9. Conduction Principle of Superconductors
Gist: When the temperature decreases to critical temperature, the motion of valence combination electrons is slower and slower, which causes atom to lack losing valence electron temporarily, and the atoms attract valence electrons of adjacent atoms, all the atoms attract the adjacent valence electrons of a certain direction, embezzle valence electrons, and form the public use of outer electrons. Atom takes foreign (public use) electron current as its own extra nuclear electrons, and uses Coulombian force of the core to transport it, so, superconducting current is not only forced by resistance, but also obtains transporting force which is from the core. Under the relaying transportation of core, current is unblocked, which forms the superconducting phenomenon when resistance is zero.
Key words: superconducting electron moves slowly embezzle valence electron public use of electron transporting force
[Experiment] In 1911, famous Netherland physicist Kamerlingh Onnes first liquefied ammonia, and obtained the low temperature of 4.6K;-268.4?；. When Onnes put metallic mercury into the low
temperature ammonia, he discovered that the resistance of mercury decreased acutely, until disappeared, and the resistance was zero! This is absolutely unbelievable at that time.
Superconducting phenomenon always happens when the temperature is very low, and people call the temperature at the time when superconducting happens critical temperature. When metal is superconducting, external magnetic field will be removed completely from the superconductor, which presents strong diamagnetism, and it is also called Meissner Effect.
[Analysis] Occurrence of superconducting is the obvious present that speed of extra nuclear electrons change with temperature, and the obvious characteristics of change of substance character which is cause by the motion of extra nuclear electrons. When the temperature decreases to critical temperature, valence electrons move on a certain plane, the speed is very low, which causes atoms to lack losing valence electron temporarily, and of course the core requires quantitative electrons to surround, so atom embezzles valence electrons of adjacent atoms, the adjacent atoms embezzle again, all the atoms embezzle the adjacent valence electrons of certain direction, so the public use of valence electrons is formed——all the valence electrons do macro motion directionally around many cores. Such state of public use of valence electrons is superconducting state, the substance of which valence electrons are in public state is superconductor.
Core takes public electron current as the extra nuclear electron which itself requires, Coulombian force of the core (force that nucleus attracts extra nuclear electrons to cause the electrons to move around the nucleus) is used to transport the public electrons which flow through itself. So, although public electrons do not move around single nucleus, many electrons flow through the core every moment, which almost satisfies the need from core to electron.
After the superconductor is energized, under the voltage wave, the valence electrons of superconductor which are in public state move, which forms public electron current of extra nuclear electrons——superconducting current. Core takes foreign (public) electron current as the extra nuclear electrons that self requires, and uses Coulombian force of core to transport it, let it flow through self, so superconducting current not only is not forced by resistance, but also obtains a transporting force from the core. Under the relaying transportation of atomic Coulombian force, electron is unblocked, which forms the superconducting phenomenon that resistance is zero.
During the superconducting, a great deal valence electrons flow through the core evenly and clearly, which becomes the composition of extra nuclear electrons, superconducting is the macro flow of a great deal electrons, the resistance is zero, which keeps constant current. Directional motion of a great deal electrons accompanies very intensive electromagnetic field. Because the external magnetic field will interfere directional motion of electrons, the accompanied magnetic field by superconducting current must block the external magnetic field outside, superconductor can completely remove the external magnetic field, and present good diamagnetism, and this is Meissner effect. If the external magnetic field is too intensive, electrons will be interfered to form uniform directional motion, even if the critical low temperature is reached, superconducting still can not happen.
Ferromagnetism or anti ferromagnetism metal has intensive magnetic field inside, and blocks electron group to directionally flow, so it is difficult to form superconducting. And the particles of magnetic substance——impurity will also block the public use of extra nuclear electrons, and influence superconducting to happen. Diamagnetism of superconducting (Meissner effect) proves that motion of electrons accompanies electromagnetic wave again.
Type II superconductor: Nature usually present itself dramatically, superconducting materials which are discovered recently are not traditional metal and alloy with good conductivity, but the ceramics of oxide system which has poor conductivity under the normal state, and this is the so called type II superconductor.
Such superconductor is because after many elements are compounded, speed of electrons is different under the low temperature condition, which causes big electron vacancy, so such superconductor has high critical temperature, and the superconducting current is also strong. Because the compound is combined through the structural elements of many elements, electron vacancy only occupies one place (a slit as a whole), the accompanied magnetic lines by superconducting current of type II superconductor is not very dense, external magnetic field can still go through the other elements, so Meissner effect is not very obvious, but the external magnetism can not be too strong, or superconducting will be blocked. When the valence electron number of element is three, five, seven, valence electron can not be distributed evenly on the atomic surface, and forms uneven surround that valence combination motion is around the core, so the further stratification of valence electron layer is caused (for example, 3 can be divided into 2,1), core does not control outer electrons well under the low temperature, which can easily
form the embezzlement to outer electron, so such element can easily be superconducting under the low temperature.
Atomic mass is big, extra nuclear electron number is many, layer number is many, core does not control outer electron well, embezzlement, public use of outer electrons can easily happen, so the element with big mass is more easily to form superconducting, and the critical temperature is high. Speed of valence combination electrons of some insulators decreases under the low temperature, public use of outer electrons happens, which forms good superconductor. Nature uses superconducting phenomenon to display the dependent relationship between core and extra nuclear electrons to people, and states the regularity of motion of extra nuclear electrons. Superconductivity of substance is closely linked with the temperature, nature displays the new regularity of motion of extra nuclear electrons under low temperature to people, and provides strong instance again for the route of motion of extra nuclear electrons, argument that change of speed determines all kinds of characteristics of substance.
10 Principle of Formation of Superfluid
Gist: Under extremely low temperature, two extra nuclear electrons of helium move on the plane at a low speed at this time, with less electrons and slow speed, and the most surface of two ends of atom are not covered by electrons, which can not satisfy the need of each face of core to electrons. While for the vessel (metal can) filled with liquid helium, substance has more extra nuclear electrons and does valence combination motion at a uniform speed. So helium atom moves to the container wall, and lets core surface to be close to the moving electrons there, in order to satisfy the need of all faces of core to electrons.
So, many helium atoms stick to the container wall, are crowd to go upward along the container wall, if the bottom is full, helium atoms will climb to the top, so the upward flow of liquid helium forms, which forms the so called superfluid.
Key words: helium atom low temperature slow speed container wall superfluid
[Experiment] Superfluid is an interesting phenomenon that substance presents under the extremely low temperature. As the low temperature technique which people prepares improves, the possibly reached temperature becomes lower and lower, even the noble gas helium is frozen into liquid. When people use liquid helium, the more amazing phenomenon happens: liquid helium can climb upward along the container wall, and climb out of the bottle mouth and flow outside, when inserting a very thin glass tube into the liquid helium bottle, liquid helium ejects upward from the glass tube immediately, and forms liquid helium fountain. People call such abnormal flow of liquid helium superfluid.
How does superfluid form?
When the temperature is below 5K, all the substances are in solid state, why is helium in liquid state?
[Analysis] Superfluid brings the physical scholars a difficult problem, water flowing downward is a constant commonsense, gravitational force of earth always exists, which is downward pointing to the geo center. How can it flow upward, eject upward? Many scholars did very complicated calculation, in order to issue various kinds of hypothesis, but they still can not justify themselves. The essence of superfluid is the regular motion of extra nuclear electrons, and the natural effect of regular motion of electrons. Nature always follows simple principle, the principle of superfluid is not complicated, actually superfluid is also the result of regular motion of extra nuclear electrons of liquid helium.
Helium is an inert element, two valence electrons rotate around one core, under the normal temperature, they surround the core in a spherical shape, and form mono atomic gas, and are in a stable state spontaneously. Under the extremely low temperature, two extra nuclear electrons move more slowly, and change from spherical rotation to plane rotation, and the valence magnetic force of plane motion of electrons appears, which makes the atoms mutually attract and be close, and forms liquid helium.
Because it is under the extremely low temperature, two extra nuclear electrons of liquid helium move on the plane at a low speed at this time, and most surface of two ends of atom are not covered by electrons, which can not satisfy the need of all faces of core to electron. But the vessel (metal can) filled with liquid helium has more extra nuclear electrons, and the electrons on surface do valence combination motion at a uniform speed. So helium atom is attracted to the container wall, and lets the surface which is not covered by electrons to be close to the moving electrons there, in order to satisfy the need of all faces of core to electrons.
The extra nuclear electrons on the surface of container all have place to stay, the electrons of helium itself are few and slow, so many helium atoms only have to move to the vessel wall, and be crowd to go upward along the container wall, if the bottom is full, they will go to the top, so the upward flow of liquid helium is formed, after flowing out of the container mouth, they will continue to flow outside along the wall, which forms the so called superfluid.
When inserting a very thin glass tube in the liquid helium bottle, many helium atoms move to the glass tube wall immediately, liquid helium goes upward along the glass tube, the upward inertia forms liquid helium fountain.
When the temperature further decreases, the speed of extra nuclear electrons of liquid helium is slower, the accompanied magnetic force is weaker, the viscous force of liquid substance is provided by cohesion——magnetic force, when the magnetic force is weak, the viscosity of liquid helium decreases. Although the viscosity is weaker, the requirement from helium to the electrons passing by is the same, and superfluid happens often.
Superfluid is another instance of regular motion of extra nuclear electrons of liquid helium with the temperature.
All the substances are consolidated into solid when the temperature is below 5K, only the liquid helium is still liquid when extremely cold (close to 0 k), which is not explained by modern physics. Because: under the extremely cold temperature, two extra nuclear electrons of liquid helium move more and more slowly, and move slowly around the circular plane, normally, the direction of magnetic force at this time is stable, helium is supposed to form solid, but the stable magnetic force in the mono atomic helium is difficult to establish.
Valence combination electrons of average solid substance surround two cores, and form the elliptical orbit to move on the plane, big elliptical area is surrounded in the path, magnetic force is stable, and the intervals among the structural elements are small, which can form the stable solid. But helium is an inert material, two electrons move around the single nucleus in a circular orbit, and the moving route is short, the surrounded area by the path is small, but the intervals among the atoms are high, helium is easy to roll, and lets the adjacent electrons flow through the empty face, in order to satisfy the need of all faces of core to electrons, rotating often like this causes the direction of magnetic force to be irregular, and can not form the solid with stable magnetic force direction, which can only maintain the liquid state of helium
11 How Is the Rain Formed?
Abstract: when the water vapor encounters low temperature, valence combination electron changes from spatial spherical motion to twist motion, and the spherical shell displays breach, valence magnetic force appears at the breach, valence magnetic force of homogeneous water vapor mutually attracts, which makes the analogs that are far away gather, like this, water vapor gathers, and condenses into water.
Key words: water vapor twist motion breach valence magnetic force attract condense
Water vapor occupies less than one percent in the air, how do these water molecules which are evenly distributed in the air find their analogs in the atmosphere? How to attract the analogs, gather into rain?
[Fact] Water vapor in the atmosphere is condensed into water when it gets colder.
[Analysis] After knowing the phase transition, we can answer how the water vapor in the sky gathers into rain, formation of rain is the sublimation of water vapor.
As mentioned above, the process of evaporation is: when the temperature increases, valence combination electrons of substance enter into spatial sphere to rotate from the spatial twist motion, and the path surrounds the whole ellipsoid, valence magnetic force has no direction, spherical electron and the adjacent spherical electrons repel each other, which makes the molecule balls push each other away, the substance is gaseous. Water vapor is formed like this.
Sublimation is the inverse process of evaporation. Before raining, the water vapor in the sky gets colder, and the speed of valence combination electrons decreases, valence combination electrons enter into twist motion from spatial spherical motion, the shell of ellipsoid is breach, the valence magnetic force at the breach presents. Homogeneous molecules of water vapor all present the same phenomenon, valence magnetic force mutually attracts, which makes the far away analogs meet, gather. Valence magnetic force still exists after being gathered, and is stronger, continues to attract the analogs, so, water vapor gathers into little water mist——cloud.
When the temperature is lower, the valence magnetic force at the breach of water vapor continues to still and the direction of it is trend to be stable, water vapor gathers into the droplet, and droplets further gather into large droplets, which forms the rain when falling down.
When water vapor gets colder to condense, valence combination electrons enter into the twist motion, and valence magnetic force presents, extra nuclear electrons of oxygen, nitrogen and other gases in the atmosphere still do spatial spherical motion, and get out of the way a little, and the gather of water vapor has nothing to do with them.
Dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) or other dusts are usually sprayed to the cloud during the artificial rainfall, because the speed of valence combination electrons of dry ice or dust is slow, and the valence
combination electrons of water vapor can easily slow down on its surface and attach, gather, rain is formed when more gather.
Water vapor which is close to the ground in the evening also gathers into the dew like this on the grass. Oxygen which is formed by the photosynthesis of grass in the daytime takes off heat, which makes the temperature of grass decrease. In the evening, near the cool grass, the speed of valence combination electrons of water vapor first decreases, breach exists at the molecule shell, and valence magnetic force is generated at the breach, and absorbed to the grass, the temperature of more water vapors nearby decreases gradually, the generated valence magnetic force and the original valence magnetic force on grass mutually attract, and such gatherings become more and more, which gradually gathers into small dews.
In such gathering of molecules, the valence combination electrons of each other have to slow down, in order to maintain or strengthen such gathering, so the molecules which gather together all release the heat. Release of heat during the consolidation is formed, such heat release is not obvious in the cold climate, in summer, mugginess before raining is formed because of such heat release. In the gas manufacture industry, making use of structural units of different substances having different speeds of valence combination motion under different temperatures, making use of cooling technology to condense air gradually, breach presents in a spherical route of certain gas, valence magnetic force presents, which makes such homogeneous gaseous molecules gather, condense. Water is removed first, and then carbon dioxide is condensed into liquid, which further condenses oxygen into liquid oxygen, nitrogen into liquid nitrogen.
12 Formation of Thunder and Lightning
Abstract: Charges on surface——free electrons in the air are easily absorbed and included by the core of water vapor, and form the additional part of extra nuclear electrons of water vapor. Water vapor arises to the sky, when getting colder, the phase transition from gas to liquid is formed, and the surplus electrons have no place to stay, the extruded charges gather among the cloud layers, which forms unconventional electromagnetic wave——voltage in the cloud layer. The potential difference among the