Historical multiple-choice questions on the college entrance examination
Is a standardized multiple-choice one of the most common
kinds of questions in the kinds of questions. Since the implementation of standardized proposition, it has in the
college entrance examination papers in history has been dominated by 40 ? 50% of the score. One of the multiple-
choice questions, although in 1988 in China began to appear in entrance examination questions of history, but its score since 1990, began more than individual choice, and the title three consecutive years, scores were flat with the questions and answers. More importantly, with the historical question of reform of college entrance examination and history of the gradual deepening of the continuous improvement of academic competency requirements, in particular the multiple-choice
multiple-choice test feature to get an in-depth development,
and has been achieved in order to examine the history from the knowledge-based that in order to examine the history of
thinking mainly of a qualitative leap. This is a historical question of China's college entrance examination in the excavation Questions in examining functional aspects of a major breakthrough, it is worthy of emphasis on high school history teacher. Paper far as the characteristics of multiple-
choice entrance examination of history, classification and problem-solving training can talk about some views, for discussion of reference peers.
Historical multiple-choice entrance examination, in
addition to a general multiple-choice questions covering a
wide range of shared, form the advantages of flexibility and rate of objective, there is a clear its unique features:
First, it does not have a fixed orientation of thinking
Single choice of the most prominent feature is a fixed direction of thinking ? ? 4 election 1, and therefore less
likely to choose a number of mistakes, while the most prominent feature of multiple-choice questions is no fixed way
of thinking orientation, whether it is 4 election 2, Select three or four, four election four? Thanks to answer in the answer to analyze the process of breaking sentence. Therefore, even if is to examine the same historical knowledge, multiple-
choice more difficult than multiple-choice major.
Second, it's very strict assessment criteria
Historical multiple-choice questions in the entrance,
there are "more selection and less election, the election not the wrong score," an express provision, the Every question must be one hundred percent of the selecting the right option, before scoring. This is a very strict standards. The extent of knowledge from the master, said to be four options for selected pairs of the three should be able to pass, but according to the above criteria, it can only get 0 points;
Similarly, in the three should be selected for the two options for students , it should be more than just choosing the right one, and one student chose the wrong strong, but according to the above criteria, the two scores and no difference. This
very strict they are not very scientific assessment standards, although the selection examination reflects the high demand, but significantly increased the difficulty of multiple-choice
Thirdly, it is extremely strong vitality
Through the efforts of the experts group of propositions, which features a variety of tests have been thoroughly excavated: it can examine the accuracy of historical knowledge, memory and a comprehensive understanding of the concept of history, but also examine the impact on the historical analysis of the facts, compare, summarize, and summary of the historical perspective of the analysis, diagnosis and evaluation, as well as the intrinsic link between historical phenomena and their understanding of the
nature, but also examine the impact on the understanding of historical material, identification, interpretation and assessment. It is this multi-testing capabilities to its wide
coverage, the advantages of a combination of an objective score to make it in the entrance proposition has broad prospects. Estimated the number and scores of its title is also likely to increase.
Before 1993, the college entrance examination history, measurement of multiple-choice objectives are basically the
historical knowledge of the relocation of elements of classification and enumeration of historical facts connected; the past two years, which greatly strengthened the ability to examine the history of thinking efforts to an entirely new look. Nearly three years of the new college entrance
examination, for example, in 1993, 10 multiple-choice, examine
the comparison, analysis, evaluation, ability to think and only two; 10 title in 1994, then jumped to 6 in; 1995 12 questions, he also increased to nine (which required a small
number of examination questions is also too much of the theory points)!
This large-stride of the fast-changing year after year,
so that a large number of candidates who lack training in this area very difficult to adapt. According to the State Board of
Education Examination Center of sampling and analysis of statistics, in 1995 the overall difficulty of College Entrance Examination Questions of history was 0.46, while the multiple-
choice questions is the difficulty of 0.34, compared with the
difficulty of Questions and Answers (0.38) also big into the whole volume of the five kinds of questions A most difficult kinds of questions.
The history of multiple-choice entrance the main features
of propositions being difficult to adapt to trends and the
status of candidates to our high school history teacher raised an important and urgent task: to master the knowledge of history must be the structure and improve the level of theoretical analysis, based on the in-depth study of multiple-
choice test function, strengthen the multiple-choice problem-
solving guidance and training to effectively develop and improve students historical thinking, and cultural and ideological qualities.
Historical multiple-choice entrance How classified? From
a different point of view, according to different standards have different points system. I measured from its goals is what we often say that the ability to request consideration, and can be summarized as five types:
The first: the type of knowledge to
Type is characterized by multiple-choice, should option
this is not necessarily linked to each other more historical knowledge of them and the conversation most probably taking the logical relationship between the conversation most
probably taking in only the tips of their knowledge of classification criteria for a coincidence of the common ground. For example, the new college entrance examination in 1993, question 32: The following regime from extinction have been replaced by Quan Chen A. Cao Wei B. Jin C. Northern Wei D. (Southern) Chen
From the contents of examination papers to see that such multiple-choice questions are mostly determine the incidence of a particular year, a North Korea, a period of major historical events, to reflect a certain character, a nation, a country's major historical events, noting that belongs to a character, with a certain characteristics, a significant historical phenomenon, the historical facts, historical works, literature, important meetings, major battles, etc. In short, according to the classification standards of the conversation most probably taking tips meet this standard of historical knowledge in the elections. From the measurement of objective perspective, these multiple-choice questions examined are
mainly memorizing capacity, followed by comprehension. Its statements are generally prepared by the option to repeat the original materials. Such examine the historical knowledge of the relocation of the multiple-choice classification had
appeared in large numbers in 1993, before the College Entrance Examination in 1993, the new and the old entrance, also has accounted for half of the multiple-choice; in 1994
significantly reduced in 1995, then eliminated from the multiple-choice questions in the.
The second: list-type elements
Such multiple-choice questions can be said that the
prevalence of the listed 80's theme compression or variants.
It is characterized, it shall options between there is an inherent link between horizontal or vertical linkages, there
are between them and the conversation most probably taking a rather established relationships. Or that the conversation most probably taking the question or statement of the problem is the key link, should option is the head of this key link.
Such a Class multi-purpose logic, generally in the teaching materials are either explicitly or implicitly to been seen again. Thus, as a reform, some policy, a treaty, a meeting of a number of measures or the content of a particular cause and
effect of many events, etc., can become the source of its title. For example, college entrance examination in 1995, the first 23 questions: the diehards have the means to undermine the Hundred Days Reform A. Dahir sham of an excuse for disobedience B. Reform The Beijing-Tianjin region, military
power are in his hands C. Yamen for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to change the Prime Minister to please the powers D. Empress Dowager Cixi direct control over the appointment, removal of the right
Obviously, these points-based multiple-choice list,
although the measurement target is still "re-recognition,
reproduce historical knowledge," the main, but its capacity requirements has significantly exceeded the level of knowledge to the type. Because it not only a solid grasp of material
require candidates to the knowledge structure, with vertical and horizontal cited the ability to list, but also because of its formulation is basically prepared options have been refined, concentrated and processing, it also requires
candidates to have a strong synthesis of and general historical knowledge. Because of this, so it is in the College Entrance Examination in the past few years has maintained a relatively high proportion of the general accounting for multiple-choice questions of 30 ? 40%.
The third: To compare the similarities and differences in type
The characteristics of these multiple-choice is obvious
that the conversation most probably taking must have the property that has two or more comparable to the history of the
object, should be option is to these historical objects in common (generic) or different points (personality). For example, the new college entrance examination in 1993, the
first 38 questions: the English bourgeois revolution, the U.S.
War of Independence, the French bourgeois revolution in common with A. Changed the social character of the original B. The establishment of the bourgeois constitutional monarchy
C. Has developed its own history a constitutional D. Parliamentary political system began
Measurement of such multiple-choice objective is not "re-
recognition, reproduce knowledge of history," but a historical fact, historical phenomenon, historical figures, and other historical knowledge to rational thinking, by comparison
(contrast, analog), analysis, summarized and summarized their commonality or identify their respective personality. Such multiple-choice questions there is a striking feature, namely its presentation prepared options are generally not expressed
before teaching a new conclusion. To judge these conclusions are wrong is in itself a high-level competency requirements,
and some options to determine the theory also requires a higher level of analysis. This aims to examine the thinking ability of candidates to the history of the multiple-choice
questions, in the past three years, new and old College Entrance Examination, the fairly stable, accounting for 20% of multiple-choice questions.
The fourth: Analysis and Evaluation Model
This is a historical question of reform in the college entrance examination has grown up a novel multiple-choice, and
its generation, the choice can be said to strengthen the concept of history, historical perspective, historical conclusion, such as analysis and evaluation of a judge kinds
of the inevitable result. The most important feature of such multiple-choice questions is not to focus on the "what" and focus on the "why." Moreover, the conversation most probably taking statements and record options are completely free from
the shackles of the original material, often with a new conclusion (or expressions) appears. So the candidates to answer a multiple-choice questions, mainly by virtue of
historical knowledge is not, but on a correct analysis to determine the capacity and the higher the level of
historiography. For example: 1.1994-year college entrance
examination 21 questions: XIA Qi to the throne "hereditary system" instead of "demise" system is the
A. To consolidate the needs of tribal alliance, B. Result
of the development of private ownership C. The product of class antagonism D. 2.1995 unified country needs the 27th annual college entrance examination question: by the end of 1956, three major transformation of the realization that China's A. The overall task of the transition period ahead of schedule B. Have been from an agricultural country into an industrial country C. Entered the primary stage of socialism D. Changes in the domestic principal contradiction
For the two-question terms, if the candidates on social
history and political economy of the basic concept is still unclear, it is difficult to make a completely correct judgments. This aims to examine the history of interpretation of high-level capacity of multiple-choice, in 1994, old and
new began to appear in entrance examination, entrance examination in 1995, the first 26, 27,31 title, fall into this category. From the test results to see, in 1995 the difficulty of these three questions the value of the order of 0.30,0.25,0.20, we can see its capacity requirements are high.
Fifth: Material Analysis-based
Such multiple-choice questions is to examine the history材料解析题unique features to extend the results of multiple-
choice questions, which is characterized by conversation most
probably taking off from a paragraph or a few clear and concise asked the question whether the same material composition should be options in general is the cited information indicating that a correct understanding of the meaning. It is the main difference is that with the材料解析
题: ?材料解析题to provide information, ask questions, but there is no answer, the answer is to require candidates to the use of materials and knowledge to be learned; and material analysis based multiple-choice questions, while also provided
information, ask questions, , but there are correct answers, only that the correct answer is hidden in the prepared option, candidates need to prepare a full understanding of materials and the basis of options up the election. ?材料解析题
measurement objectives include a comprehensive "material
handling" of the three levels; and material analysis measurement objective type multiple-choice reading
comprehension is mainly historical materials. For example,
college entrance examination in 1995, the first 24 questions:
Sun Yat-sen in 1906, said: "We do not hate the Manchu people, is a hate Manchu Han harm. If we implement the revolution when the Manchu people do not come to that encumber us, absolutely no revenge truth. ... ... we overthrow the Manchurian government, expel the Manchus from the side of said
revolution, from the subversive side of the monarchy is a political revolution, political revolution ... ... and that the result is to establish a constitutional democracy. According to present such a political theory up, even if the
Chinese monarchy, we still have revolution. "This shows that the then Sun Yat-sen A. Correctly reveals the problems of modern China's ethnic B. Explicitly opposed the then popular ideology of racial revenge C. To overthrow the reactionary
rule of the Qing Dynasty that has a dual significance of D. Adhere to the guidance of the bourgeois-democratic revolution
It is worth noting is that these multiple-choice
questions, in 1994, the first time in the new entrance, only
one question (question 26), while in 1995 the 12 multiple-
choice entrance examination, the accounts for the 4, accounting for one third! This trend is not only shows a variety of multiple-choice test function is in-depth
exploration, but also that the historical material in the
entrance examination questions in the history of various kinds of questions have no doubt that strong vitality, we must attach great importance.
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The above classification, of course, is relative. In fact, some elements of knowledge to the types and enumerated types of multiple-choice questions, but also need to use analytical capabilities to identify, as to material analysis based multiple-choice questions, which have more analysis and
evaluation of the factors.
Based on the above classification, now 1993 ? 1995-year
old history of multiple-choice type of entrance distribution, statistical list below. From which we can see the history of the past three years, college entrance examination in the measurement of objective multiple-choice questions on the
tremendous changes, you can also see its overall development
trends and a strong orientation towards irreversible.
Age of the total number of different types of problems the number of shares title
Knowledge, a comparative analysis of evaluation materials listed in Resolution
Categorize similarities and differences between points of 1993 (new) 105,321,993 (old) 105,411,994 (new) 10,222,311,994 (old) 1,015,221,995,123,234
Historical multiple-choice entrance face of vigorous
efforts to strengthen the historical thinking of propositions examining trends, how to enhance the multiple-choice problem-
solving instruction and training? This is a must concern issue. Presented here a number of measures aimed at research
and discussion for colleagues in order to explore some effective ways to.
First, to deepen knowledge and understanding of materials
Comprehensive, accurate and systematic grasp of historical knowledge, which is a prerequisite to answer
multiple-choice questions. Because: ? "recognition,
reproduction of historical knowledge" is a basic multiple-
choice test function;
? "material handling" and "historical interpretation of" ability to examine and must rely on historical knowledge, a
foundation. But the fact that multiple-choice entrance of the
development trend of history, has little knowledge of rote reproduction, more focus on in-depth knowledge and
understanding of history. Therefore, teachers in guiding the training of multiple-choice questions, must be completely
abandoned the traditional rote learning and backward methods, should be more to guide students to a thorough understanding of important historical facts, historical concepts and historical phenomenon, a few ask, "Why , "an effort that they have deeper levels of understanding. Such as the Office of the Westernization Westernization understanding of the purpose, we can ask: Why did they first set up military-industrial? Why
the mid-70s began planning for coastal defense? If only in
order to suppress the popular uprising, why should the establishment of three Navy? Why did they set up civilian industry? That several elements of Westernization Movement What is the connection between them? Whether they are able to
reflect the purpose of Westernization Westernization to do? Why is this movement does not make China rich and strong onto the road? And so on. This training more, you can develop the students thinking and deepen our understanding of materials is conducive to accurate judgments prepared options are wrong.
Second, the repeated use of the basic viewpoints
College Entrance Examination capacity requirements of the Article 8, states: "Initial application of dialectical materialism and historical materialism, the fundamental point of view the analysis of historical phenomena and the nature of historical events to explain the laws of historical development." This is the highest requirements of historical thinking. The basic viewpoint of dialectical materialism and
historical materialism, or the basic concept is the core of the historical thinking skills, high school students proper understanding of what they have is not easy, asked to use them to analyze and answer questions (although a "preliminary"),
the students really felt that considerable difficulties. The College Entrance Examination in recent years, with a few strong history of theoretical questions and answers questions in the test results have proved this point. But the basic point of view in the use of analysis, to answer questions on the multiple-choice questions with the Q & A is different because it has been prepared options include the use of dialectical materialism and historical materialism, the fundamental perspective on the problem right after the draw
conclusions; It does not require candidates to make any conclusions, but only to require candidates to the consciousness debate, to determine which one or which are the correct conclusion. Such a requirement, although a more difficult, but it is rather close to the actual current high school students. Therefore, the multiple-choice item 8 at
present is to undertake the competency requirements of the best kinds of questions. Is estimated that within the past few years it will continue to take on this task.
For this reason, teachers should not only strengthen the teaching of historical theory, but also in multiple-choice