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Motion of Extra Nuclear Electrons and Phase Transition

By Laura Davis,2014-11-25 21:08
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Motion of Extra Nuclear Electrons and Phase Transition

     5. Motion of Extra Nuclear Electrons and Phase Transition

    Abstract: Regular motion of extra nuclear electrons according to the temperature is the direct factor of phase transition.

    (1) When valence combination electrons move stably on the plane, the accompanied valence magnetic force points to the stability, and the substance is solid.

    (2) When valence combination electrons twist in the narrow space, the direction of accompanied valence magnetic force is not stable, and the plasticity of substance increases. (3) When valence combination electrons twist in the broad space, the direction of accompanied valence magnetic force changes, and the substance is liquid.

    (4) When valence combination electrons rotates in a spherical shape in the space, valence combination electrons surround the whole sphere, and valence magnetic force has no direction, the adjacent spherical electrons repel each other, which makes the molecule balls be away from each other, and the substance is gaseous.

    Key words: valence combination electrons valence magnetic force direction of force plane movement twist movement

    [Fact] As the temperature increases, most substances transit from solid to liquid, or from liquid to gas. All the pure substances have relative certain melting point, boiling point, water is frozen at;?,

    and boiling at 100?, tin can be melted into liquid under the200? electric iron, when removing the

    electric iron, tin is immediately consolidated into the solid, temperature and phase state, characteristics of substance are interdependent.

    [Analysis] Phase transition of substance is always corresponding accurately to the temperature, when the temperature increases to a certain value, water can boil, iron can be melted, temperature and phase transition are interdependent. People have been thinking for many years, how does temperature lead to such transition, how does the temperature play a role? Such pretty regular correspondence can never be casual and isolated. Such pretty regular transition must originate from and obey deeper regular motion.

    In chapter N.2 we mentioned that: the speed of motion of extra nuclear electrons is most closely linked with temperature, when the temperature increases, the speed of extra nuclear electrons accelerates. So, the regular motion of extra nuclear electrons with temperature should be the direct reason of phase transition.

    In the last chapter we mentioned that: composition of substance——internal force comprising the

    substance is the result of valence combination motion of extra nuclear electrons. So, phase transition

    

    of the substance——from solid being melted into liquid, the internal force comprising the substance losses immediately, which is naturally directly linked with valence combination motion. We will see that, change of motion of valence combination electrons makes the change of internal force which comprises substance, and causes the phase transition of substance, regular motion of extra nuclear electrons with temperature causes the whole procedure of phase transition.

    We have studied, force has three elements: magnitude, direction, point of application. Inside the substance, the internal force which comprises substance also has these three elements, and these three elements play a very important part in comprising the phase state of substance. Phase transition is directly linked with the temperature, but phase transition can only happen when reaching a certain amount, which is a procedure from quantitative change to qualitative change, and which is also the procedure of rapid change of cohesion of substance.

    Inside the metal solid, valence combination electrons move in the stable plane orbit, the direction of valence magnetic force is perpendicular to the orbit plane, and the direction of force is very stable, the point of application of force aligns, each structure element is adjusted to the relative fixed position, and mutually attracted by the directional valence magnetic force, the three elements of force are stable, so the stable structure of solid is formed.

    When the temperature increases, the speed of valence combination electron is faster, the motion of radius increases, which causes the thermal expansion of substance. Because the cohesion of substance is very huge, increase of temperature can not make the radius of valence combination motion always increase. So, when being heated to a certain temperature, valence combination electrons which need to be accelerated immediately only have to leave the original moving plane, and do the spatial twist motion in the certain area up and down of original plane, in this way the route is elongated, and the speed is fast. Route of motion of valence combination electrons changes from plane to three dimensional twist, which causes the direction of valence magnetic force of companion generation perpendicular to the moving route to shake, and disturbs the valence magnetic force of adjacent structure element at the mean time, and makes the direction disorder. Disorder of valence magnetic force causes the transient attractive force among the structure elements, the direction of cohesion changes, and the points of application are not unified, movement and rearrangement can easily happen among the structure elements when meeting the external force, the macro display is the decrease of rigidity of substance, and the increase of plasticity, deformation can easily happen when being forced by the external force at this time, striking when iron is hot is the reason. See figure 5-1 (2).

    When the temperature reaches the melting point, the speed of valence combination electrons is faster, the area of twist of motion is wider, which causes the direction of valence magnetic force to change greatly, point of application of force is more irregular, structure elements are not supported by valence magnetic force, and also the disturb of repulsive force among the side electrons exists. So the structure elements replace, roll and reunite. Stable internal force of original metal is completely disintegrated, internal force of substance decreases greatly, and can not even support its own

    

structure, and losses stable structure——collapse, melt, and the original metal transits into liquid.

    See figure 5-1 (3).

    1) solid (2) plasticity increase (3) liquid (4) gas

    Figure 5-1 Route of motion of valence combination electrons and phase state of substance

    Shown in the figure, external ellipse denotes olive shape sphere, shadow denotes the area of twist movement of valence combination electrons in the space.

    (1) When valence combination electrons stably move in the plane, the accompanied valence magnetic force points to the stability, and the substance is in solid state.

    (2) When valence combination electrons twist in the narrow space, the direction of accompanied valence magnetic force is not stable, and the plasticity of substance increases. (3) When valence combination electrons twist in the broad space, the direction of accompanied valence magnetic force changes, and the substance is liquid.

    (4) When valence combination electrons rotates in a spherical shape in the space, valence combination electrons surround the whole sphere, and valence magnetic force has no direction, the adjacent spherical electrons repel each other, which makes the molecule balls be away from each other, and the substance is gaseous.

    The above discussion indicates that phase transition mainly happens in the metal of which valence magnetic force is orientated, but the phase transition of non metal is not likely to happen, such phenomenon rightly corresponds with the natural fact.

    What needs to explain is: inside the liquid, substance still exists in structure element, these structure elements form chain, cluster, ring, sometimes are combined, and sometimes are separated, can’t form the regular and continuous frame structure, but strong valence combination force, valence magnetic force (but the direction is irregular, transient) still exist in the substance, it is just so that cohesion of liquid, Brownian motion of liquid molecule and surface tension of liquid are composed. When the temperature decreases, valence magnetic force among the structure elements inside the liquid is relatively stable, cohesion among the structure elements increases, the macro present is that viscosity increases, the surface tension increases.

    During being melted, the direction of valence magnetic force of the part of structure element which is first heated becomes irregular, and the adjacent structure elements which are activated and disturbed also must accelerate the speed of valence combination electrons in order to adapt such change, acceleration of speed of electrons must absorb heat ( absorbing the radiating electromagnetic wave around causes the substance around cool), and the macro present is the endothermic

    

    phenomenon when being melted. Reduce of temperature when the snow is melted is caused by such endothermic phenomenon.

    Consolidation is the inverse procedure of melt, because of the decrease of temperature, substance transits from liquid to solid. In other words: when the temperature decreases, the speed of valence combination electrons decreases, route of motion changes from spatial twist to the stable plane, direction of valence magnetic force inclines to stability, the position among the structure elements is relatively stable, the macro present is consolidation.

    When being consolidated, the interchange valence combination electrons decelerate to enter into the stable plane, stable valence magnetic force causes electrons to move stably and mutually synchronize, mutually adapt, so not too much energy is needed to maintain the motion, and the residual energy is released as heat, which is the exothermic phenomenon when being consolidated, and what is released is the potential heat of phase transition.

    [Introspection] Since one hundred years, irregular electron cloud theory of extra nuclear electrons is dominant, but the phase transition of substance and temperature are directly linked, so the scholars who research phase transition paid attention to the thermal motion of molecule, how can the irregular thermal motion cause such regular change? How can heat cause the molecule to move? Why can phase transition have special fixed temperature point? Is it possible to get the regular phase transition from irregularity? So the customary phase transition puzzles people.

    

    6. Static and Voltage

    Gist: Let the insulated metal conductor carry static, the charges are always immediately evenly distributed on the plane, and gather at the convex surface, are able to discharge at sharp point, also generate voltage at the mean time, which indicates that the number of extra nuclear electrons is accurate, motion is regular, which proves that no free electron exist inside the metal, of course the so called electrostatic equilibrium which makes free electron lose freedom at once also does not exist. Key words: static experiment free electron electrostatic equilibrium

    We mentioned the composition of substance above, and explained the phase transition of substance. As what we mentioned, all the valence electrons of crystals move regularly on the valence combination orbit. Someone will say, it seems reasonable for you to mention temperature, phase transition. But, since one hundred years, every textbook says that metal relies on free electron to conduct, but in your theory, there is no free electron, so where is the good conductivity of metal from?

    In 1905, Drude and other people issued the hypothesis that a lot of free electrons which are not bounded by atom exist inside the metal, and metal transfers heat, conducts through the internal electrons of free movement, according to the good realization of conductivity, thermal conductivity of metal. Although there are many uncertain points, but no one has issued better explanation since many years after being passed down, so the hypothesis is upgraded into theory, and written into the textbook, since one hundred years, it has become the undoubted canon.

    In fact, since one hundred years, the theory of free electrons is difficult to justify itself before many facts, and meets great trouble in the electrostatic experiment, but such trouble is avoided by the academic circle on purpose, and overlooked by a magic theory.

    [Experiment] In the middle school experiment, let the charged substance contact the insulated metal, and charges enter into the metal, the foreign charges are immediately evenly distributed on the plane, cylindrical surface of the metal at this time, and gather at the convex surface, generate voltage at the mean time, are able to discharge at sharp point. (Both positive and negative charges have such effect) Why can the foreign charges only be distributed on the surface? Where is the generated voltage at this time from?

    [Analysis] According to the current theory, free moving electrons are filled inside the metal. So, the introduced electrons in the experiment are also electrons, have the same function and character with electrons, and they should absolutely become the new member of free electron, be the same with other electrons, distributed in the metal freely, and move freely in their space, but why are they driven to the surface? How are they extruded to the convex part to gather? How can they form

    

voltage and discharge at sharp point?

    Facing the fact that static of conductor are trend to move to surface and tip, free electron theory is difficult to justify itself, so another way is made immediately to solve the problem, a new explanation is brought forward——electrostatic equilibrium theory.

    In the College Physics Course, one section which mentions electrostatic equilibrium character of conductor writes that: “Let a charged rod contact the conductor, or place the conductor in the external electric field to create electrostatic induction, from the time when contact happens to the time when charges are distributed stably on the conductor, the process is very short, which usually

    -14 -13 only experiences 10~ 10second! After reaching to the stability, free electron will not do macro motion any more, and such state is called the electrostatic equilibrium state of conductor.”

    Electrostatic equilibrium theory is very strange, and also puzzling, under the usual condition, if “free electrons” which do macro free motion among the metal atoms only move several electrons, several

    -12thousand billions of free electrons will lose freedom immediately in picosecond (10 second),

    which makes free electrons which move long distance at the speed of 1000 kilometers per second under the temperature of 300K do not have macro motion any more. But it can not point out what force is, how to make electrons get rid of macro motion immediately, how to make route change, how to make electrons lose freedom. And these are the stories which only happen in the one-cubic-centimeter copper material. (Data is from College Physics Course, Wu Xilong edits,

    second volume, second edition, chapter 12). Examples and data are introduced in the Course, which makes people feel that it has strong mathematic basis, which seems incontrovertible, so let’s see several real big data.

    An average student might not feel much about the electrostatic equilibrium which happens on one-cubic-centimeter copper material. Let’s think wider, suppose that an aircraft carrier before being put into use is insulated, if only a few electrons are slightly removed (brought), or the aircraft carrier is inducted by the charged small ball, these electrons will gather at a certain convex part of the aircraft carrier.

    Explaining according to the theory of electrostatic equilibrium, only these a few foreign electrons can make trillions of free electrons of several hundred thousands tons of iron lose freedom immediately, within the picosecond when contact happens, which makes the long distance motion of free electrons at the speed of 1000 kilometers per second change the motion state immediately, and do not do macro motion any more.

    What kind of miraculous force makes so many electrons moving at a high speed stop emergently, steer emergently, how strong momentum and kinetic energy are included? So miraculous! Can this comply with energy conservation law? Can this comply with momentum conservation law? It is really fantastic! Whether the electrostatic equilibrium is magic or free electron does not exist? You can know the result by yourself.

    In the experiment, after the foreign charges enter into the metal, they immediately gather at the surface or sharp point, which indicates that foreign charges are pushed out inside the metal, and

    

    completely have no place to stay. Such fact indicates that: the arrangement among the atoms in the metal is compact and orderly, number of extra nuclear electrons is certain, and moves stably at the certain orbit, the internal structure of metal is stable and orderly, coordinate and equilibrium. No electron is so called free, of course electrostatic equilibrium does not exist.

    Electrostatic equilibrium theory works so hard to falsely “explain” that charges are trend to move to the surface, but when facing the electrostatic voltage created by metal at the time when charges are trend to move to the surface, it avoids carefully and does not mention.

    [Introspection] Every high school student has done hundreds of exercises about voltage now, but they don’t know how voltage is formed, this is because free electron theory is contradictory to the formation of voltage, current physics only has to avoid the problem, conceal the flaw. Why avoid? Because the formation of voltage is contradictory to the irregular electron cloud theory of motion of extra nuclear electrons, formation of voltage is deeply contradictory to the current theory that free electrons are filled in the metal. If the electrons in the metal have plenty freedom, metal conductor removing (bringing) part electrons can form high electrostatic voltage can not be explained. If the electrons in the metal have no freedom, how can physics teach that free electrons conduct? Physics chose to avoid voltage between these two difficulties.

    Because the number of extra nuclear electrons in the metal conductor is accurate, has certain orbit, moves stably. If negative charges are inputted, the additional electrons have no valid place to stay, and have the trend to occupy the normal electron orbit, if positive charges are inputted, some electrons are taken away, the structure elements which lack electrons use the normal electrons of adjacent atoms to make them be away from the moving orbit. The wave accompanied by the motion of such unconventional electrons forms the electrostatic voltage. Furthermore, the more the electrons are removed (brought), the stronger the accompanied unconventional voltage is, the higher the voltage of metal is.

    The voltage mentioned in the current textbook is electric potential, here we say that voltage is the voltage wave which drives the macro movement of electrons, which idea complies with objective fact more, you can discuss.

    It is just because the theory of free electron is irreconcilable conflict with the formation of voltage, the current theory can not justify itself, so the formation of voltage in the substance is not mentioned, and avoided carefully. This is a disreputable side of current physics.

    The introduced charges in the experiment generate electrostatic voltage at the same time, which shows that the proton number in the metal and the electron number in the metal correspond accurately, movement of extra nuclear electrons is accurate and stable, the occurrence of electrostatic voltage is pushing out the additional charges, when the charges are conducted away, the metal restores the original equilibrium and regular state, and there is no voltage.

    The experiment proves that there is no free electron in the metal, so, how is the good conductivity of metal formed? Let’s discuss the conduction principle of substance below.

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    7 Conduction Principle

    Gist: The conductivity of metal conductor is good, it is not because of the free electrons, but because the valence electron number of metal atom is few, and electron vacancy exists in the valence electron layer, which can let voltage wave transmit in itself, driven by the voltage, electrons replace and move in the electron vacancies which are connected into loop circuit, and form current. Key words: conduction voltage valence electron number electron vacancy

    One hundred years ago, human invented electricity, after testing several thousand of materials, the conductivity of metal being usually several magnitudes better than other materials is proven. So the theory that “metal transfers heat and conducts through the inside free electrons” came out, and has handed down for one hundred years, also, it leaves one-hundred-year doubt:

    Nucleus has strong attractive force to the extra nuclear electrons, where is the freedom of free electrons from?

    One, two, three valence electrons of metal atom are free electrons.

    Why the freedom of electrons of substance with four, five, six, seven valence electrons is less? The above doubt has come for a long time, many people have felt that it is illogical, and the details can not bear inspection.

    [Experiment] (1) One end of a segment of substance (rubber, plastic, ceramic and so on) is connected to 220V source (live wire), and there is no voltage at the other end, the tester does not display anything, these kind substances are called insulator.

    This indicates that these substances can not conduct, first thing is that even the voltage can not be conducted.

    (2) One end of long metal wire is connected to 220V alternative current (live wire), 220V voltage can be measured immediately at every part of the metal wire, tester displays that there is electricity, and these kind metals are called conductor.

    [Analysis] Experiment (2) is very simple, which is the same as inserting a wiring board in the power, and there is no current at this time, and voltage has been transmitted to all the parts of the wire, which indicates that metal conductor can conduct, first thing is conducting voltage, which indicates that there is a pathway in the conductor which allows the voltage to be transmitted, the conductivity of substance is only linked with the ability of conduction of voltage.

    In the experiment (2), when the voltage is conducted, loop circuit is not formed, only very weak current can not even be generated in the whole wire, which is that under the condition that there is no current moving, voltage has been transferred to each part of the conductor. It proves that during the whole process of transmission of voltage, no electron participates, the transmission of voltage does

    

    not need the participation of electron, and the transmission of voltage is not the action of electron, which is that (free) electron does not play any role during the coverage, transmission of voltage. Conduction of the conductor first transmits voltage, transmission of voltage has nothing to do with the free electrons.

    In the experiment, the demarcation of conductor and insulator is the transmission of voltage, those which can conduct voltage are conductors, which is that conductive materials do not need the participation of electrons to clearly transmit voltage, and have already established their conductivity, metal conductor can conduct voltage has nothing to do with the free electron, metal can become conductor is not the contribution of free electron.

    [Experiment] (3) In the 1950s, many teenagers walked on the scientific road from making ore radio. A very long antenna receives electromagnetic wave (medium wave, short wave), an ore detects, and no power is needed, the received electromagnetic wave enters into the radio and then forms the current that drives headphone through the resonance and amplification of coil and capacitor, and then headphone can make beautiful broadcasting. What drives headphone must be current, and energy is from electromagnetic wave.

    [Analysis] Ore radio must have a long metal antenna, which receives the electromagnetic wave being transmitted from space, the electromagnetic wave being transmitted from space neither contains electron nor current, what metal antenna receives and transmits can only be electromagnetic wave, if you use hemp rope or rubber as antenna, of course the electromagnetic wave can not be received.

    Metal wire——the fact that antenna receives electromagnetic wave indicates: metal conductor has good ability to receive and conduct electromagnetic wave, the demarcation of metal conductor and insulator firstly depends whether a certain frequent (middle wave, short wave) electromagnetic wave can be received and transmitted.

    So, experiment 1——the experiment of conduction of current to examine the conductivity of

    substance can completely be substituted by experiment 3——conduction of electromagnetic wave,

    the conductivity of material is determined by whether a certain frequent electromagnetic wave can successfully be received and transmitted. Electromagnetic wave contains no electron, and no electron participates at the time when metal conductor conducts electromagnetic wave, which proves that good conductivity of metal is because the pathway of certain frequent electromagnetic wave exists inside, not the so called free electron.

    Conductor conducts current——electron flows in the conductor, three processes are actually

    experienced: first, there is a pathway in the substance which is able to conduct the voltage, second, power is connected, and voltage is conducted, third, loop circuit must be connected, which proves that total number of electrons in the system (loop circuit) must be stable at the time when electrons flow, the number of extra nuclear electrons of each atom of substance also keeps dynamic stability at

    

    any time. In the micro area, such second and third processes are finished instantly, which can easily cause the false image that free electron conducts.

    In the experiment 2, we notice that wire first conducts voltage, in experiment 3, we notice that wire receives and conducts electromagnetic wave. (Actually voltage is also a certain frequent electromagnetic wave, which will be discussed in the other subject)

    Metal can conduct conductive current, first it can conduct voltage, and electromagnetic wave. Many experiments indicate, conductor transmitting current is not because the electron in such substance is free, but because “open”——outer layer of atom has “pathway”, which can first let

    voltage wave transmit in it——the information is clear, second, the pathway which allows electron pass directionally must exist——spatial position is clear, and then the flow of electrons in it can be formed——current.

    Conduction principle is: valence electrons of atom of certain substance are few, the external electronic layer is not full, electron vacancy exists, the pathway of transmission of voltage wave exists, and voltage wave can transmit in it, under the action of voltage wave, electrons replace and move in the electron vacancy which connects into the loop circuit, and form current. With the electron vacancy, the pathway of voltage wave can be formed, electrons can change position in the loop circuit under the drive of voltage wave to form all kinds of currents. All the substances, no matter whether they are metal conductors, semiconductors or liquid, superconductor, if they can conduct, it is all because there is electron vacancy in the substance to form pathway, so that voltage wave can transmit in the pathway of electron vacancy, after forming the closed pathway, electrons can change position in it according to the instruction of voltage wave (direct current, alternative current, square wave, sine wave) to form current. All the conduction of substance have the same principle.

    [Introspection] Electrostatic experiment and experiment 2 prove, no free electron exists in the metal. Since one hundred years, the theory that metal relies on free electrons to conduct mentioned in the text book is wrong.

    The reason why metal is good conductor is because there is only one, two valence electrons of outer layer of each atom of metal substance moving around: for example, copper, silver and so on only have one valence electron moving, iron, chromium and other atoms have two valence electrons moving, outer layer of atom has many electron vacancies, which can clearly transmit voltage wave, under the action of voltage wave, electrons change position in the loop to form current, which is easy to conduct.

    In the insulator, because each atom is surrounded by many valence electrons, which makes the outer electronic layer of atom close to full, and there is no electron vacancy, pathway can not be formed, the transmission of voltage is blocked, so conduction can not be formed.

    The above conduction principle explains the conduction of substance, which is a completely new theory, and the breakthrough of conduction theory of physics since one hundred years. All the

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