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Collapse - How Societies Choose To Fail Or Succeed (2004 Jared Diamond)

By Theodore Johnson,2014-11-19 19:56
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Collapse - How Societies Choose To Fail Or Succeed (2004 Jared Diamond)

ALSO BY JARED DIAMOND

    Guns, Germs, and Steel

    Why Is Sex Fun? The Third Chimpanzee

COLLAPSE

    HOW SOCIETIES CHOOSE TO

    FAIL OR SUCCEED

    ? ? ? ? ??????

    JARED DIAMOND

    VIKING

    VIKING Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, U.S.A. Penguin Group (Canada), 10 Alcorn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4V 3B2 (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.) Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England Penguin Ireland, 25 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) Penguin Books Australia Ltd, 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi110 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), Cnr Airborne and Rosedale Roads, Albany, Auckland 1310, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England First published in 2005 by Viking Penguin, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.

    13579 10 8642

    Copyright ? Jared Diamond, 2005 All rights reserved

    Maps by Jeffrey L. Ward

    LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Diamond, Jared M.

    Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed/Jared Diamond. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-670-03337-5

    1. Social historyCase studies. 2. Social changeCase studies. 3. Environmental policy Case studies. I. Title. HN13. D5 2005 304.2'8dc22 2004057152

    This book is printed on acid-free paper. 8

    Printed in the United States of America Set in Minion

    Designed by Francesca Belanger

    Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book.

    The scanning, uploading, and distribution of this book via the Internet or via any other means without the permission of the publisher is illegal and punishable by law. Please purchase only authorized electronic editions and do not participate in or encourage electronic piracy of copyrightable materials. Your support of the author's rights is appreciated.

    To

    Jack and Ann Hirschy, Jill Hirschy Eliel and John Eliel,

    Joyce Hirschy McDowell, Dick (1929-2003) and Margy Hirschy, and their fellow Montanans: guardians of Montana's big sky

    I met a traveler from an antique land Who said: "Two vast and trunkless legs of stone Stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand, Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown, And wrinkled lip and sneer of cold command, Tell that its sculptor well those passions read, Which yet survive, stampt on these lifeless things, The hand that mockt them and the heart that fed: And on the pedestal these words appear: 'My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!' Nothing beside remains. Round the decay Of that colossal wreck,

    boundless and bare The lone and level sands stretch far away."

    "Ozymandias," by Percy Bysshe Shelley (1817)

    CONTENTS

    List of Maps xiu

    Prologue: A Tale of Two Farms

1

    Two farms ? Collapses, past and present ? Vanished Edens? ? A

    five-point framework ? Businesses and the environment ? The

    comparative method ? Plan of the book ?

    PartOne: MODERN MONTANA 25

    Chapter 1: Under Montana's Big Sky 27

    Stan Falkow's story ? Montana and me ? Why begin with Montana? ? Montana's economic history ? Mining • Forests ? Soil ? Water ?? Native and non-native species ? Differing visions ? Attitudes towards regulation • Rick Laible's story ? Chip Pigman's story ? Tim Huls's story ? John Cook's story ? Montana, model of the world *

    PartTwo: PAST SOCIETIES 77

    Chapter 2: Twilight at Easter 79

    The quarry's mysteries ? Easter's geography and history ? People

    and food * Chiefs, clans, and commoners ? Platforms and statues ?

    Carving, transporting, erecting ? The vanished forest ?

    Consequences for society ? Europeans and explanations ? Why was Easter fragile? ? Easter as metaphor •

    Chapter 3: The Last People Alive: Pitcairn and Henderson Islands 120

    Pitcairn before the Bounty ? Three dissimilar islands ? Trade ?

    The movie's ending *

    Chapter 4: The Ancient Ones: The Anasazi and Their Neighbors 136

    Desert farmers • Tree rings * Agricultural strategies * Chaco's

    problems and packrats • Regional integration ? Chaco's decline and end * Chaco's message ?

    Contents X

    Chapter 5: The Maya Collapses 157 Mysteries of lost cities ? The Maya environment ? Maya

    agriculture ? Maya history ? Copan * Complexities of collapses ? Wars and droughts ? Collapse in the southern lowlands ? The Maya message ?

    Chapter 6: The Viking Prelude and Fugues 178 Experiments in the Atlantic ? The Viking explosion ? Autocatalysis ? Viking agriculture ? Iron ? Viking chiefs ? Viking religion ?

    Orkneys, Shetlands, Faeroes ? Iceland's environment ? Iceland's history ? Iceland in context ? Vinland ?

    Chapter 7: Norse Greenland's Flowering 211 Europe's outpost ? Greenland's climate today ? Climate in the past ? Native plants and animals ? Norse settlement ? Farming ?

    Hunting and fishing ? An integrated economy ? Society ? Trade with Europe * Self-image ?

    Chapter 8: Norse Greenland's End 248 Introduction to the end ? Deforestation ? Soil and turf damage ?

    The Inuit's predecessors ? Inuit subsistence ? Inuit/Norse relations * The end ? Ultimate causes of the end ?

    Chapter 9: Opposite Paths to Success 277 Bottom up, top down ? New Guinea highlands ? Tikopia ?

    Tokugawa problems ? Tokugawa solutions ? Why Japan succeeded ? Other successes ?

    Part Three: MODERN SOCIETIES 309 Chapter 10: Malthus in Africa: Rwanda's Genocide 311 A dilemma ? Events in Rwanda * More than ethnic hatred ?

    Buildup in Kanama ? Explosion in Kanama ? Why it happened ?

    Chapter 11: One Island, Two Peoples, Two Histories:

    The Dominican Republic and Haiti 329 Differences * Histories ? Causes of divergence * Dominican

    environmental impacts ? Balaguer ? The Dominican environment today ? The future ?

    Contents xi Chapter 12: China, Lurching Giant 358 China's significance ? Background ? Air, water, soil ? Habitat, species, megaprojects ? Consequences ? Connections ? The future

    Chapter 13: "Mining" Australia 378

    EAustralia's significance * Soils ? Water ? Distance ? Early history

    Imported values ? Trade and immigration ? Land degradation • Other environmental problems ? Signs of hope and change ?

    Part Four: PRACTICAL LESSONS 417 Chapter 14: Why Do Some Societies Make Disastrous

    Decisions? 419 Road map for success ? Failure to anticipate ? Failure to perceive ?

    Rational bad behavior ? Disastrous values ? Other irrational failures ? Unsuccessful solutions • Signs of hope ?

    Chapter 15: Big Businesses and the Environment:

    Different Conditions, Different Outcomes 441

    Resource extraction ? Two oil fields ? Oil company motives ?

    Hardrock mining operations * Mining company motives •

    Differences among mining companies ? The logging industry ? Forest Stewardship Council ? The seafood industry ? Businesses and the public ?

    Chapter 16: The World as a Polder: What Does It All Mean

    to Us Today? 486

    Introduction ? The most serious problems • If we don't solve

    them ... ? Life in Los Angeles • One-liner objections ? The past and the present ? Reasons for hope ?

    Acknowledgments 526 Further Readings 529 Index ' 561 Illustration Credits 576

    LIST OF MAPS

    The World: Prehistoric, Historic, and Modern Societies 4-5 Contemporary Montana 31 The Pacific Ocean, the Pitcairn Islands, and Easter Island 84-85 The Pitcairn Islands 122 Anasazi Sites 142 Maya Sites 161 The Viking Expansion 182-183 Contemporary Hispaniola 331 Contemporary China 361 Contemporary Australia 386 Political Trouble Spots of the Modern World;

    Environmental Trouble Spots of the Modern World 497

COLLAPSE

I

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