"English Course Standard" style concerns_193

By Michael Harris,2014-11-18 08:47
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"English Course Standard" style concerns_193

"English Course Standard" style concerns

     Abstract: "English Course Standard" ? Since the promulgation

    and implementation of national high school English has aroused general concern industry, but its distinctive style features ? ? attention to style and the language domain, has not yet attracted enough attention. Genre = asanas purposes, and the article refers to the normative-bodied style, it has agreed,

    stability and regularity of such features; language domain is the language used in context of their different languages emerged variant of it with the use of language persons, context and language are closely related to the formal level. The formal level of language can be divided into formal, general and informal, whether the appropriate use of language

    domain is a measure of language competence of students an important criterion. English Writing Teaching writing should not only attach importance to the steps and skills, but also introduce the appropriate style, genre and language domains

    such as basic knowledge to enable students to gradually master the common mode of discourse genre and writing skills to improve students written expression of capacity.

     Key words: "English curriculum standards"; style attention; genre; language domain; language proficiency

     "English Course Standard" (hereinafter referred to as "New Curriculum Standard") since the promulgation and

    implementation has attracted a national teaching profession, especially the high school English community's attention. "New

    Curriculum Standard", whether in the teaching objectives, curriculum nature, design ideas and concepts, or the content and the means of teaching has many unique features, is a real sense of the middle school English teaching "revolution." The author believes that this "revolution" has four distinctive characteristics: First, the language of knowledge and rationalizing the relationship between language skills with

    special emphasis on the coordinated development between the two; second is the expansion of the "content standards" the

    scope of and its five aspects of the proposed separately by the corresponding specific content standards. In addition to language skills and language knowledge, "content standards" also adds emotion, attitude, learning strategies and cultural

    awareness and other content; 3 is based on physiological and psychological characteristics of students as well as their level of cognitive development and emotional needs, language skills of listening , speaking, reading and writing skills of

    four proposed nine-level objectives and requirements; Fourth, studying, writing skills, the "New Curriculum Standard" special attention to the cultivation of stylistic awareness of students. People of insight have been carried out on the first three features of full discussion, while the fourth is also characterized by a lack of adequate knowledge. It is true, "Sense of Style" on high school English sector is concerned, perhaps, or an alien concept, as "cultural awareness" in the past, high school English curriculum is also not seen, but

    today has become a familiar term. This paper from the perspective of genre and language domains of teaching middle school English writing to make a preliminary discussion to attract valuable comments.

     1, of the problem

     "Style" "genre" and "language domain" is a stylistics, sociolinguistics, and Writing in the common terminology, the previous secondary school English teaching in the concept of a rare, but these terms are in the "New Curriculum Standard" in the frequently appears. In order to target language skills, for example, as follows:

     4, read: able to read the text description of materials for applications such as style

     5, Reading: Can read common genre of reading material [1] (13-14)

     7, write: to write the Practical Common genres, such as: letters and general notification

     8, read: able to identify the characteristics of different literary forms

     8, writing: to achieve style in writing specifications, statements fluent

     9, writing: being able to articulate their views, comments of

    others point of view, style appropriate terminology and accurate [2] (11-13)

     Third, "English curriculum standards" to write files to the standard marking the fifth has the following requirements: a good way to complete the mandate of the examination questions; required to write the content elements; use appropriate language structure and vocabulary, rich; language errors very less; effective means of using different connections, level clear; format and language domains are appropriate; fully

    achieved the purpose of communication with the target audience. [2] (56)

     So, how to understand "genre" and "language domain"? What are the characteristics they have? Their teaching of English writing, what enlightenment mean?

     2, Genre: bodied purpose

     English "style" is a polysemic word can be translated into Chinese a "style" "style" "genre" and "style." Due to space limitations, we are here to discuss only "genre" means. Genre (genre) the word from French, meaning "kind" "Class" or

    "type", in French grammar terminology, on behalf of sex (the term itself is masculine). As with "style", "genre" is also a multi-meaning word, involving broad, narrow 2-yi. A broad

    sense, "genre" may refer to any form of art in different categories, such as music, painting, sculpture, literature, etc.; the narrow sense, "genre" usually consists of two

    meanings: First, the performance of literary forms, the second refers to the teaching of writing The four common genres ? ?

    descriptions, narratives, descriptions and discussions.

     On the writing genre, it may be from a different point of

    view of the articles classified. From the perspective of sub-

    technique of expression, there is narrative body, talk style, lyrical style, description style; from the perspective of the social function of points, there is news style, application

    style, literary style; from the perspective of language style

    points, there is political commentary style, literary style , scientific style and public style and so on. Each style can also follow a different point of view is divided into sub-

    categories and sub-sub-category. In the "New Curriculum

    Standard" in the numerous references to the "style" multi-

    means "genre", such as narrative, descriptive text and discussion of the text to illustrate the text and a variety of practical writing.

     Genre, or language domain previously more common in the field of literature and rhetoric, but as the chapter linguistics, stylistics and discourse analysis research continues to expand, genre have entered the field of stylistic analysis, and soon became a hot research topic. Domestic and foreign

    scholars in the discussion of language use in the "genre" issue, emphasis on four aspects: (1) people in the use of language for social interaction is guided by what kind of prescriptive use of language-bodied or program? (2) These

    asanas or program, what kind of communicative purpose? (3) The genre of the discourse of the construction of what kind of constraints play a role? (4) The structure of a particular genre (generic structure) in the vocabulary and grammar (lexico-grammatical) level of the particular form of

    expression? [3] (100) To sum up, can be understood as genres: bodied purposes. Is a specification-body style of the article,

    it has agreed, stability, and normative characteristics; intended to refer to an article by a certain genre types of

    goals to be achieved, such as practical writing aims to provide information and narrative for the story to illustrate the text used to describe the situation of things, or reason, argumentation through the right people or things good or bad,

    right and wrong and so the views expressed to persuade others.

     Of articles of different genres have different language applications-bodied or program, are in a certain context achieve different communicative purposes. Practical means that people in everyday life, work and learning to deal with daily affairs, solve practical problems of writing a kind of style. Style letters with common applications (including e-mail

    message), notification, diaries, posters, notes, notices, invitations, telegrams, contracts, etc., they all have a more fixed format and a clear communicative purpose. Application of secondary school English writing style is the most common genre, nearly five years of college entrance examination in

English Composition title are on the application of style,

    especially to write letters mostly. English letters usually include a letter head, letter, address, title, text, concluding remarks and signature six parts, which aims to provide information, exchange ideas, strengthen personal relationships. Again, the narrative also follow certain asanas or programs. William Labov (Labov, 1972) described according to the natural order of random conversation and put forward narrative structure that contains six segments: (1) turned a deaf ear (abstract) ? ? narrator in the narrative prior to

    the brief summary of the story; (2) pointing (orientation) ?

    ? introduced the story of the time, place, person and other relevant background information; (3) of the progress (complicating action) ? ? The story itself is the whole

    story and the events occurred in the development; (4) Review (evaluation) ? ? the narrator on the story plot, characters, events, and so the comments. Evaluation shows that both the narrator's attitude and position can also be used to create

    suspense, to enhance the appeal of the story; (5) the outcome (result or resolution) ? ? including the results of various

    conflicts, the characters end up, etc.; (6) Response (coda) ?

    ? at the end of the story, the narrator often use one or two words to respond to the theme of story structure in order to become more complete. [4] In addition, other genres, such as explanatory text and discussion of the text and so on, are also follow certain asanas or programs. Well, "New Curriculum Standard" for secondary school teaching of writing what the specific genre demands? See the following table:


     Genre demands


     Genre demands


     Greeting card, invitation card images; write a simple story


     Notes and simple letters; greeting cards reports or letters;

    to a friend, pen pal letters


     A short text segment, such as the simple instructions, rules;

    drafting and revision of writing


     Brief description; be able to describe the person or event;

    the application form, job sheet


     Drafting, revising, essays, text messaging; a brief description of person or event; according to the icon or the form to write a simple paragraph or instructions


     Description of things or to express their views and

    attitudes; to write summaries, essays or reports


     Write a summary, reporting, notification, official letters; various forms, writing CVs and application forms; English description of scenarios, an attitude or feeling

     We can see from the table, "New Curriculum" to the beginning of high school English writing put forward different demands. The junior secondary level (3-5 grade) primarily involve the

    use of stylistic and descriptive text, such as requiring students to learn to write greeting cards, invitation cards pictures, text messaging, write a simple story, a brief description of people or events, etc.; high school not only a variety of practical writing , but also narrative, descriptive text, comment text and description text of the form of a

    variety of genres. Writing on the 1994-2005 national college

    entrance examination, the college entrance examination in order to Practical mainly written expression only in the 1997,1999 and 2000, I took the test narratives in 2002, I took

    the test argumentative. Examined the specific form (subject matter) of letters (7 times), broadcast notification (1994), self-introduction (1996), Notes (1997), Diary (1998) and Report (2000). Thus, to correctly understand and grasp the different articles, in particular, practical writing genre requirements, and gradually develop students writing skills plays an important role. In my opinion, in the teaching of writing, teachers according to actual needs, appropriate to introduce some of the genres of knowledge is very necessary and practical, which gradually develop students of English reading and writing skills are of great significance and should lead Teaching both sides adequate attention.

     Third, language domains: language, degree of formality

     "Language domain" is a secondary school teaching of English writing in a new term, referring to the language used in context of their different language variants emerged, its users with the language, context and language degree of formality is closely relationship. Language users to learn and master a certain language, voice, vocabulary, syntax and other basic knowledge that is common core language (common core) after they have a certain language skills, a can for their choices on different occasions Potential language system, or

    in order to achieve effective verbal communication purposes; language domain is the language the user according to different occasions, in different situations spoken discourse in the choice of words, grammar, intonation and other aspects

    of selection. In general, the more complete the complex sentence structure, vocabulary choice more stress, then the

    higher the level of its official. Look at the following Citation:

     (1) Visitors should make their way at once to the upper floor

    by way of the stair case. (Very Formal)

     (2) Visitors should go up the stairs at once. (Formal)

     (3) Would you mind going upstairs, right away, please? (Less Formal)

     (4) Time you all went upstairs, now. (Less Informal)

     (5) Up you go, chaps. (Informal) reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://

     The above five have expressed the same semantic "please visitors upstairs," but because of the language generated by situational context, interpersonal communication different from the two sides, therefore, a formal language to express varying degrees of. Cases (1) is a very formal style, similar to the eight-legged essay in Chinese or legal English, which is characterized by: a very standard grammar, vocabulary formal, particularly the use of the band "should" guide the virtual type, a more formal phrase "make their way "" by way of ", so that the tone has become very serious. Cases (2) is a formal body, it is with the cases of (1) the greatest difference between the words, not in grammar, two are with a

    "should" of the declarative sentence. Formal style commonly used in written language, the expression of a serious attitude. Its characteristics are vocabulary, grammar are more formal, generally do not have abbreviations or elliptical

    sentence. Government documents, business letters, regulations, science and technology papers and other official bodies used. Cases (3) the use of a band "would" in general questions with vocabulary with spoken language features, their degree of formality between the range of formal and informal, are generally within the body. Cases (4) belongs to a less formal body, using a very strong color of the virtual spoken elliptical sentence, the normal sentence structure should be "It is time that ...". This style is characterized by

    vocabulary, grammar are relatively simple, used for oral communication, personal letters, advertising, mass news. The last sentence is a typical kind of informal body or body,

which is characterized by grammar and vocabulary are simple

    and clear, easy to understand, "chaps" increased the communication of both the word intimacy.

     From the preceding analysis, we can be inspired by the following three points: (1) The above five kinds of body language is a language school on the body of the

    classification, the actual use of language, especially in secondary school teaching of English writing, we do not need to be done fine distinctions. In general, we can style can be divided into three types: formal, general and informal; (2) formal and informal language is relative, there is no either-

    or obvious limits, is a formally informal gradual transition of the continuum; (3) the formal degree of verbal expression and speech, the occasion of the formal degree is proportional to both intimacy and communication is inversely proportional, that is: the more formal occasions, the language the more formal, more complex language , the higher the degree of politeness, communication but the lower the cohesion of both sides. Look at the following set of examples:

     (6) Mr John Smith delivered an interminable address at the conference. (Formal)

     (7) John Smith gave a very long speech at the meeting. (Less Formal)

     (8) John talked too long at the meeting. (Less Informal)

     It is obvious that the above-mentioned three cases of

    expressing roughly the same semantics, but they are the language of expression is different, that is a different language domains, language, varying degrees of formal, application context not the same. Cases (6) The use of a very formal, from the Latin words "deliver" "interminable" "address" and "conference", coupled with the very official title of the phrase "Mr John Smith", the entire sentence style color becomes very formal, language complexity, courtesy a high degree of communication of both intimacy is low,

    applicable to certain formal occasions. Cases (7) is in general, and in the vocabulary words on the common core instead of using the Latin word, used the phrase in the title of the full name, for some of the more formal occasions. Cases

    (8) belongs to a less formal style, a brief statement,

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