in the planning and organization, and was originally hoped that through this
period of restructuring and rendering art images, and explore the images themselves have implicit or behind the sociological, cultural significance, of course, this kinds of restructuring and presents itself is a study, organize and re-
examine an important part of the history and processes. The significance of the image with the cultural memory, the memory containing a culture of negative thinking and look at the content generated, when the history, culture images to a new
perspective and approach in the new time and space was re-
revealed, they will reflect the new reflection points, led people to re-interpretation of the image in order to dig deeper historical connotations of the image, extending between cultures with the contemporary meaning of chains.
However, throughout the exhibition, presentation and acceptance of the process, we found a very interesting phenomenon, it seems more realistic and popular with the eyes to look at such a historical and cultural images in these
images, more to see personal experience is related to emotional memory, with a more general, or to remember the mood of nostalgia, as well as identify and satisfy the mind. After all, that particular era of art images, more retention and embodies the era of the "beauty" of a universal ideology of presentation and understanding, retained through the
transformation of thoughts and feelings of social reality and "the United States "a sincere expression. The art of that era had to it as the ideal of an era, has Hengyuan meaning
"beauty" of the representatives of deeply rooted in people's minds, and has become a growing generation of people's minds for a better future vision and imagination. "Beauty" with its powerful image of the occupation forces as well as people's
visual thinking, this force can be said that social, overwhelming, and it is not only seize people's vision, even more deeply into people's memories. Therefore, when we have a certain historical distance, the back to face such an image, the memory has become the most prominent of these works are most likely to effect the characteristics and highlights. Therefore, "Mao art" images, it seems more important to become a memory image, and personal emotional experience, personal growth experiences, common memories to remember the mental
Memory, of course, can not avoid the image of a function and features. However, we may be facing a general and realistic than individual feelings and experiences, as a special time of the image, the content of the memory of cohesion should not be limited to "beauty" of the visual image of the meaning, when the images as culture and history exists, but its meaning has been traced back, the image re-interpretation, re-mix and
presentation, the significance of its thought more likely to
As a cultural image of "Mao Zedong era of art," a grid with a complete and unique shape and style, with a separate history and aesthetic value, forming a unique image of visual culture. Among these, including the history and concept of the history of the ideological aspects of the rich connotation. From an ideological point of view in terms of history, this era of art, from the period of 1942 or even earlier start, fine art images of the establishment and application of construction,
including literary and artistic ideas and ideals, cultural institutions and the educational structure, function and art purpose, the artist's identity and creative pattern, meaning to point and so on. This regard, the art image and national
politics, government, political parties, institutions, international camp and cultural contests and so on, but there can not be divorced from obedience, or service relationship. From a social history of ideas and artistic history of ideas
and other ways, revolutionized, modernized, Nationalization and popular, as well as realism, critical realism, revolutionary realism and revolutionary romanticism, modernism, pop art trend, civil awareness, women's awareness of the relationship between form and content, constitute the
Chinese community in this particular era of development of the concept of cultural history, as well as the process in the world, China has demonstrated the uniqueness and impact. In fact, no matter from what point of view, "Mao Zedong era of
Fine Arts" in Chinese art history, cultural history, have formed a strong, unique, irreplaceable influence during this period of art images, and is even in-depth study, reflection
significance and necessity. Therefore, the time has passed more than 20 years, we are now in a culturally acceptable, Si Weiwei degree, social and environmental, economic relations have a quite different space-times, we have a corresponding
historical distance and the right meaning, value the different perception and definition of art for the image of that era, and we think should and can go to find a new starting point to get to think a new meaning.
However, we live in is a neglect of common sense thinking and continuous weakening of the "Dutushidai" clear and unmistakable public receptive, emotional, simple images, simple and clear on the meaning and significance of the image itself, and with the plane of the graphics to convey the plane of ideas. Images can not only easily occupied and ruled by the people's vision, so that visual pleasure in the quiet and tired, almost lost the face of the image to quiet the ability to think deeply, and, the image continually guide and interfering with our thinking, we seem to by others or live in an era of history provides a good visual world, and we also
spoke on our way to regulate other people's vision. In this way, the image memory, emotions, experiences, memories of a certain image, such as "Mao Zedong era art," the image of the most important functions and features, but also easy to make
people satisfied with the appreciation and emotional memory.
Perhaps more of memory is built on the basis of emotion, while the thought came from the ideological and spiritual support. An era, or a time to another era of research and reflection, but also the need for such support.
And research the use of the concept of the value of
Some scholars have pointed to the "Mao Zedong era art" concept questions, I think we should really use the concepts discussed.
The first problem is that we in the end is in what context the use of this concept? In our current "Mao Zedong era literature Fine Arts Exhibition" and seminars on planning philosophy, mainly in modern art history set within the framework of the study subjects and the use of "Mao Zedong era
of Art" concept, that is, we are the context of art history to use it.
"Mao Zedong era" as a concept of history studies and modern history history research has long been used, the problem is that "Mao Zedong era of art" as an art history of the concept
is valid? If we say that from the perspective of art criticism, "Maoist Art" concept is valid, then we take a look at the concept of art criticism and art history may exist between the concepts of what exactly the link.
Indeed, the concept of a large number of art criticism art history can not be a concept, but there are some sources for the concept of art criticism has become the concept of art history. Such as "Gothic art" is a form of art from being used to define the style of development can be used to sum the
concept of a historical period (Note: see Michael Camille, "Gothic art", p. 9, the China Construction Industry Press 2004 edition.). Of course, the concept of art criticism into history in the "Time" concept must satisfy the necessary
conditions, such as a certain period of, in which the impact of time in this field, comprehensiveness, universality and so on. Therefore, we also believe that art precisely in this historical period, indeed, profoundly political era based on
the impact and use of this concept. If in this area related to research projects in the results show that the nature of the concept of history does not hold, then of course we should not use it. Context of the current study point of view, put forward and the use of this concept may have highlighted the significance of characteristics of the times, and eventually can become an independent concept of historical period, but also through continuous research to test it.
The second question is, "Mao Art" For today, the kind of
value? This is a more complex issue. Of course, this does not refer to the era of Mao Zedong's works of art in today's economic value - that value is that no one will doubt.
Essentially it refers first to the guidance "Mao Zedong era
art," the production, dissemination, build awareness of members of society and the spiritual world of the kind of aesthetic values in today - in an era of discourse has moved
away from mass commercial culture The existence of context and whether it can play an effective role, and secondly, also refers to "Mao Zedong era of art" as a cultural heritage in today's history to judge the value of the problem. Although the "Mao Zedong era of art" in today for different sectors of society has the means are very different, but the "Mao Zedong
era Art" For us, still have significant value. This value is: first, as a guide artistic production values, it can become art in today's multi-pattern is an important positive factor; second, as a cultural heritage, its historical value is beyond
question ; and third, for "Mao Zedong era Art" by resorting to the object is concerned, it still has to arouse awareness of social groups, the significance of the subject.
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From "Mao Art" is bound to question the value derived out of a question is, how to look at the relationship between art and sociopolitical such a cliché, but full of complex topics mean.
Art can not really be divorced from the community. Self, body art, individual beliefs, and so rendering the aesthetic sense of art is undoubtedly a very important aspect, but they actually can not make art to transcend sever ties with the community. After all, art is nothing more than an area of social spiritual consciousness, and its value judgments,
presentation, communication effects, and both are formed in society and achieve. Bourdieu and Huck on to acknowledge the art of political speech on the issue is worth our serious consideration, especially in the universal time to avoid
political speech. Haq said that there are many aestheticians believe that all the arts of political participation will be tarnished. But he also says: "Both artists are willing or not, with a work of art is always a sign of consciousness, even if
they do not for a certain, a named principal hired services." He also spoke of the arts of political question: "In fact, the
arts agency is a political place. You can also say that this is the battlefield where the community met on the various trends of thought" (Note: See Pierre Bourdieu Han Si Hake "free exchange", Joint Publishing, 1996, No. 87,97 pages.). Regardless of whether people are willing to accept, in reality, writing and art, social care so that it can not really escape political awareness. More importantly, we ask of
art is actually asking for meaning, leaving the pursuit of social and value of life, artistic raison d'etre must be very lacking. In recent years, some friends and I turned to cries of sociology of art, it is with our closely linked to social
care - after all, our generation is from the bottom of Chinese society into the university classroom.
Here I would also like to talk a bit about the image of the study methodology. In accordance with Panofsky says that the "image-chi" "concern is with the art works in the form of the relative significance of the subject matter or," tells us that "when and where some of the themes from which a particular motif to reflect the "and" image science "is based on the combination of the image blog history, psychology or art
Criticism of the method to explain the method (Note: See Panofsky," Image-chi and image studies ", in Kampot Ulrich "symbolic images - Gombrich iconology Collected Works", the Shanghai Painting and Calligraphy Press, 1990, p. 414-417,6
page.). Gombrich further clarify the image of science is "a program of reconstruction", rather than just the image interpreted as "pairs of ready-made direct illustration of the
original Code"; he thinks should be in the images and themes to build bridges between the , to "rebuild the evidence has already been lost", and through understanding of the context of determining the image shown to clarify the meaning of the story (note: see Panofsky, "Image-chi and image studies", in
Gombrich "symbolic images - Gombrich iconology Collected
Works", the Shanghai Painting and Calligraphy Press, 1990, p. 414-417,6 page.). By "program" does have important implications. Gombrich in the Italian Renaissance art patron of the subject matter presented to the artists needs, the
unique ideas to illustrate the "program" and "original Code," the distinction, and in my research, the "program" is the awareness of the various periods form of demand, with the popular revolution in narrative discourse in the past it is "the need for revolutionary struggle." For these "programs" the understanding must be based on empirical historical
research based on the historical context has a specific meaning of "program" and "image" link between the rebuilt.
Here should arouse vigilance is over for image interpretation
of the issue. Long scholars have pointed out, "Gombrich's goal is to establish a series of standards and protection facilities in order to correct the habit of image interpretation too far, the practice has tarnished the image
of the school's reputation" (Note: See masing 〔JM Massing〕
written "Ernst Gombrich," quoted in Gombrich, "ideals and idols," the Chinese translation of appendices, Norikage medium translation, Shanghai People's Fine Arts Publishing House, 1989 edition, p. 384.). The history of each card in Figure study, indeed full of traps, especially in the face with reality closely related to the revolutionary struggle against the image, any kind of image analysis will be a slight mistake into the plight of self-righteousness. But, as Gombrich
endorsed Popper on scientific knowledge, the process of growth is the continuous "trial and error" process revealed by the theory, image analysis of "trial and error" is precisely to establish the necessary knowledge about the process of the
Interpretation of the complexity of the history of art
Pairs of "Mao Zedong era" is defined not only to note that the sense of time, but also noted that the space meaning. Yan'an period of Mao Zedong Thought in the liberated areas
dominated, but in the whole of China is not so, even after October 1949, Mao Zedong Thought is also an increasingly dominant process. We can generalize the October 1, 1949 after the Chinese called "Mao Zedong era," but this is only a
political sense, it can not be said to be cultural "Mao Zedong era." From Mao Zedong in Tiananmen Square to the world that "The Chinese people have stood up" to the previously published "In the Yan'an Forum on Literature speech" play a role at the
national level, and enjoys popular support, there is a historical process, which can be used Marx's the classical theory to explain that the relationship between economic base
and superstructure. Since 1949, the conversion from private ownership to public ownership there is a historical process, and cities in the socialist transformation of private industry and commerce, rural people's communes in the movement, in time and space have a process, right thinking intellectuals transformation, the ideological education of the whole people
is also a historical process. In the eve of the founding of New China, Mao Zedong said: "The victory of the people's revolution and the establishment of people's power to the people's education and the people's literature and art has
opened up the road to development." (Note: Mao Zedong: "Mao Zedong's theory of literature and art" (updated version of the ), People's Publishing House in 1992 edition.) "Mao Zedong era" concept was highlighted by Mao Zedong in the political, economic and cultural core of leadership, but they are not entirely in sync in the original, but at a certain historical period began to sync. July 1949-China Federation of Literary
and art workers in the first Congress, Mao Zedong's literary and artistic thought was identified as a pointer to the new China Literature and Art Development, so as to establish a new China, a clear direction for literature and art, but to determine further changes to the deeply rooted among into a conscious behavior will take time. This issue is important,
ignore this historical process will influence our interpretation of cultural phenomena of that era effect.
It should be noted that Mao Zedong's literary and artistic thought from 1942 to 1976 the role of arts practice, there
must be a historical process.
1942 Yan'an area around there is specificity in culture. General and universal left-wing ideology has been replaced by
Mao Zedong Thought, is an important process, from the left-
wing literary and artistic thought to Mao Zedong's need to
study the transformation of literary and artistic thought.
From 1949 to 1957, is the new China, start-up period, culture
and ideology is manifested in the ideology of Marxism, Marxist and non-violent ideological conflicts. Most parts of the
country, military enemy has been defeated, but the cultural and ideological enemies is far from being eliminated. July 2, 1949 to 9, the Chinese national literature and art workers for
the first time Congress held in Peking, it is literature and
art workers on a national scale for the first time event. Mao Tse-tung in his message said: "If there is no victory of the people's revolution, without the establishment of people's power and progressive literary and artistic workers, there can be such a big rally today, it is impossible across the country and the entire scale to obtain their own of the development. "In fact, this is a national" progressive literature and art workers "of the meeting, of course, did not include" behind the literature and art workers ", not to include" alien or
reactionary, literary and artistic workers. " "Our country is in economic backwardness and cultural backwardness of the case. After the victory of the revolution, our task primarily is to develop production and development of culture and
education. We believe that after you have this conference, all of China's literary and art workers of all patriotic, will be able to further unite to further ties with the masses, extensive development of literature and art serving the people, so that the people of literature and art movement greatly developed in order to meet the work of the people of other cultures and peoples of the educational work, in order to meet the people's economic development work "(Note: Mao Zedong:" Mao Zedong's theory of literature and art "(updated version), People's Publishing House in 1992 edition.). 1957 is a comprehensive contest of ideas and culture during the peak period, while the literary and art circles of the "rightists" who are mostly "progressive literature and art workers." Mao
Tse-tung in the "the situation in the summer of 1957," in a struggle to determine the nature of this: "the contradiction between the right and the people are enemy contradiction is irreconcilable antagonistic contradiction between life and
death." From 1958 to 1966, , "progressive literature and art workers" of the social role of being "revolutionary literature and art workers" or "socialist literature and art workers" replaced by the social role of Mao Zedong's literary and
artistic thought really play a dominant role in the nationwide "In the Yan'an Forum on Literature speech," and only then by the classical literature and art in Yan'an China into a new literary classic. The "Cultural Revolution" The main criticism is that the founding of seventeen years of "bourgeois ideology and line." By 1966, after Mao Zedong's literary and artistic thought overall dominance ranks of its subsequent history, of course, has to make a concrete analysis of the development.
Pairs of "Mao Zedong era Art" has a variety of understanding, and art history perspective closely related to the function.
According to Zou Yuejin understand, "Mao Art" has become under the influence of Mao Zedong Thought, fine arts, this art can be1942Years of the date. From the edge to the center, from Yan'an to Beijing, from the local to the new China, this art history can also be viewed as "Mao" at the Yan'an Forum on Literature of the speech, "Construction of the spirit of the Chinese art history." This art history does not consider until 1949, the National Unification areas of fine arts, not taking into account after 1949 non-mainstream art, or so-called
"underground" art. This capability perspective can highlight the art of Mao Zedong Thought and a clear relationship between
the arts. The other problem is that, from the Yan'an period to the period of New China, the art, especially in the revolutionary art, which not only has a relationship with Mao Zedong Thought, but also and Marxism-Leninism has a
relationship, especially in the Soviet Union before the break, and then the Soviet Union the implementation of arts policy have a more closely related. Russia Sumakesi far-reaching
framework of Marxist literary theory, Plekhanov's theory are well known, a large number of artists in the Soviet Union in the continuation of the former Soviet Union's socialist realism tradition, such a landscape showing a thought within the complex. In addition, the same part of literary and artistic thought of Mao Zedong's "past serve the present,
foreign things serve China" principle, also partially open with the Western and ancient Chinese cultural traditions linked. Mao's mind, there are "Chang'e", the "Gang", the "Dream of Red Mansions", the "three-Li." Therefore, the
concept of the complexity of building the arts need to have more in-depth case studies continue to open the issue of sequence.
Another understanding is that "Mao Zedong era of art" is a political era of Mao Zedong in all art. In 1949 became the starting point. Such art includes both Mao Zedong Thought and embodies the mainstream of art, namely, the performance of the socialist revolution and socialist construction of the art, but also including those of non-Mao Zedong Thought and non-
mainstream art, and even have been considered to be "poisonous