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Introduction to the Verbal Reasoning Measure

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Introduction to the Verbal Reasoning Measure

    ?GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS

    Introduction to the Verbal Reasoning

    Measure

    Copyright ? 2010 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. ETS, the E T S logo, GRADUATE 69743919.doc Page 1 of 20

RECORD EXAMINATIONS, and GRE are registered

    trademarks of Educational Testing Service (E T S) in the United States and other countries.

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    Introduction to the Verbal Reasoning Measure

    Information for screen reader users:

    This document has been created to be accessible to individuals who use screen readers. You may wish to consult the manual or help system for your screen reader to learn how best to take advantage of the features implemented in this document. In particular, numerous hyperlinks have been added to assist in moving easily between explanations of questions and the parts of the question referenced by the explanation. Please consult the separate document, GRE Screen Reader Instructions.doc, for additional important details.

    This document describes the types of questions contained in the Verbal Reasoning section, gives you strategies for answering them, and presents some worked examples.

    Purpose and Format of the Verbal Reasoning Section

    The Verbal Reasoning section of the GRE? measures your ability

    to analyze and evaluate written material and synthesize information obtained from it, to analyze relationships among component parts of sentences, and to recognize relationships among words and concepts.

    Verbal Reasoning questions appear in several formats, each of which is discussed in detail below. About half of the section requires you to read passages and answer questions on those 69743919.doc Page 3 of 20

    passages. The other half requires you to read, interpret, and complete existing sentences, groups of sentences, or paragraphs. All of the questions are multiple choice, with the number of choices varying, depending on the type of question. Verbal Reasoning Question Types The GRE Verbal Reasoning section contains three types of questions: Reading Comprehension, Text Completion, and Sentence Equivalence. In this section you will study each of these question types one by one, and you’ll learn valuable strategies for answering each type.

    Reading Comprehension

    Reading Comprehension questions are designed to test a wide range of abilities required to read and understand the kinds of prose commonly encountered in graduate school. Those abilities include:

    1. understanding the meaning of individual words

    2. understanding the meaning of individual sentences

    3. understanding the meaning of paragraphs and larger

    bodies of text

    4. distinguishing between minor and major points

    5. summarizing a passage

    6. drawing conclusions from the information provided

    7. reasoning from incomplete data, inferring missing

    information

    8. understanding the structure of a text, how the parts

    relate to one another

    9. identifying the author’s perspective

    10. identifying the author’s assumptions

    11. analyzing a text and reaching conclusions about it

    12. identifying strengths and weaknesses

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    13. developing and considering alternative explanations

    As this list implies, reading and understanding a piece of text requires far more than a passive understanding of the words and sentences it containsit requires active engagement with the

    text, asking questions, formulating and evaluating hypotheses, and reflecting on the relationship of the particular text to other texts and information.

    Each Reading Comprehension question is based on a passage, which may range in length from one paragraph to several paragraphs. The test contains twelve to fifteen passages; the majority of the passages in the test are one paragraph in length, and only one or two are several paragraphs long. Passages are drawn from the physical sciences, the biological sciences, the social sciences, the arts and humanities, and everyday topics, and are based on material found in books and periodicals, both academic and nonacademic.

    Typically, about half of the questions on the test will be based on passages, and the number of questions based on a given passage can range from one to six. Questions can cover any of the topics listed above, from understanding the meaning of a particular word to assessing evidence that might support or weaken points made in the passage.

    General Advice for Reading Comprehension

    Questions

    1. Reading passages are drawn from many different disciplines and sources, so you may encounter material with which you are not familiar. Do not be discouraged when this happens; all the questions can be answered on the basis of the information 69743919.doc Page 5 of 20

    provided in the passage, and you are not expected to rely on any outside knowledge. If, however, you encounter a passage that seems particularly hard or unfamiliar, you may want to save it for last.

    2. Read and analyze the passage carefully before trying to answer any of the questions, and pay attention to clues that help you understand less explicit aspects of the passage.

    2a. Try to distinguish main ideas from supporting ideas or

    evidence.

    2b. Try to distinguish ideas that the author is advancing

    from those he or she is merely reporting.

    2c. Similarly, try to distinguish ideas that the author is

    strongly committed to from those he or she advances as

    hypothetical or speculative.

    2d. Try to identify the main transitions from one idea to

    the next.

    2e. Try to identify the relationship between different ideas.

    For example:

    ;;Are they contrasting? Are they consistent?

    ;;Does one support the other?

    ;;Does one spell another out in greater detail?

    ;;Does one apply another to a particular circumstance?

    3. Read each question carefully and be certain that you understand exactly what is being asked.

    4. Answer each question on the basis of the information provided in the passage and do not rely on outside knowledge. Sometimes your own views or opinions may conflict with those presented in a passage; if this happens, take special care to work within the context provided by the passage. You should not 69743919.doc Page 6 of 20

    expect to agree with everything you encounter in the reading passages.

    Multiple-ChoiceSelect One

    Description: These are the traditional multiple-choice questions with five answer choices of which you must select one. Tips for Answering Single Selection Multiple-Choice Questions

    ;;Read all the answer choices before making your selection,

    even if you think you know what the answer is in advance.

    ;;The correct answer is the one that most accurately and

    most completely answers the question posed; be careful not

    to be misled by answer choices that are only partially true

    or only partially answer the question. Be careful also not to

    pick an answer choice simply because it is a true statement.

    ;;When the question is a vocabulary question about a word in

    the passage, be sure that the answer choice you select

    correctly represents the way the word is being used in the

    passage. Many words have quite different meanings in

    different contexts.

    Multiple-ChoiceSelect One or More

    Description: These provide three answer choices and ask you to select all that are correct; one, two, or all three of the answer choices may be correct. To gain credit for these questions, you must select all the correct answers, and only those; there is no credit for partially correct answers.

    Tips for Answering Multiple Selection Multiple-Choice Questions

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    ;;Evaluate each answer choice separately on its own merits;

    when evaluating one answer choice, do not take the others

    into account.

    ;;A correct answer choice accurately and completely answers

    the question posed; be careful not to be misled by answer

    choices that are only partially true or only partially answer

    the question. Be careful also not to pick an answer choice

    simply because it is a true statement.

    ;;Do not be disturbed if you think all three answer choices

    are correct, since questions of this type can have three

    correct answer choices.

    Select-in-Passage

    Description: The question asks you to select the sentence in the passage that meets a certain description.

    Standard Computer-Based Version

    In the standard computer-based version of the test, to answer the question, choose one of the sentences and click on it; clicking anywhere on a sentence will highlight it. In longer passages, the question will usually apply to only one or two specified paragraphs, marked by an arrow (;); clicking on a sentence

    elsewhere in the passage will not highlight it.

    Print, Audio, and Braille Editions

    In these editions for shorter passages, the passage will be followed by a lettered listing of each sentence in the passage, in the order presented in the passage. Select the letter of the sentence you have selected. In longer passages, the question will usually apply to only one or two specified paragraphs. The listing of sentences from which to choose will be preceded by an 69743919.doc Page 8 of 20

    indication of the portion of the passage from which the sentences have been taken.

    Voiced Edition

    The presentation details for select-in-passage questions have not been finalized. When the practice voiced edition of the Revised GRE is released, the included tutorial will explain how to select and indicate your answers to questions of this type. Tips for Answering Select-in-Passage Questions

    ;;Be careful to evaluate each of the relevant sentences in the passage separately before selecting your answer. Do not evaluate any sentences that are outside the paragraphs under consideration.

    ;;A correct answer choice must accurately match the

    description given in the question; do not select a sentence if the description only partially applies. Note that the description need not be complete; that is, there may be aspects of the sentence that are not fully described in the question.

    Example Set: Reading Comprehension

    Questions 1-3 are based on the following passage: Reviving the practice of using elements of popular music in classical composition, an approach that had been in hibernation in the United States during the 1960s, composer Philip Glass

    (born 1937) embraced the ethos of popular music without imitating it. Glass based two symphonies on music by rock musicians David Bowie and Brian Eno, but the symphonies’ sound is distinctively his. Popular elements do not appear out of place in Glass’s classical music, which from its early days has shared

    certain harmonies and rhythms with rock music. Yet this use of popular elements has not made Glass a composer of popular 69743919.doc Page 9 of 20

    music. His music is not a version of popular music packaged to attract classical listeners; it is high art for listeners steeped in rock rather than the classics.

    The passage is repeated below, with the sentences numbered for convenience of reference. In the test itself, the sentences are not numbered.

    (1) Reviving the practice of using elements of popular music in classical composition, an approach that had been in hibernation in the United States during the 1960s, composer Philip Glass

    (born 1937) embraced the ethos of popular music without imitating it. (2) Glass based two symphonies on music by rock musicians David Bowie and Brian Eno, but the symphonies’ sound

    is distinctively his. (3) Popular elements do not appear out of

    place in Glass’s classical music, which from its early days has shared certain harmonies and rhythms with rock music. (4) Yet

    this use of popular elements has not made Glass a composer of popular music. (5) His music is not a version of popular music packaged to attract classical listeners; it is high art for listeners steeped in rock rather than the classics.

    1. Consider each of the three choices separately and select all that apply.

    The passage suggests that Glass’s work displays which of the following qualities?

    A. A return to the use of popular music in classical compositions

    B. An attempt to elevate rock music to an artistic status more closely approximating that of classical music

    C. A long-standing tendency to incorporate elements from two apparently disparate musical styles

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