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A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (further referred

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A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (further referred

    Masarykova univerzita

    Filozofická fakulta

    Katedra anglistiky a amerikanistiky

    Magisterská diplomová práce

2010 Andrea Velecká

    Masaryk University

    Faculty of Arts

    Department of English

    and American Studies

English Language and Literature

    Andrea Velecká

    Gerund in Translation:

    A Corpus-Based Study

    Masters Diploma Thesis

    Supervisor: PhDr. Jarmila Fictumová

    2010

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    I declare that I have worked on this thesis independently,

     using only the primary and secondary sources listed in the bibliography.

    ……………………………………………..

    Author‟s signature

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    Acknowledgement

    I wish to express many thanks to my supervisor PhDr. Jarmila Fictumová

    for her kind and valuable advice, help and support.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction ...............................................................................................................7

    2. The Gerund and its Function ......................................................................................9 2.1 The Description of the Gerund in Grammar Books ..............................................9 2.1.1 A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (CGEL)......................9

    2.1.2 The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (CamGEL) ................... 11

    2.1.3 Oxford English Grammar (OEG) ................................................................ 14 2.1.4 Functional Analysis of Present Day English on a General Linguistic Basis.. 15

    2.1.5 Functional Syntax of Modern English ......................................................... 16 2.1.6 Anglická mluvnice ...................................................................................... 17 2.1.7 Mluvnice současné angličtiny na pozadí češtiny .......................................... 19

    2.1.8 Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English (LGSWE).................... 21

    2.1.9 Cambridge Grammar of English (CGE) ...................................................... 24 2.2 The Gerundial Construction ............................................................................... 27 2.2.1 The Subject of the Gerundial Construction .................................................. 27 2.3 The Approach Applied in the Present Paper ....................................................... 31 2.3.1 Distinction of the Gerund and the Present Participle .................................... 31

    2.3.1.1 Rules of Distinction .......................................................................... 33 2.3.2 Distinction of the Gerund and the Verbal Noun ........................................... 37 3. Research Sample and Methodology ......................................................................... 39 3.1 Research Sample ............................................................................................... 39 3.2 Methodology ..................................................................................................... 40 4. Practical Analysis .................................................................................................... 42 4.1 Translation of Gerundial Constructions with respect to their Syntactic Functions

     ................................................................................................................................ 43

    4.1.1 The Gerund in the Function of Subject and its Translation .......................... 43 4.1.2 The Gerund in the Function of Subject Complement and its Translation...... 44

    4.1.3 The Gerund in the Function of Noun Premodification and its Translation .... 45

    4.1.4 The Gerund in the Function of Noun Postmodification and its Translation .. 47

    4.1.5 The Gerund in the Function of Adjective Complement and its Translation .. 49

    4.1.6 The Gerund in the Function of Direct Object and its Translation ................. 49 4.1.7 The Gerund in the Function of Prepositional Object and its Translation ...... 50

    4.1.8 The Gerund in the Function of Adverbial and its Translation....................... 52 4.2 Czech Translation Equivalents ........................................................................... 54 4.2.1 Nouns as Translation Equivalents................................................................ 54 4.2.2 Finite Verbs as Translation Equivalents ...................................................... 57

    4.2.2.1 The Finite Verb as a Translation Equivalent ..................................... 58

    4.2.2.2 The Finite Verb as a Translation Equivalent Realized by a Main

    Clause .......................................................................................................... 60

    4.2.2.3 The Finite Verb as a Translation Equivalent Realized by a Dependent

    Clause .......................................................................................................... 62 4.2.3 Infinitives as Translation Equivalents .......................................................... 66

    4.2.3.1 The Infinitive as a Translation Equivalent ......................................... 67

    4.2.3.2 The Infinitive as a Translation Equivalent Realized by a Main Clause

     .................................................................................................................... 69

    4.2.3.3 The Infinitive as a Translation Equivalent Realized by a Dependent

    Clause .......................................................................................................... 70 4.2.4 Gerunds and their Implicit Translations ....................................................... 71 4.2.5 Passive Gerunds and their Translations ....................................................... 74

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    4.2.6 Perfective Gerunds and their Translations ................................................... 76 5. Results of Research ................................................................................................. 77 5.1 The Discrepancy ................................................................................................ 77 5.2 Clausal Shifts ..................................................................................................... 78 6. Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 79