FACTORS INFULENCING THE HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE FOR HEALTH
Health is a measure for socio-economic development as taken in consideration by UNDP in preparation of annual Human Development Report. Health and earning are two important attributes of every adult person.The familiar way of enquiring about earning of an individual is made by usually asking,”what is your income?”But in case of health,it is not conceptually correct to ask somebody,”what is your health?”It is correct to use “how”
instead of “what” to enquire about health—“How is your health? Or how are you?” The difference in the question obviously lies with the concept and consequent units of measurement. Health and income of a person are somewhat similar in the sense that both are time domain variable;while income focuses on aggregate outcome of multivariate income/earning activities of an individual is usually measured and expressed in money terms;health reflects the condition of physical and mental state of an individual. Health can thus be interpreted as a net outcome of multifaceted activities of human organs,and thus can be interpreted as a net outcome of multifaceted activities of human organs,and thus can be conceptualized as a flow of variable.
Health is an important quality or state of any individual at a given time(period). However,the concept of health being healthy or notion of health varies with notion of health varies with individual.Health has been conceptualized both in negative or affirmative fashion.In other words,individual reacts differently when enquired about health.Explanation lies with individual‟s perception of health or if it can be regarded as self designed personal health norm,which varies ;age,sex,education,occupation,social status etc.are some of the important sources of variation.For example,many old persons want to be classified as healthy while clinical observation might not support.Such type of affirmative answer seems to be related with the individual‟s occupation or routine daily
work.Ample evidence can be cited in support of variation in the concept or perception of being healthy among different ethnic groups and different social classes. People mostly follow positive approach for signifying personal health condition or state of health(health status) though his or her condition might not satisfy from the medical point of view. In the stated sense ,health may be viewed as time domain asset of an individual like level of formal educational qualification at any given period of time. Absence of any symptom of disease or disability is the prime of disease criterion; the individual may not be aware of his medical fitness while reporting his/her health condition.Individual‟s being healthy or well with reference to his work,is not entirely
related to disease condition but emphasis is more on personal view of physical fitness. Health is psychological and social wellbeing;emotionally stable and able to cope with life(Blaxter 1990) though it is positive approach but that is not the end in itself. The question regarding the state of health in the life process of an individual in living a satisfying life and contribution of health in economic growth and development may be raised.How one can keep oneself healthy and the factors that intervene state of health are inseparable issues.Economists would be more interested to analyze and understand the interplay between health and other variables ie.interconnection between health and productive process.Health may be considered as capital asset ie.leading a productive life.
Health being an important quality or state of any individual at a given time and participation of a person in the economic process apart from other factors during the period of life process is important. It has long been understood that health influences the quality of human capital and thus productivity.So a measure of health is being felt by economist.
Economists and other social scientists are relatively more interested in the measure of health at the community level or in other words human health of a country.The concept expanded its spectrum from concern for the individual to a global social goal of “Health for All” as part of an effort to increasingly improve the quality of life of both the
individual and the communities.
Life expectancy and percentage of child mortality rate are being expressed for indicator of advancement and gradation of countries accordingly along with consideration of other index.
Literacy rate also observed for higher life expectancy and lower child mortality rate; thus prove to be an important factors of health.
Similarly per capita food productivity and consumption rate are also factors contribute to focus the health status of a country.There exsists much conflict world wide in agricultural food production sectors both in plant and animal origin.Maximum poverty as well as disparity of income exsist in this sector.Gradation of countries as reflected in Human Development Report mostly differ and dependable on the condition of population living in this sector. Albeit environment (air,water and sound pollution), advancement of medical science and knowledge of nutrition are important factors contribute in health at individual level but those can not reach to greater population until and unless there were no income generation and purchasing power of foods.
So life expectancy and child mortality rate shows more precisely on socio-economic condition of countries than any other index.Functional literacy and ICT4 knowledge can contribute in economic development resulting higher life expectancy at country level. As a greater population live in rural areas ; accumulated labors should have to be diversified in industrial sectors in planned manner than their migration under compulsion due to poverty which can protect ecological balance without disturbing environment. Developed countries by virtue of economic power can exert their influence for expansion of market economy. So they need expropriation in finance management. Public Private Partnership(PPP) is the ideal for success in health care system.Private sectors have seven percent of total workforces whereas ninetythree percent workforces are in control of public sectors—majority of them are unorganized workforces.Private sectors can work for HIV,Tuberculosis and Malaria etc.through these workers as social responsibility. It is estimated that twothirds of each year „s 10.8 million deaths of children under five
could be avoided by coverage of medical interventions and improved public health care system. Maternal mortality could be reduced by increased proportion of birth attendance by skilled health personnels.It is observed that half of the beds of public hospital are filled with victims of unsafe drinking water and improper sanitation.
Food is vital factor of health.We need indepth study into complex interactions between agriculture,health and lifestyles.
GLOBAL FOOD RELATED PROBLEM
TYPE CAUSES PEOPLE AFFECTED
Hunger Defficiency of calories and 0.9billion
Underweight Inadequate intake of food 126 million
children and frequent disease.
Micronutrient Defficiency of vitamins More than 2 billion
Overweight to chronic Unhealthy diets; Increasing also among
Disease. lifestyle Poor.
Rural growth is possible by scaling up investment in agriculture and increasing percentage of literacy will improve the nutrition awareness. Even a least develop country per se Bangladesh is ahead of India in life expectancy and child mortality rate as a result of nutrition consciousness by performance of NGOs. Increased marketing of health risk products viz.alcohol,tobacco,junk foods become assault on health by unhealthy lifestyles.
So public health,ict4 knowledge and education(literacy),safe drinking water,income generation,food,peace and social security,control of HIV,Tuberculosis and malaria etc. are determinants of health.
So,health status of country connotes the health of average population and determinants which have influence on health status. Ofcourse medical parameters will be surely central to the discussion of health but the factors which make health valuable are of greater significance in terms of socio-economic condition of the country.
HEALTH STATUS AMONG THE MARGINALISED GROUPS IN INDIA
Groups Infant Mortality/ Under 5years % of Children
1000 Mortality/1000 Underweight
STs 842 126.6 55.9
SCs 830 119.3 55.3
OBCs 760 103.1 47.3
OTHERS 618 826 41.1
ALL 700 949 47
Economists are obviously interested to attach more significance to interconnection between better utilization of human resources to enrich country which favour in expectancy of life.Health then becomes an important gradient in economics. World Health Organisation(WHO) defines,”Health is a state of complete physical,mental
and social well-being,not merely the absence of disease and infirmaty.Health extends beyond the structure and function of our body to include feelings,values and reasoning.
The flow of services(not end in itself) by virtue of health capital is valued and factors Influencing health also thus attempted in measuring health.
Davidson R.Gwatkin,Health and Poverty Research;December 2003
Dutta.P.Health care and socio-economic development etc. November2005 Joachim Von Brawn,The world food situation IFPRI,December 2005 Malakar Bipul &Wahidul Habib,Jadavpur University,Concept of human health etc. Narayan Ravi ,Plenary Poverty and Health Research,December2005