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A Comprehensive Guide to Managing Autism

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A Comprehensive Guide to Managing Autism

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Sensikit ? is a non farmaceutical, non intrusive approach to eliminate a lot of causes of autism, mentioned in this

    document. Information is currently only available in dutch.

    A Comprehensive Guide to Managing Autism

    Willis S. Langford

    Slightly changed by Kees de Vries, Drunen, Holland (june 2003)

    [ KickStart.doc April 8, 2002 ]

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    A Comprehensive Guide to Managing Autism

    Willis S. Langford

    Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Immune 101 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Leaky Gut .......................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Digestion 101 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Serotonin Connection ........................................................................................................................................................ 25 Healing the Leaky Gut ....................................................................................................................................................... 32 GABA................................................................................................................................................................................. 34 Candida.............................................................................................................................................................................. 37 A Second Scenario ............................................................................................................................................................. 40 Copperheads ...................................................................................................................................................................... 44 pH ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 46 Transfer Factor .................................................................................................................................................................. 48 Negative Effects of Secretin ............................................................................................................................................... 49

    Hydrochloric Acid May be a Solution ................................................................................................................................ 51

    Biochemical Observations ................................................................................................................................................. 53

    Solutions to the Problems .................................................................................................................................................. 57

    Histamine: Solution or Problem? ...................................................................................................................................... 63

    Enzymes: The Fountain of Life ......................................................................................................................................... 64

    Improved Nutrition Relieves Bowel and Infection ............................................................................................................. 64

    Care and Feeding of the Bowel.......................................................................................................................................... 66

    Some additional aids to overcome diarrhea: ...................................................................................................................... 68

    Cod-liver Oil and Vitamin A .............................................................................................................................................. 70

    Bethanechol ....................................................................................................................................................................... 72 What? Rickets? .................................................................................................................................................................. 76 Managing Fatty Acids ........................................................................................................................................................ 76 Three Metabolic Types....................................................................................................................................................... 84 Tums Anyone? ............................................................................................................................................................... 84 Detoxification 101.............................................................................................................................................................. 88 Phenol-sulphotransferase (PST) ........................................................................................................................................ 93

    Vitamin A, GAGs, Measles, and PST ................................................................................................................................. 95

    What Is MHPG? Why Should We Measure It?................................................................................................................ 106

    Sulfation Ratio as a Measure of PST Activity .................................................................................................................. 107

    Mercury Poisoned. ........................................................................................................................................................... 111 Get the Lead Out .............................................................................................................................................................. 118 Acetylaldehyde and NAD ................................................................................................................................................. 122

    Pyrroluria ........................................................................................................................................................................ 124 The Thyroid: Metabolic Regulator .................................................................................................................................. 127

    Forskolin: Poor Man's Secretin? ..................................................................................................................................... 132

    Demyelination .................................................................................................................................................................. 134 Fibroblast Growth Factor ................................................................................................................................................ 140

    Summary and Miscellaneous ........................................................................................................................................... 140

    Warning: Do not scan and read this paper piecemeal. It must be studied to avoid mis-steps.

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Introduction

    There are several very basic things discussed in this paper that can be done at home with little or no expensive testing. Foremost is the home testing for thyroid function discussed toward the end of this paper, and support of thyroid function. The ―unloading of the donkey‖ is vital

    to possibly 80% of these troubled children for they are poisoned, drowning in their own toxic wastes. Elimination of bowel disorders is very first on the list of vital action. It is often as simple as supplying a digestive enzyme supplement, or removing milk. Some autistic children can be helped dramatically by medical procedures such as an infusion of the intestinal hormone secretin. The need and the beneficial response to secretin, I think, are dependent upon the amount of damage to the duodenum and small intestine from whatever cause, and on the stomach‘s ability to produce adequate hydrochloric acid (HCl) for proper digestion. Since proper functionality of these two things largely

    determine proper digestion, it is vital that both be operative. Without adequate HCl, secretin infusion can, at best, be only partially effective in restoring digestion and proper physical and mental function. Secretin is reduced in hypothyroid rats (Robberecht et al, 1981), so first support the thyroid. HCl production is very dependent on adequate zinc levels, usually lacking in these children. With support for the thyroid, adequate zinc, and possibly supplemental betaine hydrochloride, secretin infusion may be totally unnecessary.

    The path of autism is different for each child. Some are prone to seizures, some are not; some behave aggressively while others are overly passive. However, children with autism and with ADHD share several factors. There is a deep disturbance in their fatty acid metabolism that impairs their utilization of amino acids, and often there is an imbalance in their electrolytes. Electrolytes control what‘s called membrane trafficwhat goes in and out of cells. This means that providing other nutritional supplements is relatively ineffective until the electrolyte (sodium-potassium-magnesium-calcium) imbalance is corrected. The delicate balance of electrolytes also controls the electrical activity within the brain. Practitioners suggest the extent of the nutritional problem in these observations:

Nutritional abnormalities:

    a. Zinc deficiency exists in 90% of autistic children b. Copper excess exists in 85%

    c. Calcium and magnesium deficiencies are common

    d. Omega 3 fatty acid deficiency exists in nearly 100% e. Fiber deficiency exists in nearly 100%

    f. Antioxidant deficiency exists in nearly 100%

    Additionally, there is heavy metals poisoning: A recent study found 85 percent exhibited severely elevated Copper/Zinc (Cu/Zn) ratios in blood, suggesting a disorder of metallothionein (MT), a short, linear protein responsible for homeostasis of copper and zinc and many other metals. ―The severity of the Cu/Zn imbalance was far greater than that of any other population we have studied over the past 25 years,‖ said William J. Walsh, Ph.D., Physician, biochemist and chief scientist of the Pfeiffer Treatment Center, Naperville, Illinois. His database suggests that copper overload and zinc depletion are the most common metal-metabolism abnormalities in behavioral conditions such as, ADHD, autism, depression, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia. In addition, these sufferers are unusually sensitive to lead, cadmium, mercury, and other toxic metals that they tend to accumulate rather than eliminate. Nevertheless, if a mouse cannot make MT, then it should not get copper deficient when fed a high-zinc diet. We fed some of these mice and some control mice (ones that can make MT) diets that contained normal amounts of zinc and some that contained much more zinc. The results showed that the mouse without MT got copper deficient when fed the same high-zinc diet as the mouse that had MT. This study strongly suggests that the old theory is not true and that stimulation of MT is not necessary for high-zinc to bring about a copper deficiency. We suggest instead that the high zinc is inhibiting a copper transport protein in the intestinal membrane, and copper cannot be absorbedReeves PG, Copper Metabolism in Metallothionein-null Mice Fed a High-zinc Diet. J Nutr Biochem 9:598-601, 1998.

    Blood and urine analyses yielded evidence of a metallothionein dysfunction in 499 of 503 patients (99%) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, according to Walsh, suggesting that autism may be caused by either a genetic MT defect or a biochemical abnormality, which disables MT protein. ―An MT disorder may affect the development of brain neurons and may cause impairments in the immune system and gastrointestinal tract, along with hypersensitivity to toxic metals,‖ he said. The excess copper in these kids is probably from two causes.

    Mercury depresses zinc, and there is a high incidence of zinc malabsorption. To reduce copper, you must use significant amounts of vitamin C and zinc.

    Treatment for this imbalance centers on stimulation of MT protein with divalent metals (such as zinc and manganese) that are in depletion, and by providing N-acetylcysteine, serine, selenium, and other constitituents of MT. Of secondary benefit are vitamins

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B, A, C, D, E, glutathione, genistein and biochanin A (both from soy), and glucocorticoids (anti-inflammatory drugs). This 6

    treatment should be gradual during the first 4 weeks of treatment to avoid rapid release of copper from tissues, which could cause

    a sudden worsening of symptoms.

Mercury adversely affects detoxification systems such as metallothionein, cytochrome P-450 (Phase I), and bile. Mercury ties up this

    material so it cannot bind and clear other metals such as lead, cadmium, and aluminum. Mercury inhibits sulfur ligands in MT and,

    in the case of intestinal cell membranes, inactivates MT that normally binds cuprous ions, thus allowing buildup of copper to toxic

    levels and malfunction of the zinc and copper containing Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD). Mercury induced reactive oxygen species

    and lipid peroxidation (forming free radicals) has been found to be a major factor in mercury‘s neurotoxicity, along with its leading

    to decreased levels of the vital enzymes glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismustase (SOD).

Metallothioneins across species are rich in cysteine (~30%) and have higher affinities for mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) than for zinc.

    Therefore, as Hg and Cd bind to metallothionein, and are restricted from entering the mitochondria, zinc is released. The free, ionized zinc,

    which would be toxic if permitted to accumulate, binds to a metal regulatory element on the promoter region of the metallothionein gene

    and ―turns on‖ the synthesis of metallothionein. Increases of as much as 3-times are reported. Such induction of metallothionein provides increased binding capacity for both toxic metals (protective) and zinc (functional). The displacement of zinc in the presence of toxic metal

    burden may explain in part why increased levels of zinc are so commonly seen in the scalp hair of patients exhibiting significant levels of

    toxic metals Hg, Cd, Pb (Quig, unpublished observations).

Furthermore, their minerals and amino acids are deficient and/or imbalanced. Their production of red and white blood cells is irregular.

    They have a dysfunctional immune system (often attacking ―self‖). Eighty percent suffer mitochondrial disorders (lack of energy production)

    according to Dr. Colemen, George Washington University Hospital. Ninety percent suffer some degree of hypothyroidism despite ―normal‖

    TSH readings (Raphael Kellman, MD). Eighty-three percent suffer dysfunctional Phase I and II, liver-enzyme activity (causing a build up

    of toxins and heavy metals), and 85% of autistic meet criteria for malabsorption leading to a multitude of nutrient deficiencies (Wm. Walsh).

    Both the autistic and the ADHD children often suffer lymphoid modular hyperplasia (measles infection in the gutWakefield). Thus,

    children with autism do not absorb food properly, leading to nutrient deficiencies. The most common deficiencies of poor diet and

    malabsorption are fatty acids, the minerals zinc, selenium, magnesium, and calcium, and the vitamins A, B, C, and D, and E. This 6

    compromises immune function, and provides inadequate antioxidant protection to offset the high oxidative stress these children suffer, thus

    causing significant damage to cells throughout the body and brain. It is interesting to note that uric acid plays a key antioxidant role in the

    plasma, and many of these children have low urea/uric acid, possibly reflecting high oxidative stress. The nutrient deficiencies can

    occasionally cause extreme behaviors; some children with autism have been reported to have actually gouged out their eyes due to a calcium

    deficit. If your child is pushing at his eyes, supplement calcium and vitamin D, and get him in the sun.

Children with autism have a lot of metabolic abnormalities as indicated, but that is a result of the problems with their immune system.

    Heavy metals such as mercury induce a dramatic activation of the immune system and autoantibody production in the genetically

    susceptible. This autoimmune syndrome is dependent on T-Cells, which are important for B-Cell activation and cytokine secretion. Studies

    have found mercury impairs the body‘s ability to kill Candida albicans by impairment of the lytic activity of neutrophils. A population of

    plant workers with average mercury excretion of 20 ug/g creatinine was found to have long-lasting impairment of neutrophil function.

Another study found such impairment of neutrophils decreases the body‘s ability to combat viruses such as those that cause heart damage,

    resulting in more inflammatory damage. Samplings of immune data reveal that most of these autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) children

    have atypical elevations of antibodies against otherwise common pathogens such as Epstein-Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus, and/or Human

    Herpes Virus 6 (EBV, CMV, HHV-6), and in some 30%, elevated anti-measles antibodies indicative of chronic infection from measles

    vaccineKawashima H, Mori T, Kashiwagi Y, Takekuma K, Hoshika A, Wakefield A; Department of Paediatrics, Tokyo Medical University, Japan. ―Of the 160 autistic children we looked at, only five did not have bowel disease‖—Wakefield. (Attenuated vaccines

    contain live viruses that don‘t usually cause overt disease.) HHV-6 induces synthesis of a broad range of host cell proteins, including interferon alpha, CD4, interleukin-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Additionally, HHV-6 kills Natural Killer Cells.

Human herpesvirus-6, the etiologic (causative) agent of roseola, is ubiquitous, establishes latency in the host, and can infect a variety of

    immunocompetent cells, with CD4+ T lymphocytes being the targets in which it replicates most efficiently, and HHV-6 has an

    ―Immunosuppressive effect... on T-cell functions‖ such as ―suppression of interleukin-2 synthesis and cell proliferation.‖

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HHV-6 is a commensal inhabitant of brains. Various neurologic manifestations, including convulsions and encephalitis, can occur during

    primary HHV-6 infection, or in immunocompromised patients. HHV6 has been reported within oligodendrocytes and microglia, and focal

    HHV6encephalitis has been documented. It is considered causative in CFS.

    John O‘Leary, Ph.D., a world-class researcher and molecular biologist from Ireland, using state of the art sequencing technology, showed how he had found measles virus in the gut of 96% of autistic children, compared to 6.6% of normal children. This virus did not come from

    the natural disease; it came from the measles vaccine. In addition, Dr. O‘Leary found measles virus present in 75% of children with Crohn‘s

    Disease. Crohn‘s has traditionally been an intestinal disease of adults, following years of dietary abuse. Its appearance in children is a new

    event, and Dr. O‘Leary‘s work points to measles virus from vaccines as the likely cause. Additionally, Candida, according to antibody

    studies done at the Atkins Center, is involved in more than 80 percent of all cases of Crohn's and Colitis.

Their pathogenic (disease producing) power is derived from the fact that they can set up persistent infections within various lymph tissues

    (that of the gut, for example, as shown by Wakefield) as well as within circulating cells of the immune system. Wakefield found that controls

    had prevalence in the gut of HHV-6 DNA similar to that of those with ulcerative colitis86%! Virus infected monocytes (White Cells)

    travel freely throughout the body, and have been shown to enter the brain, take up residence there, and secrete cytokines (chemical

    messengers) toxic to brain tissue. They also serve as foci of infection. It is not uncommon for infants to run fevers and show other signs of

    acute inflammation after receiving multiple vaccinations. Interferon production is stimulated by infection with a virus to protect the body

    from super infection by some other microorganism. In this study, vaccination of one-year-old infants with measles vaccine caused a

    precipitous drop in the level of alpha-interferon produced by lymphocytes. This decline persisted for one year following vaccination, at

    which time the experiment was terminatedJournal of Infectious Diseases. Thus, this study showed that measles vaccine produced a significant long-term immune suppression. Similarly, the report in the British medical journal Lancet confirmed that a significantly higher

    percentage of these children had received a DTP shot within 30 days of the onset of polio compared to a control group of children without

    polio, 43 percent of polio victims compared to 28 percent of controls. The DTP vaccine suppresses the body‘s ability to fight off the polio virus. Thus, we have evidence of long-term damage to the immune system from vaccines. Starting at about 4 months, this leads to the

    infections, antibiotics, more infections, and more vaccines that often precede autism.

―Complete Immunoglobulin E (IgE) deficiency was seen in 10% of the patients. Almost 20% of the patients had low IgA, and 8% of them

    had a complete lack of it, which is quite high compared to the general population (1 in 700-1,000). About 25% of the subjects had IgG

    subclass deficiency. About 25% of the patients had a deficiency of various subsets of lymphocytes (e.g., CD3, CD4, and CD8 Killer T-Cells).

    In fact, almost 35% of these autistic children had a deficiency in Natural Killer Cells. In general, the cytokines IL-2 and alpha-interferon are

    increased, while IL-1 is normal‖—Dr. Sudhir Gupta. IgG anti-brain autoantibodies were present in 27% with ASD, and with 2% from healthy children. IgM autoantibodies were present in 36% with ASD compared with 0% of controls. The presence of these antibodies raises

    the possibility that autoimmunity plays a role in the pathogenesis of language and social developmental abnormalities in a subset of children

    with these disordersSerum autoantibodies to brain in Landau-Kleffner variant, autism, and other neurologic disorders. J Pediatr 1999 May;134(5):607-13.

―I firmly believe that up to eighty percent (and possibly all) cases of autism are caused by an abnormal immune reaction, commonly known

    as autoimmunity. The autoimmune process in autism results from a complex interaction between the immune system and the nervous

    system.

    ―Antibodies to measles (rubeola) virus (MV) and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) are elevated, which is a sign of a present infection, past infection, or a reaction to the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. The HHV-6 and measles viruses are etiologically linked to autism

    because they are related to brain autoantibodies and demyelinating diseases.

    ―Recently, I conducted a study of measles virus (MV) and HHV-6 in autism....This study showed two things in particular: first, that the virus antibody levels in the blood of autistic children were much higher when compared to normal children; and secondly, the elevated virus

    antibody levels were associated with the brain autoantibody titer. Interestingly, the viral antibody and brain autoantibody association was

    particularly true of MV antibody and Myelin-Basic Protein (MBP) autoantibody (i.e., 90 percent of autistic children showed this

    association). This observation led me to hypothesize that a measles virus-induced autoimmune response is a causal factor in autism, whereas

    HHV-6, via co-infection, may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disorder. Although as yet unproven, I think it is an excellent working

    hypothesis to explain autism, and it may also help us understand why some children show autistic regression after the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization.

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―There is enormous potential for restoring brain function in autistic children and adults through immunology....The goal of therapy should

    be to normalize or reconstitute the immune response instead of inducing immune suppression or stimulation. This will maintain a balance

    within the normal immune response, avoiding major fluctuations of overt immune activity which could be detrimental to the

    patient‖—Excerpts from Autism, Autoimmunity, and Immunotherapy: a Commentary by Vijendra K. Singh, Ph.D. Department of Biology

    & Biotechnology Center, Utah State University, Logan Scientific Board Member, Autism Autoimmunity Project.

Reed Warren, et al, mention how the IgA findings relate to infections and report a fascinating double susceptibility in that 6 of 8 autistic kids

    with low IgA levels also had null alleles of the complement C4b: ―...IgA is also important in protection against pathogenic infections and

    participates in the clearance of pathogens via the alternative complement pathway. C4 proteins [e.g., from the C4a and C4b genes] are

    involved in the other complement pathway, the classical complement pathway. Therefore, it is interesting that of the eight autistic subjects

    with decreased IgA levels, all but two also had a C4b null allele suggesting that, in these patients, both pathways of complement activation

    [and response to infections] are probably operating at less than optimal level.‖

A test of thirty-six children revealed grade I or II reflux esophagitis in 25 (69.4%), chronic gastritis in 15 (42%), and chronic duodenitis in

    24 (67%). Low intestinal carbohydrate digestive enzyme activity was reported in 21 children (58.3%), although there was no abnormality

    found in pancreatic function. Seventy-five percent of the autistic children had an increased pancreatico-biliary fluid output after intravenous

    secretin administration (indicating hypersensitivity of the pancreas) Gastrointestinal abnormalities in children with autistic disorder. J Pediatr 1999 Nov;135(5):559-63.

Children with autism produce higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than children without autism. Autistic children have been shown

    to exhibit many anomalies in cell-mediated immunity, including abnormal T-cell activation (Warren et al, 1995), decreased relative

    numbers of helper-inducer lymphocytes, and a lower helper-suppressor ratio. (Denney et al, 1996) These last 2 measures were inversely

    correlated with severity of autistic symptoms. In children with these abnormal antibody patterns, selenium supplementation at a dose of 10 mcg/kg body weight for six months significantly increased IgG-2 and IgG-4 levels and reduced the number of infections. Low blood

    values of these two antibodies are associated with intractable seizures. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation has overcome intractable

    seizures that were resistant to drugs.

In workers exposed to fluorine, those with subclinical hypothyrosis [reduced tri-iodothyronine (T3) in 51%] had immune alterations that

    were more evident. T-lymphocytes count rose, but their functional activity declined, indicating impaired cooperation of immunocytes as a

    result of imperfect control under low concentrations of T3 (Balabolkin, 1995). Their immune system is driving with no brakes!

Elevated serotonin levels have been consistently found in 30% -50% of autistic patients, and may represent a marker for familial autism.

    Hyperserotonemia in autism appears to be due to enhanced 5-HT uptake, as free 5-HT levels are normal and the current report of an excess

    of the long/long 5-HTTLPR genotype in autism could provide a partial molecular explanation for high platelet serotonin content in

    autismPMID: 11378854. Serotonin synthesis is decreased in the brains of autistic children and increased in autistic adults, relative to

    age-matched controls (Chugani et al, 1999), while whole blood serotonin in platelets is elevated regardless of age (Leboyer; Cook, 1990).

Finally, these kids are hypersensitive to everything: sound, light, touch, and colors. Typically, bright yellow will drive them up the wall

    leading to all sorts of aberrant behavior. This sensitivity is usually related to a deficiency of vitamin B, zinc, and magnesium. 6

These medical facts show that every symptom of these dear children is treatable! These kids are sick. They are not usually brain

    damaged. What seems to be occurring is an immune mediated, abnormal ―shut down‖ of blood flow in the temporal lobe area of the brain, and therefore an interference with central nervous system function.

This paper is not meant as a medical prescription, nor do all the conditions and suggested interventions apply to every child. You

    must study this paper until you see your child’s face in it, and then use the parts that are applicable to him. In all instances, it is good

    to consult with your medical professional when making any major nutritional changes.

Immune 101

    There are three major classes of Immune Cell types: granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are divided into three

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    subgroups: B-Cells, T-cells, and Natural Killer Cells. T-cells are divided into CD4, helper cells, CD8, suppressor cells, and cytotoxic, CD8, Killer T-cells. That is, they show the Cluster Determinant (CD) glycoproteins on their surface. During the first two years of life a delicate one-to-one ratio between CD4 (helper) and CD8 (suppressor) cells forms. CD4/CD8 ratios that do not equal 1:1 are indicative of abnormal immune systems. All these produce cytokines, chemical messengers that tell the other cells what to do. Cytokines, also called growth factors, are the common language of the immune, hormonal, and nervous systems regulating the growth and development of cells and tissues.

    Scientists state that: ―Stimulation of the developing immune system (by early childhood diseases—WSL) can prevent auto-immunity‖ with clinical evidence proving that immune stimulation prevents auto-immune disease by up-regulating growth factors that bring the body back into balance with normal cell-to-cell communication.

    Growth factors are biologically active, biochemically well-characterized, small proteins (cytokines) that regulate cell growth, repair, renewal, and cell death throughout the body, including the developing nervous and immune systems. Growth factors need not enter cells to exert their effects upon DNA and cellular activities because they use specific cell receptors that carry their signals into the genes. Specific growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF) play critical roles early in the four-stage, cell cycle, during what is called G1 phase. These growth factors determine the cell‘s fate B

    by regulating what genes are turned on or off. If a gene is ―turned on‖, it will be read and its message translated into protein. If a gene is ―turned off‖, its message will remain dormant. Many viruses compete for the same DNA gene regulatory (transcription) sites as growth

    factors do since viruses need to overcome the growth factor‘s control of the cell‘s fate so that the virus can multiply and infect more cells. Growth factors contribute to healthy communication between the protective systems in the body, such as the nervous, immune, and

    hormonal systems. If growth factors do not work appropriately, there is aberrant cell-to-cell communication throughout the body, and a type of chaos ensuesDr. Barbara Brewitt, Chief Science Officer, Biomed Comm, Inc.

The CD4+, lymphocyte helper-cell activities are divided into Th1 (Cell-mediated immunity), and Th2 (humoral immunity). Th1 is the

    first-line of defense primarily against viral, fungi, and protozoa, while Th2 helps the B-cells to produce antibodies. The T-cells are separated into these two classes depending upon the specific cytokines the cells secrete in response to antigenic stimulation. Th1 cells primarily produce interferon (IFN) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), whereas Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13. The two helper T-cell

    classes also differ by the type of immune response they produce. While Th1 cells tend to generate responses against intracellular parasites such as bacteria and viruses, Th2 cells produce immune responses against helminths and other extracellular parasites. Interestingly, the cytokines produced by each Th subset tends to both stimulate production of that subset, and inhibit development of the other subset. Th1 and Th2 represent two, separate, counterbalancing functions of the immune system, and problems occur when they are out of balance.

    After a strong Th1 response to infection gets on top of the search-out-and-kill activity, Interleukin 4 and 10 promotes a change of a class of antibody (IgG1) produced by memory cells, and suppresses the activity of the killer cells and starts to shut down the Th1 immune response. The production of memory cells is dependent on this strong Th1 immune response. For example: the immunological action taken against

    a primary attack of measles is primarily Th1, with a later back-up by a Th2 antibody that is dependent on the initial Th1 response, and then a dampening down of the Th1 system by the Th2 antibody. However, ―These alterations support the hypothesis that the immunologic

    alterations induced by immunization do activate type-2 cell responses leading to improved antibody production, while suppressing type-1, T-cell responses leading to reduced lymphoproliferation.‖ (JID 1996, Vol 173, pg 1324-1325) Do you understand the implications of this? There are plenty of antibodies at the expense of the ability to ―search-and-destroy‖—to fight other infections. This is the keythe difference between natural Th1, and vaccine induced Th2 immunityand yet, some fail to show antibodies even when vaccinated and boosted and

    revaccinated! Could that be because they had no sufficient Th1 response? Possibly, but magnesium deficiency has been shown to decrease antibody production, and lymphocytes, the body‘s defense against invaders, are inhibited by magnesium deficiency, and most of these

    children are deficient in magnesium.

    To avoid rejection of the fetus, a Mother‘s immune system shifts quickly to Th2, and the baby is born with this skew to Th2. After the baby is born, the healthy mother‘s immune system changes back to normal Th1 dominance very quickly, and breast milk quickly starts the

    process of changing the baby‘s balance towards Th1 dominance. The vaccinated Mother‘s immune function is likely to stay Th2 predominant, robbing her of her natural immunity to infections and allergies, and she passes this skewed system to her baby! The poor,

    bottle-fed child gets no help at all to restore Th1.

It‘s most revealing to learn that the same insult given to those of different genetic makeup will cause some to have a Th1 response, whereas

    others will have a Th2 response! The ratio of these two is determined by the balance of adrenal steroids, notably cortisol and DHEA. Since cortisol is an antagonist of DHEA, stress-induced cortisol production shifts the number of CD4+ lymphocytes to predominantly Th2

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expression. Cortisol also impairs liver detoxification, allowing buildup of environmental and physiological toxins. "Thus, even a potentially

    Th1-inducing virus may fail to induce Th1 during a time of stress"-Lancet, 1997, Volume 349, pg 1832.

When Th1 is diminished, Th2 predominates leading to a host of chronic diseases. Conditions are pro viral, pro Candida. The chronic

    viral infection, whether measles or other, cannot be cleared as long as this bias exists. Furthermore, Candida can enhance Th2. This

    increases IgE, causing Candida to really flourish. One of the things that‘s primarily responsible for maintaining the balance is

    healthy, gut microflora. When microflora are depleted or destroyed you're going to become more Th2 dominant, and have more tendencies towards allergies, and asthma. A strong presence of IgE in the blood is evidence of prominent Th2 activity, and a deficiency of vitamin B. Elevated IgE is associated with a history of numerous allergies. Allergies are indicative of an overactive 6

    (reactive) immune system. So, if you have high IgE, suspect that Candida and stress are at work, and supplement the vitamin B-complex. IgE mediated allergies have disappeared with removal of mercury.

Stress is a major factor in the Th2 skew, and is considered a major cause of depression. Any type of stress raises a hormone called

    cortisol and a secondary hormone called epinephrine, your stress hormone, and this will make you more Th2 dominant, and more prone to allergic type situations. It will put a ―tire‖ of fat on the belly and hips, and it can damage and kill neurons. It also decreases

    levels of growth factors that enable brain cells to thrive, and it reduces levels of serotonin needed to promote neurogenesis (growth

    of new neurons). A diet high in refined carbohydrates is going to alter the slow hormonal collective which includes cortisol, epinephrine, and insulin and create a Th2 dominance. Adrenal exhaustion will promote a cytokine shift from Th1 to Th2. Additionally, there are chemicals and heavy metals, such as mercury, that will make you more Th2 dominant. To reduce

    stress-produced cortisol by 47%, give the child 100 mcg of chromium each day (200 mcg for adults). Magnesium, vitamin C,

    and pantothenic acid also reduce cortisol and should be supplemented. A 45-minute massage (back rub?) will give a like reduction.

One study shows that glutathione levels in antigen-presenting cells determine whether Th1 or Th2 response patterns predominate.

    ―Raising glutathione levels has been shown to alter the cytokine balance in favor of a Th1 immune response‖—―The immune system‖, Peterson, JD, et al., 1998. The best way to increase glutathione quickly is with a transdermal lotion from Kirkman. Another

    interesting way has been developed to aid those with respiratory problems. Doctors at the Tahoma Clinic have observed remarkable

    improvements in many with chronic bronchitis or with emphysema who used 60 mg of nebulized, inhaled glutathione two times daily. If you have a problem metabolizing sulfur this may cause yur body to accumulate too much sulfite, creating a wheezing symptom, among others. For an appointment with a physician at Tahoma Clinic, call (253) 854-4900. For a doctor in your area inquire at (800) 532-3688.

Additionally, when patulin, a sulfhydryl-binding chemical that conjugates glutathione rendering it unavailable for mBCl interaction, was

    applied to cells that were treated with the glyconutrient Ambrotose by Mannatech, the glyconutrients protected the cells from

    glutathione depletion. This shows the potential of glyconutrients to not only increase glutathione production as reported elsewhere, but to

    protect it from loss leaving twice as much glutathione available Proceedings of the Fisher Institute for Medical Research, November 1997,

    Page 14. Acemannan? (Manapol?), and reishi mushrooms among others, have been shown to increase the enzyme glutathione synthetase,

    which in turn produces glutathione (providing the substrates glycine, glutamine, and cysteine are available, WSL). Additionally, in a series

    of human trials, Acemannan? (from aloe) improved food digestion and absorption and enhanced ―good‖ bacterial flora in the digestive

    tract by reducing yeast and pH levelsSugars That Heal, Dr. Emil I. Mondoa, MD. The aloe extract found in Ambrotose? by

    Mannatech, also significantly inhibited superoxide anion formation. This is one type of free radical that can have dangerous effects on the

    fragile DNA in our cellsKim, HS et al. In Vitro Chemo-protective Effects of Plant Polysaccharides, Carcinogenesis, Aug 1999, 20:8, 1637-40.

In addition to stress-induced, immune suppression, the body‘s natural defense system is also susceptible to stress-induced malnutrition.

    When the body begins to suffer from stress-induced malnutrition, the cells of the immune system are deprived of critical nutrients necessary

    for their function. In addition to the macronutrients, myriad micronutrients that include zinc, selenium, vitamins A, C, E, and B, the amino 6

    acids glutamine, cysteine, and arginine, and proper ratios of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids are known to be necessary for a functional

    immune system. Observations indicate that Fatty Acids (FA) can modulate immune responses by acting directly on T-cells, and suggest that

    alteration of cellular FA toward Omega-3 may be a worthwhile approach to control of inflammation that often tends to cancer. It is vital to

    note that MMR vaccine, and the chronic measles infection so often following, depletes the body of vitamin A. A deficiency of vitamin A and

    zinc, in particular, hinders cell-mediated immunity (Th1), and ―our‖ kids are universally lacking in these vital nutrients. Scrimshaw, et al. (1968) reviewed over 50 studies of infection and nutrition and wrote, ―no nutritional deficiency in the animal kingdom is more consistently

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    synergistic with infection than that of Vitamin A‖. In Southern Africa, it was found that injection of 250,000 units of vitamin A reduced measles vaccine deaths to virtually zero. Children with vitamin A deficiency are more susceptible to the effects of DDT, hydrocarbon carcinogens, and PCBs.

    Additionally, the Australian, Archivide Kalokerinos, M.B., B.S., Ph.D., noted for his work among the Australian aborigines in which he reduced an infant morality rate approaching 50% to virtually zero. Noting features of scurvy among some of the infants and children, and observing that many deaths followed vaccinations, he hypothesized that the vaccinations provoked death by throwing the infants into fulminating scurvy. Based on these observations, he improved the nutrition of the children, provided generous amounts of vitamin C, and avoided vaccines when children were ill with colds or other minor infections. As a result of this work he was awarded the Australian Medal of Merit in l978.

    Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in many infants is probably low, and the vaccines lower CMI further. One vaccine decreases CMI by 50%, two together by 70%. Three? Yet, repeated immunizations with three vaccines simultaneously from four weeks to 12 or 18 months are given. All these triple vaccines markedly impair CMI, yet some uninformed doctors, solely for convenience and profit give 10 viruses into these struggling immune systems in one sitting! Don't let this happen to your child! The longest safety trial of the triple vaccine MMR (all live attenuated viruses) was three weeks!

Repeat DPT is given at 12 months. In mice, spectrally assayed cytochrome p450 was decreased by 50% for 7 days following DTP

    vaccination. Phospho-sulfotransferase, a Phase II detox enzyme was also decreased as was the RNA necessary to their production. Children receiving DPT show three times as many seizures as is the norm for children. A similar increase 3.3 times the norm occurred within four to seven days following MMR. This decrease of p450 enzymes tends to harbor toxins within the system, leading to toxicity through a build up of heavy metals and other poisons, including the thimerosal (mercury), aluminum, formaldehyde and other poisons in the vaccine. Mercury has also been found to play a part in neuronal problems through blockage of the p450 liver enzymatic process. Mercury has been shown to diminish and block sulfur oxidation thus reducing glutathione levels which is the part of this process involved in detoxifying and excretion of toxics like mercury. Glutathione is produced through the sulfur oxidation side of this process. Low levels of available glutathione have been shown to increase mercury retention and increase toxic effects. The cytochrome p450 (Phase I) enzyme pathway is the only way a baby has to deal with endotoxins from the gut. The Phase I system is one of several shut down temporarily by the DPT and other vaccines. Toxins from E. Coli (and those of Candida), being given off when the liver is impaired by DTP, can have severe

    consequences, having been associated with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome! This is all the more likely when there is a chronic deficiency of vitamins A and C as might be induced by a poor diet or by a chronic measles infection of the gut. No effort should be made to eradicate bacteria and fungi, releasing as it does large amounts of endotoxins, without ensuring the child is adequately supplied with nutrients, particularly vitamins A and C. Use of AlkaSeltzer Gold is said to reduce the impact of this die off.

    ―The repeated use of vaccinations would tend to shift the functional balance of the immune system toward the antibody-producing side (Th2), and away from the acute inflammatory discharging side (the cell-mediated side or Th1). This has been confirmed by observation especially in the case of Gulf War Illness: most vaccinations caused a shift in immune function from the Th1 side (acute inflammatory discharging response) to the Th2 side (chronic auto-immune or allergic response).

    ―The wise use of vaccinations would be to use them selectively, and not on a mass scale. In order for vaccinations to be helpful and not harmful, we must know beforehand in each individual to be vaccinated whether the Th1 function or the Th2 function of the immune system predominates. In individuals in whom Th1 predominates, the cellular immune system is overreactive causing many acute inflammations, thus a vaccination could have a balancing effect on the immune system and be helpful for that individual. In individuals in whom Th2 predominates, causing few acute inflammations, but rather the tendency to chronic allergic or autoimmune inflammations, a vaccination would cause Th2 to predominate even more, aggravating the imbalance of the immune system and harming the health of that

    individual‖—Philip F. Incao, MD.

    Multiple vaccinations, in shifting this delicate balance to a predominant Th2 response, favor the development of atopy (asthma, eczema, hay fever, and food intolerances) and, perhaps, autoimmunity through vaccine-induced, polyclonal activation leading to autoantibody production. An increase in the incidence of childhood atopic diseases may be expected as a result of concurrent vaccination strategies that induce a Th2-biased immune response.

    The literature shows an association between antiviral vaccination and onset of childhood asthma. We have noted that attenuation of viral

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target by conventional vaccine preparation does not completely remove or degrade viral nucleic acids such as double-stranded RNA

    (dsRNA). It is known that viral dsRNA can induce activation of a host‘s antiviral protein kinase (PKR). We have shown that activation of

    PKR by dsRNA leads to expression of Th2-type immune responses, e.g., allergy and asthmaFarhad Imani, M.D., David Proud, M.D. Recent discovery shows the gamma-delta group of T-cells are responsible for allergic responses through their production of interleukin-4

    (IL-4).

The odds of having a history of asthma were twice as great among (DTP) vaccinated subjects than among unvaccinated subjects (adjusted

    odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.59 to 6.74). The odds of having had any allergy-related respiratory symptom in the past 12

    months was 63% greater among vaccinated subjects than unvaccinated subjects (adjusted odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to

    2.54). The associations between vaccination and subsequent allergies and symptoms were greatest among children aged 5 through 10

    yearsHurwitz, E.L., Morgenstern, H; UCLA School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Los Angeles, California.

    One study published in the ―Journal of Infectious Diseases‖ documented a long-term depressive effect on interferon production caused by the measles vaccine. Interferon is a chemical produced by lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) that renders the host resistant to infection. Vaccination of one-year-old infants with measles vaccine caused a precipitous drop in the level of alpha-interferon produced by lymphocytes.

    This decline persisted for one year following vaccination, at which time the experiment was terminated. Thus, this study showed that

    measles vaccine produced a significant long-term immune suppression. This suppression lays the child open to all sorts of infections.

    For example: a study published in the ―American Journal of Public Health Investigators‖ on children who contracted polio, a total of 1,300 cases in New York City and 2,137 cases in the remainder of New York State, discovered that children with polio were twice as likely to have

    received a DTP vaccination in the two months preceding the onset of polio than were the control children. More recently, in a polio

    epidemic in Oman, DTP vaccination caused the onset of paralytic polio. The report in the British medical journal ―Lancet‖ confirmed that

    a significantly higher percentage of these children with polio (43% compared to 28% of the controls) had received a DTP shot within 30

    days of the onset of polio. The DTP vaccine suppresses the body‘s ability to fight off the polio virus.

Usually then, the autistic child needs to boost Th1 cells. This can be done with Omega-3 fatty acids [EPA at 1000 to 1500 mg a day (two

    to three teaspoons of CLO), and DHA between 1500 to 2500 mg a day (3 to 5 teaspoons of CLO or fish oil)]. The extra Virgin Olive oil, that

    contains oleic acid: four tablespoons a day of fresh oil that‘s been refrigerated is very supportive of Th1, as is Vitamin A, 25,000 IU (adults), with a lot of carotenoids, a lot of vegetables, carrots, and things like that. In addition to that, L-glutamine, 10 to 20 grams (adult) a day, will strengthen Th1. Use Lactobacillus, two or three different kinds, and Bifidus, and magnesium, zinc, chromium, and silica.

    Hepatic glutathione is a key substrate for reducing toxic oxygen metabolites and oxidized xenobiotics in the liver enabling their clearance from the body. Depletion of hepatic glutathione is a common occurrence in mercury and cadmium toxicity and Leaky Gut Syndromes contributing to liver dysfunction and liver necrosis. It has also been demonstrated that Hg not only directly removes GSH from the cell, but also inhibits the activities of two key enzymes involved in GSH metabolism, GSH synthetase and GSH reductase. Hg also inhibits the activities of the free radical quenching enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and perhaps GSH peroxidase. Inside the cell, Hg0 is oxidized by catalase to the highly reactive Hg2+. Once assimilated in the cell, Hg2+ and MeHg+ form covalent bonds with glutathione and cysteine residues of proteins. Many factors can affect liver function and glutathione availability. For instance, a recent or chronic-active infection can deplete glutathione as does a single dose of Tylenol. Studies have found that heavy metals, especially mercury and cadmium,

    deplete glutathione and protein-bound sulfhydryl (SH) groups resulting in inhibiting SH-containing enzymes and the production of reactive oxygen species such as superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals. These reactive oxygen species result in increased lipid peroxidation, enhanced excretion of urinary lipid metabolites, modulation of intracellular oxidized states, DNA damage, membrane damage, altered gene expression, and apoptosis. Increased fragility and decreased sulfhydryl content in cell membranes follow closely, within 4-5 days, a decrease in plasma zinc concentration. These latter signs are readily reversible within 1-2 days by zinc supplementation. Additionally, one must supplement antioxidants vitamins C and E, selenium, and glutathione, and attempt to enhance the body‘s production of glutathione.

    The displacement of zinc in the presence of toxic metal burden may explain in part why increased levels of zinc are so commonly seen in the scalp hair of patients exhibiting significant levels of toxic metals Hg, Cd, Pb (Quig, unpublished observations). Such high zinc readings in hair tests would indicate an actual lack of systemic zinc!

Platelets from zinc deficient rats exhibit abnormal aggregation (failure to aggregate normally), a defect that is associated with impaired

    calcium uptake. The evidence suggests defective calcium channels in the plasma membrane of cells. Similar observations have been made

    in brain synaptic membranes from zinc deficient guinea pigs. As in the red cell, membranes from platelets have a lower than normal

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