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At a Glance Summary

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At a Glance Summary

    Work Paper WPSCNRLG0005

    Revision 1

Southern California Edison Company

    Design & Engineering Services

    Four 8-Foot T-8 Lamps with Premium IS RLO EB - NRDI

    October 12, 2007

    At a Glance Summary

    Retrofit 4-lamp fixture with (4) 96” T-8 lamps (59W) with (2) Measure Name Premium Instant Start, Reduced Light Output Elec. Ballasts

    Fixture Savings Impacts Common Units

    Four 96” T12 Energy Saver (ES) lamps (60W) with ES Customer Base Case Description magnetic ballasts

    Same as Customer Base Case. Four 96” T12 Energy Saver Code Base Case Description (ES) lamps (60W) with ES magnetic ballasts

    Fixture, same as Savings Impacts Costs Common Units

    All Climate Zone

    All Building Vintage

    $59.00 or $ 84.63 Measure Equipment Cost ($/unit)

    $161.71 or $128.28 Measure Incremental Cost ($/unit)

    $161.71 or $128.28 Measure Installed Cost ($/unit)

    Indoor Lighting (IndoorLt) Measure Load Shape

    11 years Effective Useful Life (years)

    Retrofit Program Type

    0% TOU AC Adjustment

    Non-Residential Direct Install, 0.96 Net-to-Gross Ratio

    The Non-Residential Direct Install Program measures only

    replace lamps and ballasts and not fixtures. Therefore, this Important Comments measure is not affected by Title 24’s Alteration Code

    Requirements.

    001 Restaurant (sit-down) 251.160 0.0428 251.160 0.0428 002 Restaurant (fast food) 355.810 0.0428 355.810 0.0428 003 Grocery Store 329.056 0.0506 329.056 0.0506 004 Office 164.268 0.0506 164.268 0.0506 005 Small Retail 222.222 0.0524 222.222 0.0524 006 Large Retail 242.424 0.0524 242.424 0.0524 007 Education (Secondary 132.538 0.0258 132.538 0.0258

    School)

    i WPSCNRLG0005, Revision 1 October 12, 2007

    Southern California Edison

    008 Education (Community 218.040 0.0415 218.040 0.0415

    College)

    009 Education (University) 176.698 0.0415 176.698 0.0415 010 Medical Clinic 515.424 0.0466 515.424 0.0466 011 Hotel/Motel (Non-Guest 497.952 0.0382 497.952 0.0382

    Rooms)

    012 Misc. Commercial 195.048 0.0358 195.048 0.0358

    ii WPSCNRLG0005, Revision 1 October 12, 2007

    Southern California Edison

Document Revision History

Revision 0 February 27, 2007 Original work paper from February 2007 short form.

    Revision 1 October 12, 2007 Converted to new work paper format.

     Added DEER Differences, Codes & Standards, EM&V sections

    and analysis.

     Reduced the annual operating hours for the Misc. Commercial

    building type from 4,500 to 3,612.

     Reduced the peak demand Coincident Diversity Factor for the

    Misc. Commercial building type from 0.76 to 0.634.

     Misc. Commercial building type annual energy savings reduced

    from 243.00-to-195.048 kWh/fixture.

     Misc. Commercial building type peak demand reduction reduced

    0.0429-to-0.0358 kW/fixture.

Note: The information provided in this Work Paper was developed using the best available

    technical resources at the time this document was prepared.

    iii WPSCNRLG0005, Revision 1 October 12, 2007

    Southern California Edison

Table of Contents

    At a Glance Summary ................................................................................................................. i

    Document Revision History ...................................................................................................... iii

    Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................... iv

    List of Tables ............................................................................................................................ iv

    Section 1. General Measure & Baseline Data ..............................................................................1 1.1 Measure Description & Background ..................................................................................1 1.2 DEER Differences Analysis ..............................................................................................1 1.3 Codes & Standards Requirements Analysis .......................................................................1 1.4 EM&V, Market Potential, and Other Studies .....................................................................1 1.5 Base Cases for Savings Estimates: Existing & Above Code ...............................................2

    1.6 Base Case and Measure Effective Useful Life ....................................................................2 1.7 Net-to-Gross Ratios for Different Program Strategies ........................................................2 Section 2. Calculation Methods ...................................................................................................3

    2.1 Energy Savings Estimation Methodologies ........................................................................3 2.2. Demand Reduction Estimation Methodologies .................................................................4 Section 3. Load Shapes ...............................................................................................................5

    3.1 Base Case Load Shape .......................................................................................................5

    3.2 Measure Load Shapes ........................................................................................................6

    Section 4. Base Case and Measure Costs .....................................................................................7 4.1 Base Case Costs ................................................................................................................7

    4.2 Measure Costs ...................................................................................................................7

     4.3 Incremental and Full Measure Costs ..................................................................................7References ..................................................................................................................................8

    List of Tables

    Table 1 Base Case Standard Fixture Wattage..............................................................................2 Table 2 Net-to-Gross Ratio.........................................................................................................2

    Table 3 Measure Standard Fixture Wattage ................................................................................3 Table 4 ΔWattage from Base Case to Measure ...........................................................................3

    Table 5 Energy Savings for All Market Sectors ..........................................................................4 Table 6 Demand Savings for all Market Sectors .........................................................................5 Table 7 Measure Costs ...............................................................................................................7

List of Figures

    Figure 1. TOU Energy Factors for the Indoor Lighting End Use. .................................................6 Figure 2. TOU Demand Factors for the Indoor Lighting End Use. ...............................................6

    iv WPSCNRLG0005, Revision 1 October 12, 2007

    Southern California Edison

Section 1. General Measure & Baseline Data

    1.1 Measure Description & Background

    This work paper documents the E3 Calculator inputs for replacing four 96” T12 Energy Saver rdlamps (60W) and Energy Saving (ES) magnetic ballasts (F84EE or F82EE x 2) with four 96” 3

    Generation T8 lamps (59W) and two Instant-Start Reduced Light Output (RLO) electronic ballasts (F82ILL-R x 2). This measure is part of the Direct Installation Program and assumes that only the lamps and ballasts are replaced.

    1.2 DEER Differences Analysis

     This measure is not included in the Database for Energy Efficient Resources (DEER)though the

    database contains similar interior lighting retrofit measures (D03-852). Section 3.1 of the database companion document, the DEER Update Study Final Report, includes a description attributed to interior lighting measures.

    The savings calculations for this measure apply the methodology described in the DEER report to the specific base case equipment and proposed measure characteristics to determine the energy savings and demand reduction.

    1.3 Codes & Standards Requirements Analysis

    The California Building Energy Efficiency Standards, Part 6 (Title 24), Nonresidential Compliance Manual, Section 5.14, describes the requirements for lighting alterations.

    “Lighting alterations generally refers to replacing the entire luminaire, which includes the housing, lamps, ballasts, and louvers or lenses.”

    The replacement of lamps and ballasts in existing fixtures is not considered a lighting alteration if the fixture itself is not replaced and there is no increase to the lighting load. As this measure is a lamp and ballast only replacement, Title 24 requirements do not apply.

    1.4 EM&V, Market Potential, and Other Studies

    Ten recent Measurement and Evaluation (M&E) studies were reviewed to determine whether the deemed operating hours adopted in 2005 DEER Update Study Final Report, found in Tables 3-2 and 3-5 of the report. Of the ten studies, only four provided some level of average annual operating hours by building type. The remaining six studies made no attempt to neither quantify nor qualify individual site operating hours for building level averages. The available averages from the studies were compared with the individual DEER building type values. The study averages contained a low number of sites at the building level type. The studies do not provide sufficient overall statistical validity to justify replacing the existing DEER operating hours. Specifically, the 2003 Statewide Express Efficiency Study states in Appendix H, Section H3. Results, page H3-1:

    “…any presentation and discussion of results for the individual segments must be

    prefaced by a very strong caveat: The purpose of this study, the sample sizes, and overall

    methodology were all intended to produce a single estimate of hours of operation for

    1 WPSCNRLG0005, Revision 1 October 12, 2007

    Southern California Edison

    program participants; in no way does the presentation of segment-level results signify an

    endorsement for the use any other estimate than the final, program-wide figure.”

    Hence, the DEER annual operating hours for lighting calculations will remain the primary values used in SCE’s work papers with two exceptions.

First, the value listed in Table 3-5 of the DEER Update Final Report for Lodging Hotel

    Guestrooms (8,736 hours) is considered an oversight within the DEER Update Final Report and the correct value is the one listed in Table 3-2 of the DEER report for Lodging Guestrooms

    (1,145 hours).

    Second, the “Miscellaneous Commercial” building type that is common in several energy efficiency programs such as Express Efficiency, Nonresidential Direct Install, etc. This building type is used when there is no information about the actual building category a lighting retrofit measure was installed in. The 2003 Statewide EE Study provides an overall program average annual value of 3,612 hours, which excludes the skewed Lodging values from Hotel Guestrooms. In addition to the change in annual operating hours, the Coincident Diversity Factor has been changed to 63.4%. This value was arrived at by averaging the Overall Excluding Lodging percentages for Hours 15 to 17 of Exhibit H3-10, which meets the Peak Demand Reduction definition that the CPUC adopted in Decision D06-06-063.

    1.5 Base Cases for Savings Estimates: Existing & Above Code

    The base case assumes four 96” T12 Energy Saver lamps and ES magnetic ballasts for both the

    existing and the above code savings estimates. The fixture wattage is taken from the Appendix B of the 2007 Standard Performance Contract (SPC) Program Manual. Table 1 shows the SPC fixture and lamp codes as well as the specific features and wattage of the base case fixture.

    Table 1 Base Case Standard Fixture Wattage

    Fixture Code Lamp Code Ballast Type Lamps / Fixture Wattage / Fixture (W)

    F84EE or F96T12/ES Mag-ES 4 246

    F82EE x 2

    1.6 Base Case and Measure Effective Useful Life

    The 2005 SERA Revised Updated EUL Retention and Persistence Study indicated the Effective Useful Life for T8 linear fluorescents lamps and ballasts is 11 years, which is also referenced in the DEER.

    1.7 Net-to-Gross Ratios for Different Program Strategies

    The NTG ratio was obtained from the DEER website’s NTG Table, as directed in Version 3 of the CPUC EE Policy Manual, and shown in Table 2 below.

    Table 2 Net-to-Gross Ratio

    Program Approach NTG

    Express Efficiency 0.96

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    Southern California Edison

Section 2. Calculation Methods

    Like the base case wattage, the measure wattage was attained from Appendix B of the SPC Manual. Table 3 shows the SPC fixture and lamp codes as well as the specific features and wattage of the measure fixture.

    Table 3 Measure Standard Fixture Wattage

    Fixture Code Lamp Code Ballast Type Lamps / Fixture Wattage / Fixture (W)

    F82ILL-R x 2 F96T8 Electronic 4 196

    2.1 Energy Savings Estimation Methodologies

    ΔWatts is the difference in wattage from the base case to the measure as shown below, and in

    Table 4, ΔWattage from Base Case to Measure..

ΔWatts = Base Case Wattage - Measure Wattage = 246 - 196 = 50 Watts

    Table 4 ΔWattage from Base Case to Measure

    Base Case Wattage (W) Measure Wattage (W) ΔWattage (W)

    246 196 50

    The energy savings estimates are based upon the DEER methodology for Express Efficiency type programs. The "unit" referenced in the equation below is a fixture. The methodology for energy savings is as follows:

    WattsInstallationRateAnnualHoursInteractiveEffects;;;;;;~kWh?Unit(?Energy Savings = ?UnitYear?Watthours1,000~kWh(?

    The annual energy savings are based on DEER Annual Operating Hours and Energy Interactive Effects by Building Type for Non-CFL Lighting, as shown in Table 5 below for each market sector. Energy interactive effects are the additional savings resulting from the reduced air conditioning load because of the reduction in internal heat gains from the more efficient lighting system. .

Below is an example calculation, assuming a “Retail, Single-story Large” market sector for

    annual hours, energy interactive effects, and a 100% installation rate for Direct Install approach:

    kWh?;;;;;;;;50100%43681.11Energy Savings (Retail, Single-Story Large) = ?UnitYear?Watthours1,000~kWh(?

    = 242.424 kWh

    3 WPSCNRLG0005, Revision 1 October 12, 2007

    Southern California Edison

    Table 5 Energy Savings for All Market Sectors

    Market Sector Annual Energy Annual

    operating Interactive kWh

    Hours Effects Savings

    Restaurant_Sit_Down 4,368 1.15 251.160

    Restaurant_Fast_Food 6,188 1.15 355.810

    Grocery Store 5,824 1.13 329.056

    Office 2,808 1.17 164.268

    Small_Retail 4,004 1.11 222.222

    Large_Retail 4,368 1.11 242.424

    Education (Secondary School) 2,305 1.15 132.538

    Education (Community College, 3,792 1.15 218.040

    Trade Schools and Day Care)

    Education (University) 3,073 1.15 176.698

    Medical Clinic 8,736 1.18 515.424

    Hotel / Motel (Non-Guest 8,736 1.14 497.952

    Rooms)

    Miscellaneous Commercial* 3,612 1.08 195.048 *Miscellaneous Commercial data obtained from the 2003 Statewide EE Study.2.2. Demand Reduction Estimation Methodologies

    The demand reduction estimates are based upon the DEER methodology for Express Efficiency type programs. The methodology for demand reduction is as follows:

    Watts;;;;;;InstallationRatePeakCoincidenceFactorInteractiveEffects~kW?UnitDemand Reduction = (??Unit?W1000kW

    The demand reduction is based on DEER Annual Operating Hours, Demand Diversity Factors and Coincident Diversity Factors (Peak Coincident Factor) by Building Type for Non-CFL Lighting. Table 6 lists the demand interactive effects and coincident diversity factors used to calculate the peak reduction for each market sector. Below is an example calculation assuming the “Retail – Single-story Large” market sector for installation rate, peak coincidence factor and

    energy interactive effects:

    kW?;;;;;;;;50100%0.881.19Demand Reduction = = 0.0524 kW (Retail Single-Story Large)?Unit?W1000kW

    4 WPSCNRLG0005, Revision 1 October 12, 2007

    Southern California Edison

    Table 6 Demand Savings for all Market Sectors

    Market Sector Coincident Demand Demand

    Diversity Interactive kW

    Factors Effects Savings

    Restaurant_Sit_Down 0.68 1.26 0.0428

    Restaurant_Fast_Food 0.68 1.26 0.0428

    Grocery Store 0.81 1.25 0.0506

    Office 0.81 1.25 0.0506

    Small_Retail 0.88 1.19 0.0524

    Large_Retail 0.88 1.19 0.0524

    Education (Secondary School) 0.42 1.23 0.0258

    Education (Community College, 0.68 1.22 0.0415

    Trade Schools and Day Care)

    Education (University) 0.68 1.22 0.0415

    Medical Clinic 0.74 1.26 0.0466

    Hotel / Motel 0.67 1.14 0.0382

    (Non-Guest Rooms)

    Miscellaneous Commercial* 0.634 1.13 0.0358

    *Miscellaneous Commercial data obtained from the 2003 Statewide EE Study.

Section 3. Load Shapes

    Load Shapes are an important part of the life-cycle cost analysis of any energy efficiency program portfolio. The net benefits associated with a measure depend on the amount of energy saved and the avoided cost per unit of energy saved. For electricity, the avoided cost varies hourly over an entire year. Thus, the net benefits calculation for a measure requires both the total annual energy savings (kWh) of the measure and the distribution of that savings over the year.

The distribution of savings over the year is represented by the measure’s load shape. The

    measure’s load shape indicates what fraction of annual energy savings occurs in each time period of the year. An hourly load shape indicates what fraction of annual savings occurs for each hour of the year. A Time-of-Use (TOU) load shape indicates what fraction occurs within five or six broad time-of-use periods, typically defined by a specific utility rate tariff.

    Formally, a load shape is set of fractions summing to unity, one fraction for each hour or for each TOU period. Multiplying the measure load shape with the hourly avoided cost stream determines the average avoided cost per kWh for use in the life cycle cost analysis that determines a measure’s Total Resource Cost (TRC) benefit.

    3.1 Base Case Load Shape

    The existing base case indoor lighting system’s demand would be expected to follow a typical indoor lighting end use load shape.

    5 WPSCNRLG0005, Revision 1 October 12, 2007

    Southern California Edison

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